Shchitovnik (Dryoptens) - One of the most common genera of ferns. This plant is distributed throughout the globe - from the cold regions of Eurasia and North America to the tropics of Asia, Africa and South America, but its main range is in the region of temperate climate. The most common species of thyroid are (about 150) in the Himalayas, China, and Japan. This fact can be considered indirect evidence that it is from here that they spread throughout the world.
Shchitovniki found in our gardens everywhere. In growing they are unpretentious, but still they have certain requirements for living conditions. Like all ferns, shieldmen prefer shadow.
They "burn" in the sun, the fronds dry out and lose their decorative effect. At the same time, plants slow down growth and do not reach their maximum sizes. The most shade-tolerant are Goldi shieldman, extreme shieldman and male shieldman.
Ferns grow well on acidic rich organic soil. For them, for example, a soil mixture from equal parts of garden soil and peat with the addition of coarse river sand (to increase the permeability of the soil) is suitable. You can feed them during the period of active growth, but half the rate of fertilizer. It is important not to overdo the addition of humus or fertilizer to the soil; their excess may weaken the resistance of plants to various adverse factors.
Shchitovniki love moisture, they can not stand the drying of the soil, so you need to water not only young but also mature plants. Ferns are frost-resistant, they winter well throughout Ukraine. But with the onset of cold weather, it is still better to cover them with a “blanket” of coniferous litter or bark, as in natural conditions.
But the heat is not for them. It is especially important to protect the plant root system from overheating. In order to create comfortable conditions for the fern, the land around it is desirable to mulch with needles or bark of coniferous trees. Such agropriem will help them to survive both drought, heat and cold more easily (prevent overheating of plants, evaporation of ground moisture in summer and freezing of the root system in winter).
Thinators rarely get sick, only under unfavorable growing conditions. They can be affected by slugs, which greatly spoils the appearance of plants. Species plants reproduce by spores and vegetatively, and varietal plants only by radical buds.
Thinners rarely get sick, only under unfavorable conditions: growing conditions. They can be affected by slugs, which greatly spoils the appearance of plants. Species plants reproduce by spores and vegetatively, and varietal plants only by radical buds.
The most popular types of thyroid
Male Thrush [Dryopteris filix-mas)or male fern. - one of the most beautiful views. It is widely used in ornamental gardening, as a medicinal raw material, as well as for tanning and dyeing the skin in yellow color. However, please note that this is a poisonous plant, in particular its rhizome. Therefore, the roots of thyroid should not be used for self-treatment, as well as as animal feed.
Breeders have created many varieties of male shieldworms. Briefly describe the appearance of some of them, so that you can choose the most suitable for your garden.
Dryopteris filixmas var. cristata - plant with a height of 50 to 150 cm. Fronds are 20–80 cm long, oblong, dark green, lighter on the underside, pinnately complex, with 20–35 pairs of regular lobes, crenate along the edge, with non-sharp denticles. The venation is distinct.
Crispa - a plant with a height of 40-50 cm, the leaf lobes are very close together.
Crispa cristata - Vayi plants of this variety end with scallops and curled segments.
Linearis - A plant with a height of 60-70 cm, all lobes Wai strongly narrowed and compressed.
Linearis Polydactylon - very spectacular, airy, graceful plant with wyai, divided into unusually narrow segments.
Multicristata - a plant 50-70 cm high, the end of the leaf and the lobes end in crests.
Squamulosa - a plant with a height of 30-40 cm, the shares of the leaf are very close together and corrugated.
Shchitovnik related (D. affinis) - Another interesting view for shady areas in your garden. In height, this species of fern grows to 90 cm. In the northern regions, fronds die for the winter, and in the southern regions they can winter.
Interestingly, the fronds of this fern are twisted in the shape of a "snail" during the first two years of life. In the third year, they fully unfold, begin to spawn, and then die.
Consider the most interesting varieties of khizovnik related.
Congesta - dwarf variety with close overlapping feathers.
Congesta cristata - similar to the previous variety, but the ends of its feathers branch.
Cristata - variety with arcuate leaves, the ends of the feathers are branched out like a fan.
