General information

Classification of basil, what are the varieties of spice plants


Four forms of basil are grown in culture:

• Large
• Small
• Shiplike
• Sheet-shaped

The following varieties have been applied:

• Camphor (fragrant) basil - the height of this plant is about half a meter. The leaves have a tart taste and clove aroma.
• Mexican basil (cinnamon) in height reaches about half a meter. The leaves have a characteristic cinnamon flavor. The flowers of this basil are colored purple.
• Purple basil (ordinary or regan) is a plant with large red-violet leaves that have a tart flavor and a fairly delicate flavor.
• Lemon basil gives a rich harvest of greens with a pleasant lemon scent (each bush produces about 250 g of greens).

The best varieties of basil purple

The varieties of purple basil are quite popular. This category includes Moskvoretsky Semko, Thai Queen, Purple (Dark Opal), Moorish, Table.

Purple Basil Variety

The purple basil variety (Dark Opal) has beautiful dark purple leaves. A characteristic feature of the variety is a very pleasant taste and clove-pepper aroma of greenery. This plant is used to flavor vinegar, sauce, oil.

Green basil varieties

Green basil is quite common. This group is represented by the varieties Tonus, Smel Levels, Green Cornflower, Genova, Stella, Table, Fantasy.

Very popular variety Balconstar. Small leaves have a delicate taste and a pleasant aroma. Greens are used in the preparation of salads. The variety is short - the plants can be grown in pots on window sills.

The best grades of basil for a window sill

Basil is not only a spicy, but also an ornamental plant. It is quite possible to settle on your windowsill. The most suitable varieties: Pepper, Troll, Kinky, Dwarf, Marquis, Broadleaf, Clove, Philosopher.

Variety of basil Dwarf

Variety Dwarf, as the name implies, has a small height - no more than 10-18 cm. Leaves can be both green and purple. They have a pleasant aroma and delicate flavor. Plants look beautiful in pots.

Varieties of basil maturation

Early and mid-early basil varieties can be cut off 35-65 days after germination. The best early varieties: Pearl of the Moscow Region, Clove, Green fragrant, Dwarf, Lemon.

Basil Variety Basilisk

Basilisk plants in height reach 18-20 cm. The small leaves of this early basil are colored green and have pepper-clove scent.

From the emergence of seedlings and to achieve the technical maturity of medium, mid-late and late varieties, 65-90 days pass. Mid-season varieties: Wizard, Moskvoretsky Semko, Caramel.

The mid-season Orion variety has small leaves of a bluish-green color with dark veins. Greens have a strong pepper flavor.

Middle-late and late varieties: Dreamer, Table, Charm, Moorish, Marquis.

Lemon basil variety

Lemon - medium late basil with large, green, smooth leaves. The plant has a pleasant citrus scent.

Basil Varieties for Central Russia and Moscow Region

In the conditions of central Russia, basil can be grown through seedlings. The best varieties: Aniskin, Ararat, Velvet, Violet, Val, Greek, Dragon, Yerevan, Gigolo, Flavored Green, Orion, Pepper Flavor, Robin Hood, Russian giant purple.

Basil Grade Vanilla Flavor

Vanilla flavor is another good variety for central Russia. It is characterized by medium early ripening. The plant is low. The leaves are purple, with a delicate aroma of vanilla. The plant tolerates a good deficiency of sunlight.

The best varieties of basil for the Urals

For the weather conditions of the Urals, varieties of Caucasian and Russian breeding are suitable (there are no varieties specifically zoned for this region). The most popular varieties: Aniseed aroma, Ararat, Baku, Basilisk, Gvozdichny, Yerevan, Tempter, Caramel, Lemon, Wizard.

Variety of Basil Charm

The height of mid-ripe basil Charm is about 65-70 cm. Bushes are compact, the leaves are large, very dark, with a strong aroma and purple pigmentation.

The best varieties of basil have a pleasant aroma - tangible, but not sharp. Plants can have different colors and heights. They differ in terms of ripening - everyone can choose a variety that perfectly matches the requirements of a particular region.

Description of basil.

The tetrahedral basil stems reach a height of 30 to 60 cm. Wild species grow 70 cm high. The leaves of the basil are green or purple-burgundy and oblong-ovate. At the end of the stems there are inflorescences, which consist of several flowers. A basil flower can have a different shade: from white and pink to white-violet. Usually the basil plant blooms from July to September. The cups, stalks and basil leaves are rough to the touch. It is in them are glands that accumulate essential oil: it gives basil a pleasant spicy flavor. Also, the plant contains in its composition sour saponin, tannins, carotene and other useful substances.

