Kariya Illinois or Pecan ordinary - a close relative of the walnut. It can be found in different parts of the world. It grows both in Crimea and in the USA. It can be found by chance in the Caucasus or walking through the parks of Central Asia. The fruits of the plant are very original and eclipse every taste. The main thing is that there is a large amount of it can not, it can cause obesity. Therefore, before you enter it into the diet, it is better to get acquainted with its composition and calorie content.
Pecan refers to plants that grow rapidly upwards. In nature, it can reach 60 m. In areas with a hot climate, in a short period of time, a tree from a sapling can stretch to a height of 40 m. In the northern regions of Russia, the growth of a nut does not exceed 10-15 m.
In the first 3 years of their life, the young stalk must gain strength, the root system must reach the water. Therefore, over the years a young plant does not exceed only 45-50 cm. The trunk of the nut is straight, with strong branches extending from it. If you do not expose pruning, which he does not need, then the plant takes a natural form - spherical or slightly elongated ovoid.
The bark on the trunk has a gray tint. In older specimens, the bark may slightly crack with grayish-brown veins. The foliage of the nut is a rich green color. One sheet consists of 11-17 small feathers, elongated with a sharp end. Each sheet of the total mass is stretched to 9-12 cm, and in width reaches 2.5-7 cm.
Flowering plant in May to the end of July.
Fruits form until the end of October, representing ellipsoid nuts with a matte peel and a pointed end. The central part of the splitting jumps out of the reddish-brown shell surrounding the core. Inside the nut are two identical cotyledons. Harvesting takes place in early to mid-November. But some varieties differ in early ripening.
To grow a pecan seedling is recommended to choose the right place for planting. The first thing you need to check the quality of the soil. It is best that the soil substrate has the following qualities:
- Fertile plot.
- Drain layer.
- Deep occurrence of groundwater.
- Loose, airy soil, easily permeable to both air and water.
Pecan calmly tolerates drought, but if it is plentifully watered, it will respond with full fruits and rich taste. In most cases, it does not bother the strong lowering of temperature in the winter. It does not freeze at air degrees -20 ..- 25 C.
The first fruits of Kariya can give birth at the age of 8 years. In this year, the tree will allow to collect an average of 2 kg from its branches. After 4 years, the crop will increase to 40-60 kg in one season. In 20 years, the tree will appreciate 250 kg. Mature trees are capable of producing rich yields.
Reproduction and planting
Karia gets on well in different territories. For its reproduction use several ways:
- Through grafting on a similar sort of wood (white pecan).
In addition to these methods, planting nuts is widely used. The nuts that have fallen out of the rind without the help of man or the environment (wind) are considered fully ripe. They should be a normal brown color, without any darkening or putrid odor. Such fruits immediately after harvesting are planted in a specially prepared place. Furrows are formed not less than 10 cm deep. Nuts are laid down, sprinkled with earth on top.
Planting scheme should be such that 1 m had not less than 10, but not more than 15 seedlings.
Between planted furrows it is recommended to make gaps of about 1 m. This method of planting provides a natural stratification - hardening of young seedlings in winter conditions. In the spring, almost all planted nuts give young strong shoots.
If you plant seedlings in the spring, then produce an event is required no earlier than April. Landing in the new year is a problem procedure. There are several preparation steps to go before digging into the ground:
- Conduct artificial stratification.
- Place the planting material in a container with water for a period of 2-3 days.
- Soaked nuts are laid out in fresh wood sawdust or peat, abundantly moistened with water.
- Move to a cool cellar or balcony.
- The control over the quality of the soil substrate is constantly wet, the temperature should not exceed 4 ° C — better less.
- The duration of stay in a cold room is 8 weeks.
The landing scheme is fully consistent with the autumn planting. The main thing is to choose the right place for the constant growth of Kariya. The site should be bright, sunny, no shading. It is desirable that the young tree was obscured by fierce winds and piercing drafts.