Cristata angustata - A variety with narrow leaves (7-8 cm wide), the tips of the feathers are the same as those of the Cristata variety.
Polydactyla - the leaf is wide, feathers are narrow, on the ends with flat tassels from almost linear segments.
Revolvens - a plant with wide usual leaves, the ends of feathers are bent down.
Austrian Shchitovnik (D.austriaca), or prostrate, is an excellent ground cover for shady places. Plant height of this species of fern - up to 90 cm, depending on the variety. Austrian thyroid leaves are deltoid, three-pinnate.
CrispaWhiteside - leaves are wide, thick, light green.
Cristata - the tips of the feathers are separated by a fan.
LepidotaCristata - not very tall plant, due to thinly incised and branched feathers, the leaves appear shaggy and three-dimensional.
Interesting for use in landscape design, but not so common in the culture of these types of ferns, as bovine stupid (D.mutica), y. light coloured (D.laeta) y. comb (D.cristata). Shchitovniki will not give you much trouble and will become an original decoration for a shady part of the garden in a mass or single planting.
In nature, it lives in Western Europe, the Caucasus and North America. Prefers areas with constantly wet loams.
Possesses long (5-9 dm) triply pinnate leaves of triangular shape. Color is light green. Fronds cover the ground with a wide carpet, hence the second name is prostrate.
Photo subspecies of the Austrian Schityovnik:
It grows on rocky soils of mountain forests. It can be found in China, Russia, Japan. Very resistant to frost. Rhizome elongated, thin. Thrice feathery fronds grow one by one, die to cold. Their color is bluish-green, triangular in shape.
Photo subspecies of the Amurskii Schitovnik:
It grows on Madeira, the Azores and in Western Europe. The leaves are relatively small, grow to a length of 60 cm. Shaped like feathers, stand out bright green color. The tip is pointed, the whole surface is dotted with the smallest disputes. This species has a strong smell of freshly cut grass.
Photos of the subspecies of the Shchitovnik Rival:
It lives on the islands of Iturup, Sakhalin, Kunashir, Hokkaido, Sikoku, the Peninsula of Korea and in Northeast China.
Vayi assembled in a lush large outlet in the shape of the correct bowl. Leaves can grow per meter in height, they do not dry up for winter, die in the spring after the appearance of young records. The form is oblong-oval, the tip is pointed. The surface of the foliage is leathery, jade color.
Photo of subspecies of the Bush Shchitovnik:
Coming from Western Europe, where grows in alkaline soil. Most often found on the calcareous lands of England, Wales and Lancashire.
Neat compact bush suitable for stony gardens and alpine slides. Vayi triangular, small (3.5-4.5 dm), the ends are pointed. Coloring nondescript green with a gray tint. Spores are very small, differ by a specific pleasant smell.
Photos of the subspecies of Thypophilus Vilaria:
Dwells in nature in cold and damp forests North America, mainly in its north-eastern part. It has excellent winter hardiness.
The leaves can grow up to 130 cm in length, form a large erect outlet. Form - wide oval, color malachite. The fronds are twice feathery, the rhizomes are short.
Photo subspecies of the Threaded Gold:
A fairly common species, found in Europe and North America, as well as throughout Russia. It prefers wetlands with constantly high soil moisture.
Low perennial reaching no more than 50 cm in height. Rhizome plump, short, covered with scales. The leaves are on erect petioles, have a lanceolate form, elongated in length. They are twice feathery, malachite colored. Spores are round, black, arranged in rows on the back of the leaves.
Photo subspecies of Shchitovnik Crest:
It lives in the Far East and Western Siberia of Russia, in North America, Korea and China. In nature you can meet on stony soils and scree.
One of the most miniature species does not exceed 30 cm in length. Rhizome sloped, shortened. Leaves twice pinnate, oblong. Coloring jade with a blue tint. Spores are located on the entire back surface of the plates. Differs characteristic pleasant smell.