Types and varieties of basil, names and photos.

There are about 70 types of basil. Each differs visually from one another: the bushes can reach different heights, the leaves differ in color and shape. There are types of basil with small leaves, while others are wide and sometimes corrugated.
The most popular types of basil are lemon, purple, cinnamon, fragrant and ordinary basil. In different countries and cultures, one species is valued more than another.

  • Sweet basil or camphor, ordinary. Strongly branched plant with a large deciduous mass and a bush height of 55-70 cm. The stem and leaves are pubescent, have a mild pepper flavor. Among the varieties known: "Fragrant handsome", "Magic of the East", "Ararat".

  • Purple basil. Annual plant, up to 50 cm in height. The name received due to the bright purple leaves. This species has a more pronounced, strong aroma than green leafy fellows, we love very much in the traditions of Asian and Caucasian cuisines. Purple basil varieties such as Purple, Moorish, Table, Moskvoretsky are very tasty and fragrant.

  • Basil green. The bushes of this variety have light green leaves, some varieties have pubescence on the stem and leaflets. The height of the bush is 35-45 cm. The aroma varies depending on the variety, but less intense than that of purple basil. Popular varieties: "Green Cornflower", "Tone", "Favorite", "Explosion".

  • Cinnamon Basil. Plant with bright green, shiny leaves and lilac flowers. The height of the bush reaches 45-60 cm. All parts of the plant have a pronounced aroma of cinnamon with a slight mint note and a slightly burning aftertaste. Very valued varieties "Cinnamon", "Wonderful", "Delicate early."

  • Lemon Basil. The plant is not very tall - up to 35 cm, the leaves are pale green, with a spicy lemon scent mixed with the tart smell of camphor. For gardeners, favorite varieties are “Moscow Bogatyr”, “Lemon”, “Iskra”, “Novelty”.

  • Black basil. All varieties of this species are distinguished by an unusual color: the stems and leaves have a very dark color, often turning from rich violet to glossy brown and even almost black. There are undersized up to 30 cm and tall varieties, in which the bush reaches a height of 50-65 cm. Tastes are excellent, the aroma is strong, peppery, slightly burning, it persists for a long time when dried green. Popular varieties: “Baku”, “Ruby Cairo”, “Osmin”.

  • Red basil. A plant with a branched stalk, 20-35 cm tall, with fragrant leaves of red-lilac color, sometimes turning into a purple tint. The smell varies from delicate vanilla with a peppery note to a strong camphor-clove. Actual varieties: "Crane", "Generous", "Oriental Guest".

The history of basil.

The basil plant has many names. It is called fragrant cornflower, rean, reyhon, tiff, or reagan. The taste and aroma of basil are valued at all times. In India, Hindu followers used it in their rites, as they considered basil as a sacred plant. And the ancient Greek authors described how it was used in medicine. In Europe, the plant fell only in the XVI century. Due to its aroma and taste, it began to be highly appreciated. Even after a long period of time after appearing in Europe, basil has not lost its position in the cuisine of different countries.
However, during the great geographical discoveries and travels, when other spices began to fall into Europe, the plant was moved to second place.

Where does basil grow?

Tropical areas of Asia are considered the birthplace of basil. At the moment, the plant is very common in all countries of southern Europe. Different types of basil are grown in the Caucasus, India, Moldova, Egypt, the Crimea and the Pacific Islands. It was from these islands that it spread throughout Europe.

Basil: landing.

Despite its popularity, the southern guest basil - a capricious plant, and to achieve results when it is grown, lovers of this spice will have to work hard.

  • When to plant basil? The main thing you should pay attention to is the time when the thermophilic basil is landed in the ground. If you do not plan to cultivate this crop in a greenhouse or greenhouse, please note: the optimum soil temperature for planting is 20-25 degrees. In the middle lane, it is recommended to sow or transplant basil seedlings to the ground in late May or early June, with full confidence that there is no longer a risk of return frost. Tender sprouts of basil absolutely cannot tolerate even the slightest cooling.