Not the territory where young saplings are planted should not stagnate water. Otherwise, the roots of the plant will begin to rot, and the young will die, not even having time to take root.
Pecan is growing very slowly. During the first 3 years, he may not reach 35 cm. Therefore, he should not be replaced for permanent residence until he is 4 years old. At this age, a young sapling in height is about 50 cm.
A tree is planted for permanent residence in deep pits. Its depth should not be less than 60 cm, both in depth and in width. Walnut does not tolerate acidic soil, so it should be fertilized with lime. This method will achieve neutral alkalinity. In addition to lime, rotted compost is poured into the cavity. He will add fertility and nutritional value to the soil.
When planting a young tree, you need to remove all the soil from the roots. When planting, they are neatly leveled, covered with earth on top. The soil around the trunk should be sealed to prevent hollow holes in which moisture can stagnate. Periodic moderate watering is required.
When fertilizing the plant is actively growing.
In the spring you need to feed nitrogen fertilizers. They stimulate the growth of young shoots. And in September it is required to fertilize with phosphorus and potassium. Such measures are necessary for young animals. Older specimens need in the autumn period in addition of potassium salt, superphosphate and urea (saltpeter).
In the spring, be sure to make pruning - sanitary and rejuvenating. In addition, the broken, pest-prone and improperly growing branches should be removed. If you do not perform complicated procedures, then the young Pecan seedlings, planted with his own hands, will be able to please the first fruits 5-7 years after planting.
Composition and useful properties
Pecan is a very healthy nut. Its composition contains a large amount of nutritional components, trace elements and vitamins. It contains the following components:
- Vitamins E, A, K, C, group B
- Fatty acid
- Carbohydrates, proteins, water
- Trace elements of the periodic table
- Fructose and sucrose present
What properties does a nut have?
- If you constantly use the nut in moderation, it is able to neutralize developing cancer cells. It helps to reduce cholesterol levels in the human body.
- The action of the nut extends to the central nervous system. Its effect reduces the risk of myocardial infarction and varicose veins of the lower extremities of deep and superficial veins.
- Walnut is commonly used to treat diseases, colds and viruses. It helps to increase the appetite and strengthen the patient's immunity.
- In the springtime, when avitaminosis is active in people of different age categories, the nut has a beneficial effect on the general condition of a person. Due to the large number of beneficial micronutrients and vitamins it gives the body strength to fight infections.
- In addition to these elements, carotene is part of Pecan. It positively manifests itself in case of eye disease, improves clarity and visual acuity, improves blood quality.
- If you use the weaker sex of nuts, the hormonal background is adjusted, the risk of infertility decreases and the reproductive function increases. Men with frequent injections into the body notice an increase in the quality of sperm. The latter allows the partner to get pregnant in a short time.
- The fruit of the walnut tree helps to cure many skin diseases if it is consumed with food.
Thus, the nut is not only a useful product, but it has a large number of positive qualities that can improve the general condition of a person.
Pecan is successfully used in medicine. There are the following points in which the drug helps well:
- During therapy for skin diseases.
- For the treatment of internal organs.
- Fruits improve the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Nut grains fruitfully affect anemia.
- Reduce the possibility of developing eye diseases.
- Karya is often recommended for people with cancer as a preventive measure.
Walnut oil plays a big role in dermatology. Its effect is able to eliminate fungal diseases and acne. The product can be used both fresh, wiping it in a mush, and adding it to masks or creams for the face and hair. Influencing the skin, gruel from the nut returns the skin a healthy look, increases elasticity and nourishes the upper layers of the epidermis with useful trace elements.
The product can be consumed both raw and fried. The most popular delicacy is the dessert - Pecan with maple syrup. The peculiarity of this type of walnut is the rich taste of chocolate. Therefore, the product has such a success.
Reproduction and cultivation
Pecan (Kariya Illinois) refers to unpretentious plants. Perhaps the most important condition for its cultivation will be the correct determination of the landing site. The tree belongs to long-livers, which are characterized by large growth (50-60 meters) and an extensive crown. Therefore, planting seedlings must take into account this feature.