Photo subspecies Shchitovnik odorous:
It grows in Japan, China and the Philippines. Thermophilic evergreen view. Fronds have the shape of a wide triangle, differ in the original coloring. Young the leaves are peach colored, which gradually change to grass green shades. Reddish spores.
Photos of the subspecies of the Thyrochos Krasnosorusy:
The most common type in the forest zone. It lives in Europe, North America.
The leaves are collected in thick bunches, reach a length of 4-6 dm. The scapes, leaf stem and rhizome are covered with brown scales. Vayi have a triangular shape, painted in a bright green tint. Sori very small, kidney-shaped.
Photos of the subspecies Shchitovik Needle:
The most resistant to frost A species native to North America. It grows on rocky and rocky areas.
The spores are at the tips of the feathers, hence the name. The socket in height reaches 6 dm, consists of twice feathery leaves of a bluish shade.
Photo subspecies Shchitovnik Extreme:
Guarded endangered species, to meet in nature is very difficult. It prefers fir forests with high humidity. From thick short rhizomes grows a thick bunch of large leaves. They are biconseous, pale green, oblong in shape.
Photo subspecies of Shchitovnik Mountain:
A very common species found in North America and Eurasia. It is found both on poor limestone and fertile lands.
The plant is large, up to 150 cm in length. Flippers gather in thick sockets and overwinter with green. They are painted in emerald color, have an oblong shape with a sharp tip. Sori are located along the middle vein.
Photos subspecies Schitovnik Male:
Very similar to the male. Resistant to cold, grows in Japan, Russia and China. It reaches a height of 1.2 m. Fronds are oblong, bicensed, die to frost.
Photos of subspecies Shchybovnik Sikhotinsky:
It is found in Western Europe in deciduous forests. The leaves are collected in loose bunches, kept on long scaly petioles. They are biconseous, lanceolate.
Photos subspecies Schitovnik Related:
It grows rapidly, forming impassable thickets. Dwells in the Ussuri region, resistant to frost. Rhizomes branch well, grow over the summer by 9-13 cm. Bushes reach a meter in height. Fronds twice pinnate, light green, triangular.
Photos subspecies Shchitovnik Svetly:
Evergreen resident of mixed and coniferous forests of Japan and the Kuriles. Plant height is average, does not exceed 7 dm. The leaves are oval, three-pinnate, bright green.
Photos subspecies of Thyphovil Blunt:
A medium-sized forest fern with delicate leaves, common in the temperate forest zone of the entire Northern Hemisphere.
Photo subspecies Shchitovnik Prostrate:
It lives in Europe and North America, settling in forest zones. Leaves are erect, twice pinnate, lanceolate. The color is dark green, the surface is shiny, leathery. Maintains frosts to 30 °.
Photo subspecies Shchitovnik Kinky:
A resident of the eastern regions of North America. It can grow 1 m in height. Vayi triangular. Considered very decorative view thanks to the bronze tone of the leaves and the golden cannon on them.
Photo subspecies Shchitovnik Golden:
This type of moth grows in swamps, needs constant moisture and shading. It has a dense rhizome, well growing in different directions, due to which extensive clumps are formed. Leaves single, pinnate, pale green. The shape is oblong, elongated.
Photo subspecies Telipteris Bolotny:
Optimally - 14-19 °, with an increase of more than 25 ° will hurt. Being originally a forest plant, the Shchitovnik is able to withstand temperature drops to minus 25 °, which makes it a suitable candidate for cultivation in the open field. He perezimuet without any problems, even if you forget to cover him.
Constant ground moisture should be maintained without stagnant water in the pan. Water with softened water every 2-3 days.
High! Requires frequent spraying ground parts.
Shchitovnik grows slowly does not need frequent feedings. Once in 1-1.5 months, you can make a complex of minerals for ferns.
Young copies transplanted every spring in a larger pot with full replacement of the soil, older ones - less often, every 2-3 years.
They cut off old, yellowed fronds or strong regrown branches in order to preserve the decorativeness of the bard.
Perhaps in several ways:
Sportivnik spores develop on the back surface of the leaves. After ripening, they need to be cut and dried, laid out on paper. Boxes filled with a mixture of peat, sand and leaf soil in a ratio of 2: 1: 1.