  • Planting basil in the ground. As for the choice of place for this fragrant plant, do not forget - basil prefers free sunny areas, with light soils without stagnation of water. This fragrant culture is sure to thank the lush bush with abundant green mass, if you properly prepare the soil substrate. Add to each square meter of land for a couple of pounds of good humus, peat and compost. Before planting basil, it is advisable to shed the soil with a solution of the following components: half a teaspoon of potassium sulfate, 5 liters of water, and the same amount of potassium chloride and urea.

Basil seedlings are better arranged in small rows, 80-100 cm in length, making a distance of 15-20 centimeters between seedlings. The optimal time for planting basil is in the late afternoon and on a cloudy, but warm day, so that the plant does not burn the sun, and it is easier to go through the rooting process.

Care for basil: watering and feeding.

Each planted bush should be watered with soft, defended water. In the future, basil requires watering every 3-5 days (this is at high temperatures and no rains), feeding every 25-30 days with nitrogen fertilizer (nitrophoska is perfect - 2 tablespoons per 12 liters of water) and tidy, not too deep loosening soil near the bush. Want to maximize the growth of green mass? Remove peduncles and apical parts of the bush two or three times during the vegetative season.

Basil diseases.

Basil is quite resistant to various diseases, but in adverse conditions, such as thickening of planting, excessive watering, high humidity and low temperature in the greenhouse, fungal diseases can develop on it. The most common are blackleg, fusarium, gray rot.

Preventive measures against basil diseases include the following measures:

  • You should not grow a plant in the same place for more than 2 years,
  • Watering should be moderate,
  • The land between the rows should be loosened and to avoid the formation of a crust,
  • Sick plants immediately remove with a clod of earth.

At the earliest stage of the disease, the basil plant can be saved by sprinkling daily with an infusion of onion peel (100 g. Onion peel to brew 400 g. Of boiling water, leave for 24 hours, then strain) or sprinkle it with a solution of blue vitriol (in a proportion of 2 liters of water: 1 tsp. vitriol).

Basil in the greenhouse.

In the greenhouse, basil feels quite comfortable. Most often it is planted there in May, when the ground is already well warmed up and the threat of frost has passed. In a greenhouse, basil requires moderate watering, but the main thing is to air it well: due to stagnation and poor air circulation in the closed greenhouse, this southern guest is often ill.

Basil: growing from seed.

Growing basil from seeds is troublesome, but possible. Soak the seed in any growth stimulator for 7-10 hours (the Appin tool is perfect). Then sow the seeds slightly dried on the fabric in the boxes for seedlings or immediately into the open and prepared soil, covering the crops with polyethylene or agromaterials. Water the seeds in a timely manner, choosing the best approach - do not overdry or pour water. Already after 8-12 days, tiny shoots of this fragrant plant will begin to appear.

Basil: growing cuttings.

Basil grafting is another, and perhaps the most hassle-free method to “get” this fragrant greens in your backyard or in your home pot. True, you have to get hold of a couple of twigs already adult basil. The cuttings are placed in water with a growth stimulator for about one and a half to two weeks. As soon as roots appear on them, they can be planted in open ground or rooted in a pot, not forgetting about regular feeding and watering.

Growing basil at home.

Despite some capriciousness, basil is quite successfully grown on the windowsill in pots or drawers. For this type of cultivation, low-growing varieties are optimal, and the most advantageous time for planting seeds is, of course, the spring months - March-April.

Capacity is better to choose deeper - at least 20-30 cm in depth, because this plant will quickly turn into a bush. At the bottom of the tank a layer of drainage is surely laid down, 1.5-2 cm thick, and only then the soil is poured. The usual garden earth enriched with mineral fertilizers will be suitable, or you can use the soil purchased in a specialty store marked “For vegetable crops and spicy herbs”. Note: the ground before sowing seeds should be warm.

It is recommended to soak the seeds of basil for 20-25 hours in gauze moistened with a growth stimulant, for example, Epin. Sowing basil is done in a moist soil, not deep - about 1 centimeter, it is advisable to make a distance of 6-7 cm between future plants. Then the container is covered with a film of polyethylene and placed in heat until the first sprouts, which are formed on the fifth or seventh day, appear.

Be sure to provide the optimum temperature for gentle seedlings of home basil - it should not be lower than 24-28 degrees, and also do not forget about regular watering with settled water. After the emergence of four or five pairs of leaves on the sapling, you can pinch the top of the bush: this will limit the growth of the plant in height, it will begin to bloom profusely and will not give peduncles, aiming all its forces to form a lush and fragrant foliage. Basil is well rooted, so it is very easy to grow it at home from a cutting, cut from the top of an adult plant. Put a stalk 7-10 cm long in water, wait about a week before the roots form on it and boldly root the stalk into the pot.