Pecans can be planted as a sapling acquired in specialized crop farms, and they can grow on their own, as the nut has a good ability to reproduce with the help of seeds or in a vegetative way.
Not everyone knows where pecan grows, because in Russia this culture is little known. The spread of the pecan went from North America, where ancient Indian tribes used to eat its fruit. Today, the largest plantings of this plant are in the southeastern United States and in Central Asia, from where its fruits are exported to other countries. In our state, Illinois caria is grown only in the Crimea and the Caucasus. Industrial value does not matter.
In the wild, it grows on deep fertile alluvial, friable, well-moistened soils.
Pecan is a heat and light-loving plant in the tropics, but the frost resistance of some of its varieties is quite high, it allows you to grow a tree in the northern regions. Juveniles are able to withstand cold to -30 ° C.
Currently, about 150 varieties of pecan are bred.
The most suitable for landing in Russia are:
Growing and breeding pecan
Kariya Illinois unpretentious to the conditions of growth. Many of its varieties are distinguished by cold resistance, good resistance to drought, low requirements for soil content, regular fruiting. Despite all these advantages, this valuable crop is rare in the backyards of Russian gardeners, because not everyone knows how to grow pecans. Meanwhile, pecan cultivation technology is similar to walnut cultivation.
Pecan seeds are propagated by seeds, grafting, cutting, and budding. Seeds are harvested in autumn after ripening, then immediately sown in the ground, or stratified for 2-3 months before spring sowing. Before that, prepare the beds with furrows. The seeding depth should be at least 7 cm. 15-20 seeds are sown per 1 m. After planting the ridge is watered and covered with a layer of mulch. Shoots appear in a month. Care for young plants is the regular removal of weeds, watering, loosening the soil. The first years, the growth of pecan is slow. For a year in good conditions, seedlings grow up to 20-30 cm, by 2-3 years - up to 50 cm. Developed, strong seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place at the age of one year, small or weak ones remain in the same place up to 2, 3 years old. When caring for a young tree, it is important to constantly provide the roots with moisture and feed them with fertilizers.
Pecan can be grown in a greenhouse or conservatory. To transplant the grown seedlings take a large pot or wooden box. Caring for exotic at home is carried out in the same way as for other tropical plants, that is, they carry out regular watering, spray the crown, and feed. It should be borne in mind that caria needs a cool rest period, so from November to March the tree is kept at a temperature of 8-12 ° C. The volume of watering at this time reduced.
Growing pecans from saplings is more difficult, since saplings of this plant are very sensitive and often die when the root system is damaged. The root system of mixed-type caria, the lateral and central roots are highly developed, so the soil must have a deep fertile layer, be drained (water should not stagnate). After planting, the seedling should be tied to a support, watered abundantly, covered with a paddle circle with a layer of mulch.
When a pecan is propagated by grafting a white pecan, it is suitable as a stock. In this case, the tree will begin to bear fruit in 4-5 years.
To consider the characteristic features of pecan can be on the photo presented in our gallery:
Where can I grow pecan?
Pecan can grow in well-lit areas, and in partial shade. It needs fertile, loosened soil with good drainage. It is also important that the site does not contain water, and the soil - well passed air and water. Can transfer strong, but not long frosts. For good growth and fruiting need regular watering, although the tree is resistant to dry climate. With good watering, the tree will annually produce abundant harvests of large and nut-rich nuts. Young trees must be mulched, clean the area next to weeds and loosen the soil. The annual increase at the beginning is small - 20-30 cm, but over time the growth is activated.
Pecan is also grown in indoor, greenhouse conditions and in the greenhouse. If it is placed in a room where the air is rather dry, it is imperative to spray it with water. In winter, before the beginning of spring, the plant should be at a temperature of 8-12 ° C. When the plant is at rest, watering and fertilization stop. The tree can bear fruit for 4-8 years of planting, while the crops are not rich - 2 kg, but this is only temporary. With age, not only the tree grows, but also the number of nuts.