Spread spores evenly on the surface of the substrate and moisten with a spray. The soil does not fall asleep! Cover the container with polyethylene film or thin glass and keep it warm and humid. Germination begins after 5-6 weeks. After that, the greenhouse is removed.
The method is faster and less time consuming. During transplantation, separate part of the rhizome with leaves and plant in a separate pot.
Many species grow daughter tubers or whiskers, which can be separated from the plant and prikopat separately to a depth of 7 to 13 cm in the ground. Thoroughly shed and keep in constant humidity.
Shchitovniki can throw out child shoots (brood buds). They appear on the leaves and begin to grow. Subsequently, they can be separated from the frond, placed in moistened peat or moss and covered with a half plastic bottle or glass jar. Rooting occurs in a couple of weeks, then the seedling is moved to normal soil.
How to care?
This is an unpretentious plant, care for which is not difficult. He does not require dressings, pests bypass him, so that we can enjoy his beautiful forms.
But there are several care requirements that need to be fulfilled:
- After landing in the first year of growth regular watering - An important condition for the further development of the plant. At the same time it is necessary to carry out spraying.
- Mulching after wateringand retain moisture in the soil, strengthen the root system. As mulch, you can use grass, leaves, peat, pine needles. In the spring you should not remove it, it will be an excellent fertilizer for shoots growing out of the ground.
- Looseningbecause ferns love loose soil. But loosen neatly, the root system lies shallow.
- Feeding is not requiredbut they will not bring harm. The culture is responsive to mineral and organic fertilizers, which are best applied in spring.
- Shrub update after a few years: remove deformed, yellowed fronds. Do this carefully so as not to damage the plant.
- Many ferns winter without shelter, not freezing. The exceptions are the "Listovik" and "The Barrage" and a number of others who require shelter for the winter.
You should start by choosing a place. It is a penumbra with well hydrated and light soils. This combination will be perfect. But sunny glades for fern will not work. Here they will grow small and weak.
It is important to determine the distance to the next plant. Ancient culture loves space so that other plants do not interfere with growth.. But here everything will depend on the size of the fern, so it will be necessary to approach the question individually.
Potted plants can be planted at any time of the year. Before planting, immerse the pot in water until fully hydrated, pour the planting pit and begin planting. Spread the roots in the hole, cover with soil, pour with soft (settled) water.
Where can I buy seedlings of plants?
If desired, the culture can be grown from spores. But they are small, and the process is quite time consuming. Therefore, we will look for where it is possible to purchase grown specimens:
- garden centers or flower shops,
- Internet shops "Garshinka", "Flower Yard", "Gardens of Russia", "SF Garden", the site of Igor Sukhanov, and others. Therefore, there will be no problems with the order. Prices vary by grade and age - within 150-500 rubles.
Application in landscape design
When creating a composition from different cultures (floral and decorative), several important points should be considered:
- Size fern. Plants planted nearby should be the same size or it should shade them.
- Его любовь к влаге позволяет высаживать раскидистый «куст» рядом с водоемами. He not only gives decorative, but goes well with other plants, lovers of water.
- His shade tolerance. Feel free to decorate the north side of the house or a place in the shade where other cultures cannot grow.
- Use of rocky dwarf species. There are varieties created specifically for rockeries or rocky hills.
- Variety of varieties. They can be combined in size, color, shape of leaves. You can create beautiful compositions from different ferns.
Ferns are often combined with hosts.
Pick up the varieties of garden ferns to your liking, thinking through the created compositions in advance. Dare, experiment, try! Moreover, it’s not just an ancient and decorative look that came into your hands. Its distinguishing feature is shade tolerance and unpretentiousness. It will revitalize the most secluded corner in which other cultures cannot grow.
Arrangement of compositions of ferns
In the video from the Garden Escapes Landscape Design, the back patio, richly decorated with various types of ferns, was filmed. There is also a decorative pond. Perhaps such a decision is not for the domestic climate, but to realize something similar in a shaded garden area with the help of available species and analogues is quite realistic.