Caring for basil planted at home is simple: water it daily (especially if the plant container is in a sunny window), it is advisable to do this in the early morning hours, but do not over-wet the ground. Do not forget to loosen the soil every 3-4 days - basil is very responsive to a similar procedure, “treat” the plant with mineral dressing, regularly tear off the flower stalks that appear on the bushes, if you want to get a powerful and abundant green mass. Do not forget that basil is a “southerner,” which means that it does not like drafts and low temperatures, preferring to bask in the sun: provide it with maximum light and protect it from the cold. If it is not possible to give the plant maximum light, an additional artificial illumination should be organized for the basilica.

Collection and drying of basil. How to store basil?

Due to its chemical composition, the flavor of basil is somewhat reminiscent of cloves and nutmeg, and the taste of basil is a bit bitter and spicy. Basil leaves and stems are added to salads, pickles, soups, sausages and sauces.

You can collect the plant 2 times per season, including during flowering, that is, from July to September. The first collection of basil is carried out before flowering, at this time you need to cut the leaves and shoots, leaving the bottom leaves. With proper drying, the plant does not lose its color, taste and smell, while the dried leaves break easily or are ground into powder.
For proper drying, basil is enough to lay a thin layer in a well-ventilated shady place, while it should not fall into direct sunlight.
Хранить базилик нужно в стеклянной или фаянсовой посуде с герметичной крышкой, в таком виде сушеный базилик может храниться 3-4 года.

Базилик: полезные свойства.

Базилик – это очень полезное растение, которое содержит витамины С, В2, РР, аскорбиновую кислоту, провитамин А, сахар, каротин, Р-рутин и фитонциды. Содержание масла в листьях базилика достигает 1,5% — 2%. The essential oil of basil also contains substances that are beneficial to humans: saponin, camphor, ozimen, cineol, methylhavinol, eugenol, estragol.

The use of basil lies in the fact that it is an immunostimulant, protects against viral, fungal and bacterial infections of the respiratory tract, including relieves the symptoms of bronchitis and asthma. It has antipyretic and diaphoretic action, removes mucus from the nasal passages and lungs, improves digestion and absorption of nutrients, strengthens nerves, normalizes sleep, improves potency, stimulates mental activity and improves memory. Basil Herb is used for flatulence, gastrointestinal diseases, lung diseases and cancer. The plant also contains enzymes that not only help digestion, but also contribute to the burning of fats in the body.

Overview of basil varieties by various characteristics

The best varieties of basil have a bright taste and a unique aroma. It is the flavor that determines the culinary destination. Basilicas differ in the color of the stems and foliage - they are green or purple, and also demonstrate a variety of intermediate shades. For gardeners, plant readiness for cutting, their height, and the size of foliage are important.

The taste of basil harmoniously combines bitterness and sweetness, and the various proportions of essential oils give each grade a special smell. It defines the scope of culinary use. Small amounts of fresh or dried herbs are added to various dishes:

  • meat, fish, seafood, vegetables and legumes (basil is NOT combined with fragrant mushrooms),
  • sauces,
  • spaghetti,
  • cottage cheese,
  • sausage smoked meats
  • pickles, pickles, canned,
  • vinegar, oil,
  • different drinks
  • culinary and pastry products, desserts,
  • spice mixtures.

Basil for tea is chosen with lemon flavor or mint flavor, cinnamon smell is relevant for sweet pastries, and clove-pepper in the marinade is appropriate. Gardeners like a variety of smells: preferences depend on individual taste and habits.

Many gardeners love to experiment and annually experience new options: in terms of diversity, basil is a very fertile culture.