Planting and reproduction of pecan
Pecans are propagated in several ways: cuttings, budding, grafting, or seeds. The most common method for this culture is seed. Planting a tree is carried out in spring or autumn. Nuts that have already fallen - ripe, they are used for reproduction. At the same time, it is important that the nuts fall on their own without someone's help and not because of the wind. They should be brown, without dark spots and have a pleasant aroma. After collecting all the fallen nuts, you can immediately sow or stratify them.
Autumn Landing Pecan
If planting is carried out in the fall, stratification is not necessary, the seeds can be immediately planted in a prepared place. To do this, make a small groove 10 cm deep, put nuts in them, sprinkled with soil. Optimal planting, if placed on 1 meter of the plot from 10 to 15 seedlings. At the same time between the furrows should be a distance of at least one meter. Thanks to this autumn planting, the stratification will take place naturally - the seedlings will harden in the conditions of winter. In the spring all the nuts will rise and will be more stable than during the spring planting.
Planting is recommended in a sunny area, protected from the wind, where the moisture stagnates. If the groundwater will stand, the plant will rot and not even take root. When sowing nuts immediately to a permanent place, the area is first fertilized with compost. During the first years of the tree, the growth of the tree is slow, since it still forms the root system. After three years, the annual growth will increase from 30 cm to 50 cm. At this time, the plant can be transplanted to a permanent place.
The optimal size of the pit - 60 x 60 cm. If the soil is acidified, make the right amount of lime. At the same time it is necessary to make a nutrient mixture for planting from soil and compost. The roots are placed so that they are perfectly spaced apart and not wrapped. It is necessary to place a support in the hole and tie a seedling to it. It is necessary to place the seedling so that the neck of its root is flush with the ground. После посадку нужно уплотнить, хорошо полить и замульчировать перегноем или другой органикой. Сажать желательно деревья на расстоянии 15 метров. Молодое деревце необходимо постоянно поливать, удобрять и очищать от сорной травы. Плодоношение начнется спустя 8-10 лет.
Весенняя посадка ореха пекана
Эта посадка проводится с апреля после обязательной стратификации. Before sowing nuts, they need to be processed and hardened. To do this, pour the seeds into the water for a couple of days, after which they spread it on moistened sawdust or peat so that they germinate. Next, the seeds need to be moved to a cold room, for example, on a balcony. At the same time it is necessary to ensure that the soil does not dry out, and the air was less than 4 ° C. In such conditions, they should be about two months. After the seeds can be moved to a warm room and sow in small furrows. Sowing scheme is the same as in the autumn planting. Seeds need to sprinkle with humus and subsequently constantly watered. It should also be planted in a well-lit area, where there is no strong wind and no water.
It is possible to plant a nut on the garden site or in a greenhouse. To transplant the grown plant, use a large pot or drawer. In room conditions, it is cared for in the same way as other house plants. That is, be sure to water, feed, spray with water. From the beginning of winter to the beginning of spring, the tree should be left in a cool rest - stop watering, top dressing and ensure the temperature is 8-12 ° С.
Growing a tree with a sapling is harder, because they are quite tender and often die with the slightest damage to the roots. The root system of the tree is mixed, it consists of the main and lateral roots, which are well developed. Plant necessarily in fertile soil with good drainage, in which water will not stagnate. After the tree tied up, moisturize and impose mulch. For propagation of the tree graft using a stock - white pecan. With this method, the nut produces yields after four years.
How to care for pecans
- In the early stages of growth, pecans need to be watered regularly and abundantly, as well as to clear the area of weeds.
- It is especially important to carry out watering in a dry hot summer, so that the soil does not dry out.
- It is also advisable to feed the tree and prune it for crown formation and rejuvenation. Trimming for shaping is carried out only on seedlings, you do not need to cut off adult nuts. In the spring, for the rejuvenation of a tree, dry, frozen and damaged branches, as well as branches thickening the crown, are pruned.