Description of the culture, its famous varieties and varieties
About 200 of these wonderful plants are known in the world, most of which are inhabitants of tropical forests. If you look at the various types of ferns in general, the following biological features of the plant can be noted:
- Perennial herbaceous shrub.
- Externally, the fern can look like a low grass, and quite an impressive size of a tree.
- Under the ground is a medium-sized creeping rhizome.
- Above the surface there is a dense stem consisting of wired tissue.
- Culture has no real leaves. From the stem away so-called fronds - primitive leaf plates. Their formation occurs in the spring in the roots.
- Reproduction occurs with the help of spores, which are in brown bulges, clearly visible in the photo of the underside of the leaves.
- Ferns are ideal plants for shady corners.
- Planting is possible both in open ground and in flowerpots.
Attention! Cultivation of thermophilic representatives in the middle lane is possible only in the room.
The following types and varieties feel perfectly in the open soil of temperate climate:
How to plant a plant and care for it
Although the plant does not belong to the capricious, in order to obtain beautiful, lush bushes it is necessary to comply with certain requirements.
- The place in the open ground where the planting will take place should be in the shade. The plant withers in the sun and can quickly die.
- The soil in the place of the planned cultivation should be loose, as the roots of the plant are demanding to the presence of air.
- Absolutely all varieties prefer wet soils. Therefore, the care of the plant should include abundant and frequent watering. In this case, the stagnation of water is unacceptable. Landing should be accompanied by a good drainage device. Mineral fertilizer can be added to water for irrigation 2-3 times per season.
- Planting ferns on a flower bed in open ground, preferably in the spring, as soon as the fronds begin to blossom. In the warm season, with good care, the plant survives well.
- Planting should take place immediately after digging out the process so that the roots do not have time to dry and the leaves to wither.
- Basic care for ferns - timely watering. Especially you need to follow this in the first year after planting and in hot, dry periods.
It is very good if there is an opportunity to mulch the soil under the plant with coniferous needles. This will keep the soil loose and moist, which will have a positive effect on strengthening the root system. Of course, the maintenance includes regular removal of old or broken leaves. This will not only give the plant an aesthetic look, but also contribute to the growth of new wai.
Such varieties as listovik and nomadic are not particularly frost resistant. In the winter they need to cover the leaves or a small layer of peat.
Fertilizer, fertilizing, as well as fern breeding methods
Ferns do not need to be fed on fertile soils. Fertilizer on depleted soil is best to make in advance, in the preparation of flower beds in the autumn. Suitable organic and mineral complexes containing nitrogen.
When planting a fern, you can put a little peat in the hole, which will act as a fertilizer and soil baking powder at the same time.
Ferns breeding gardeners spend three methods:
- separation of root offspring,
- by budding
The first method is the fastest and easiest. It is most often used for breeding all varieties. The main thing here - good watering after separation of the process.
The second method is more laborious and is suitable only for some species, for example, a multi-row one capable of forming buds on leaves. They are detached and germinated in moist moss. Quite a common way - the reproduction of spores. They are collected, scraping from a sheet, dried and scattered on the surface of the substrate. Care consists of everyday spraying. After a month, spores germinate and in the next season you can already plant plants in the ground.
With what plants do the ferns in the garden combine and what diseases and pests threaten them
Due to the beauty of openwork leaves and bushes in general, ferns occupy an honorable place in the design of the site. Photos of such compositions are very natural and beautiful.
Attention! The rhizome of a fern quickly spreads on the site, therefore the installation of limiters is obligatory.
The combination of fern with lilies and an arrowhead at the pond will give the site a special charm. On shady rock gardens can be placed low varieties next to flowering creeping plants, such as periwinkle.
It can be said that the combination of ferns in the garden is possible with any shade-tolerant plants: hosts, astilba, dream, etc.
Diseases, subject to the rules of care, the plant is not affected. Of the pests can be noted slugs and caterpillars that damage the leaves.
Fern can be called a bright decoration of the shady area, which does not require much attention. Its cultivation is available to absolutely everyone, even gardeners who have no experience.