Range of aroma

  • Anise: Anise delight, Ararat, Genoese (Genovese), Aniseed gourmet.
  • Vanilla: Vanilla flavor.
  • Clove: Valya, Delight, Alluring Handsome, Markus, Semko Moskvoretsky, Red Rubin, Robin Bobin, Sanka, Darkie, Perfection, Stella, Dark Night, Philosopher, Khaki, Shamun, Shuntuk.
  • Caramel: Pet.
  • Cinnamon: Karakum, Crimean purple.
  • Laurel: Purple stars.
  • Lime: Lime, Green Lime.
  • Lemon: Lemon slices, Limoncello, Freshness.
  • Muscat: Raspberry nutmeg.
  • Mint (menthol): Velvet, Mint Gourmet.
  • Pepper: Aramis, Compatto, Marian, Orion, Rosie, Ruby Bouquet, Emily.
  • The smell of lilac: Pearl of the Moscow region.
Complex aromas
  • Clove-peppery: Basilisk, Gnome, Sultan's Dreams, Dark Opal, Dragon, Yerevan, Crimean, Legion, Opal, Tulasi, Dreamer, Black Prince.
  • Camphor-clove: Violet shine.
  • Caramelly Mint: Malachite.
  • Caramel and fruity: Caramel.
  • Cinnamon Anise: Thai Queen.
  • Lemon Mint: Lemon Miracle.
  • Muscat Pepper: Pomegranate Nutmeg.
  • Peppermint: Greek.

Purple basil varieties are in demand in the Caucasus. They contain twice as much stuff as substances than green ones. Many of our gardeners prefer precisely the purple varieties, they are put in the first and second courses, sauces, salads, pickles.

Varieties of green basil, as a rule, have a more "soft" taste and aroma, are popular in Mediterranean cuisine.

Most varieties with a lemon, mint and aniseed smell have soft green foliage. But a direct relationship between color and smell is not observed.

It is convenient to play contrasts of colors for decorative purposes. Sometimes gardeners use flowering basilicas in garden design: they produce flower stalks of various shades - white, pink, purple.

The original varieties with light foliage and dark fluffy buds (Thai Queen).

Terms of ripening

There is no stable classification of vegetable basil by maturity: the characteristics often indicate the age of budding and flowering, but sometimes the collection of foliage starts earlier. For vegetable growers, the rate of increase of grass mass and accumulation of essential oils is important.

The earliest basilicas reach technical readiness within 2-3 weeks after germination.

Early (15-25 days): Delight, Dwarf, Dragon, Pearl of the Moscow Region, In Memory of Yury Fadeev, Pepper Flavor.

Middle Early: (30-45 dn.): Anise, Cinnamon Flavor, Vitamine Purple, Deli, Pomegranate Nutmeg, Yerevan, Karakum, Cinnamon, Cinnamon, Handsome, Lemon Miracle, Limoncello, Malachite, Raspberry Muscat, Marian, Marquis, Moskvoretsky Semko, Purple fireworks, Robin Bobin, Rosie, Rubra, Dark-skinned woman, Stella, Philosopher, Violet shine, Black Prince, Shalun, Emily.

Mid-Ripe: (50-65 dn.): Aniskin, Ararat, Velvet, Valya, Greek, Aniseed Gourmet, Clove Gourmet, Mint Gourmet, Sweet scented, Crimean, Legion, Lemon Slices, Pet, Marcus, Opal, Purple Zhodzy,,, etc. , Sanka, Freshness, Dark night, Naughty.

Middle late: (after 70 days): Bader, Violet, Dreamer.

According to gardeners, middle-late varieties are more suitable for the southern regions.

Bush height

Superlow and supercompact (18-25 cm): Basilisk, Carnation aroma, Dwarf, Aniseed gourmet, Mint gourmet, Compatto, Malachite, Troll, Philosopher.

Low (25-45 cm): Aramis, Vanilla Flavor, Velvet, Sandwich Leaf, Dwarf, Limoncello, Moskvoretsky Semko, Russian Giant Purple, Freshness, Stella, Dark Night.

Sredneroslye (50-60 cm): Amigo, Aniskin, Anisovka, Anisovy delight, Ararat, Aroma of cinnamon, Aroma of lemon, Valya, Vitaminchik violet, Delight, Garnet muscat, Greek, Gourmet clove, Dragon, Yerevan, Karakum, Legion, Lemon miracle , Lemon fragrance, Pet, Orion, Pepper aroma, Purple stars, Ruby bouquet, Russian giant green, Dark complexion.

High (65 cm and more): Bugger, Pearl of the Moscow region, Crimean purple, Dreamer.

Basil leaves

Under the varieties of large basil mean forms with wide and long leaf plates. Their size does not always depend on the height of the plant. It should be noted that not all gardeners like large-leaved varieties, many prefer small-leaved and narrow-leaved forms.