Fertilizing and Feeding Pecan
In the spring, the tree must be fertilized with nitrogen-containing preparations that stimulate the growth of young shoots. At the beginning of autumn it is worthwhile to add fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium in order to stimulate the ripening of wood and the laying of a good abundant harvest in the future. Thus, young trees are fed up, while adult plants are fertilized in the fall with potassium salt, superphosphate and urea.
If the tree is properly maintained and properly planted, it will yield yields in five years.
How to choose when buying and store pecans?
When buying the nuts of this tree, you need to monitor the state of its core - it should be whole and fleshy. If you get nuts in the shell, it is better to choose clean and without any damage. At the same time, they should be heavy according to size. To extend the storage of nuts in good condition, it is recommended to keep them in an airtight container, in the refrigerator or freezer. Pecan nuts are stored in the refrigerator for about 4 months, and in the freezer for up to six months. Before you eat nuts, they need to be heated in room conditions up to 20-23⁰С.
Pecan Tree: Description
The maximum tree height is 60 meters. The life span of the plant is 400 years, during which time the plant actively bears fruit. The pecan tree has a wide spreading crown with a diameter of up to 40 m. The leaves are round, smooth and dense. Flowers are male and female, are formed exclusively at the ends of young shoots. In a favorable climate, the flowering process begins in May and ends in early June. Pollination and breeding process occurs mainly with the help of wind.
Of particular importance are the fruits of the plant. They are a valuable source of vitamins, trace elements and nutrients. They are widely used in cooking, medicine and cosmetology. Nuts fill the body with nutrients, help to cope with many diseases and restore the structure of the skin and hair.
Habitat and distribution
Not many people know where pecans grow. This is due to the lack of plantations in Russia, Ukraine and other countries of the former USSR. Homeland plants is North America. Large plantations are fixed along the banks of the Mississippi River. This is due to the optimal conditions for growth and reproduction.Pecan tree
The largest stands can be found in the southeastern part of the United States and Central Asia. The main export of useful fruits is carried out directly from these territories. In the Russian Federation, minor plantings are recorded in the Crimea and the Caucasus. The tree has no industrial significance.
How to grow pecans on your own
A pecan tree can theoretically be grown on its own. However, for this action it is necessary to follow a certain algorithm and create optimal conditions for the plant. So, the process of reproduction of culture is carried out by seed and vegetative means.
The fruits of the plant. Nuts that have fallen to the ground are considered ripe and suitable for sowing. Small grooves are made in the ground, the depth of which is 10 cm. Nuts are sown in the received pits. Between the seeds, a distance of 1 m must be observed. In the spring period, all seedlings are planted, to a single.Pecan tree
At the end of April, the seeds can be sown, pre-stratified. Before that, they must be soaked for two days in water and then sent to wet sawdust. The substrate should always be wet, and the ambient temperature should not exceed 4 degrees. Transplantation is carried out in a warm sunny place where there is no stagnant moisture. If the nuts are immediately planted in a permanent place, it must be filled with compost.
For the first time, the tree grows very slowly, during this period the root system grows. By the age of three, the plant height does not exceed 50 cm. When this parameter is reached, the sprout can be transplanted to a permanent habitat. Pecan care is thorough, it is necessary to constantly monitor the condition of the soil and water the plant abundantly. Young seedlings need protection, feeding and watering. The first fruiting is recorded 10 years after planting.
The main feature of the culture is the lack of susceptibility to disease. Nuts do not touch the moth, so their shells are always whole. Visually, they look like olives, in connection with which pecans are often called olive nuts.
Growing an exotic plant in your own summer cottage is not an easy process. The tree requires certain conditions, attitudes and care. This culture is subject only to patient people, it is necessary to constantly transplant and monitor the condition of the soil. In gratitude for all the work, the tree will thank for a large harvest.