  • With clove pepper smell: Tempter (green), Russian bogatyr (green or a mixture of varieties), Russian giant green, Russian giant purple, Broadleaf (green).
  • With the scent of cinnamon: royal blood (green).


The aroma is clove-pepper. The variety is sredneranny, srednerosly. Flowers lilac. The return of greens from the bush - up to 0.5 kg.

As practice has shown (many gardeners are divided into forums) - Yerevan basil often grows with dark green leaves. The green color in the basil is dominant, and often the purple varieties lose anthocyanin.

The smell of cinnamon. The flowers are purple. The height of the bush - the average. The weight of the grassy part is 250 g.

For the northern regions

Many basilicas are suitable for open ground even in those regions where the climate is rather harsh, continental.

For the Central zone (including for the Moscow region), for the North-West of Russia, for Siberia and the Urals, cold-resistant and early varieties are selected (they can be sown in open ground), as well as middle-ripening and medium-early varieties, getting them through the seedlings.

Pearl of the Moscow region

New Russian variety up to 1.2 m high with a unique smell of blooming lilacs. Early (20-25 days), suitable for sowing in open ground. Stems are dark, green leaf with purple backlighting, numerous inflorescences, lilac-purple. It grows well even on poor soils, is not damaged by pests and diseases. Collection of greenery from the bush - 370 g.

In memory of Yuri Fadeev

The latest Russian selection. The variety is very early (15-20 days), medium tall, powerfully increasing. Recoil from the bush to 0.4 kg per square meter - more than 5 kg. The aroma is close to clove. The leaf is dark green, with a slight presence of purple hue. Flowers pinkish. Plants are hardy to disease, drought and damp. Can be grown in a seedless way.

Preparing to issue a patent for a grade.

Pepper aroma

Early (from 20 days), srednerosly. The foliage is purple.

Cold-resistant variety of Russian selection. Low (25 cm). Foliage green, small. Flowers are white, bloom 2 months after germination. The smell of clove-pepper. Recoil from the bush - 150 g.

For windowsill and balcony

Low-growing and compact varieties of basil are suitable for growing on a windowsill, including hydroponics. Some names of the varieties "speaking": Dwarf and Compatto (green clove-pepper), Ruby dwarf (not higher than 20 cm). The selection is rich in color and flavor.

Medium early. The foliage is small, greenish-blue, Shrub no higher than 30 cm, compressed, with a mass of green 20 g. The little flowers are purple. The smell is intense pepper.

Vanilla flavor

Shade-tolerant compact variety. Mid-season. Leaflets and inflorescences are purple, may be dark green. Return from the bush for the summer season - 150

Sredneranny grade with a commodity weight of 300 g. Stems are violet, foliage is green. The smell is original - caramel-mint.

Bush up to 30 cm, compact, thick. Mid-season, green. The leaves are elongated, the flowers are white. Lemon flavor. Seasonal green output - 180 g

Thai Queen (equivalent - Siam Queen, Queen of Siam)

Compact, decorative variety with contrast of green foliage and purple-violet fluffy inflorescences. Flowering long. The aroma is cinnamon-anise.

Rare varieties of basil

Exotic lovers take the time to search for rare varieties of basil. Low distribution is associated either with the novelty of the variety, or with its poor adaptability to a cool climate.

New Dutch selection. Rapid (40 days) growth of thin oval leaflets. The plants are medium strong, pale green, with a distinct smell of lemon. Appointment: fish dishes, drinks, marinades. The output of green - 250 g from the bush.

Modern variety of German origin. Compact mid-early variety with rather large leaves and persistent spicy aroma. The color is dark purple. Commodity mass bush - a quarter kilogram.

New medium early (40 days) variety from the Netherlands. The foliage is green, large, pepper flavor. Green payoff - more than 3 kg per square meter.

Classification of basil by plant height

Depending on the height of the plant, this culture is short, medium and tall. At the same time in each case the basil varieties may have their own characteristics.

    Low-growing varieties are recommended for growing indoors in pots. With them there are practically no problems, they grow quickly, by themselves, you only need to water and harvest in time. The maximum growth of such varieties is 30 cm.

Green basil, he is sweet basil

Classification of basil varieties by leaf color

Depending on the color of leaves, basil varieties are divided into green and purple.

    Green basil, he is a sweet basil, as it was called in ancient times. Received widespread from Mediterranean countries. Used in the preparation of a variety of dishes. It has a delicate aroma and taste. At the same time, the saturation of green can be different, there are varieties with dark green leaves and with light green. These include "Genoese", "Eugenolny", "Sandwich", "Shirokolisty", "Lemon Flavor", "Aroma of Cinnamon", "Lemon", "Velvet", etc.

Purple basil has a sharp taste and aroma

Best Clove and Pepper-Pepper Varieties

Clove and clove-pepper varieties of basil are widespread. They can be ranked as classic, as they grow almost everywhere, easy to maintain.

  • "Clove" - The basil growing in a compact, dense bush up to 60 cm in height, has bright green leaves. It can be grown throughout the year on the windowsill of the house or seasonally in flowerbeds. It has a pleasant smell of cloves.
  • "Carnation scent" - has a very pronounced aroma of cloves, so it is often put in marinades instead of cloves. The variety is medium early, grows up to 25 cm tall, the leaves are green. The use is universal. Can be grown outside or in pots, at home.

Best Clove and Pepper-Pepper Varieties

Also in this category you need to rank the following varieties: “Greek”, “Sandwich Leaf”, “Dark Night”, “Stella”, “Dreams of the Sultan”, “Smuglyanka”. “Perfection”, “Marquis”, “Basilisk”.

Pepper Basil Varieties

Pepper basil varieties have a weak or bright pepper aroma. They are used primarily as a condiment for any dishes except sweets or drinks.

Pepper Basil Varieties

  • "Basil broadleaf" different large, green leaves and high yield. With one bush can collect up to 250 g of greenery. Aroma of allspice. It is used in cooking (salads, marinades) and cosmetology, as it has a lot of essential oils.
  • "Yerevan" - ranks second in prevalence. It has a high yield. Taste is tart, aroma fragrant, pepper. The use is universal. The leaves are dark purple, beautiful, can be grown as an ornamental plant.
  • "Ruby Cairo" different black and purple color of the leaves, can be a great decor for any flower beds and gardens. It grows up to 30 cm, it is grown mainly in indoor pots on the windowsill. The aroma is pronounced, the taste is burning. You can dry and freeze - during processing, the aroma and taste are not lost.

Also here it is worth counting: "Aramis", "Campato", "Rubin", "Rosie", etc.

Best Anise Basil Varieties

Anise varieties of basil can be called unusual. Combinations of this smell and taste are appreciated by gourmets and culinary specialists from all over the world, so these varieties can often be found on market stalls.

Best Anise Basil Varieties

  • "Italian Basil" or “Genoese” has a strong anise flavor that enhances the taste of any dish. It is this type that is always used in the preparation of the well-known pesto sauce, as well as many others, which were invented in Italy. It is used in cooking in any form for drinks, first, second courses, snacks. Can be grown on a windowsill. It grows low, has beautiful green leaves.
  • "Anise basil" - fragrant variety, growing up to 40 cm. Leaflets, stems and inflorescences are purple, with a silver sheen. It can be grown in the garden or in the apartment, in pots on the windowsill or on the balcony.

This category also includes "Gourmet Anis", "Anis delight", etc.

What are the varieties of lemon and menthol?

Lemon basil varieties are most often used to make interesting drinks.

Lemon and menthol varieties

  • "Lemon Flavor" has a bright, rich lemon flavor. It grows a bush of medium density. From each plant, up to 250 g of leaves of light green color is collected per season. Use this variety to give lemon flavor to dishes, as a decoration for desserts, salads.
  • "Citric" Basil has camphor flavor, but its taste is purely lemon, so it is often put in salads, desserts, main dishes to give them a pleasant sourness. It grows up to 35 cm, can be grown on the windowsill, the leaves are elongated, small, in comparison with other types, green.
  • "Velvet" It has a pleasant menthol flavor and taste. It grows up to 30 cm. It is used in marinades, for flavoring or enhancing the flavors of beverages, seasonings, sauces, and oils in fresh and dried form. The leaves are elongated, green, flowers pale pink.

What varieties can be used for baking and desserts?

Baking, desserts and drinks - the main area of ​​consumption of varieties of basil with caramel, cinnamon and vanilla flavor.

Varieties for baking and desserts

  • "Caramel" - an early look with a delicate fruit and caramel smell. It is used simply as a seasoning to add a fruit and caramel flavor to the dish. It grows not high bush, grown mainly in apartments.
  • Vanilla Flavor - tall variety with juicy, purple leaves after full ripening. Vanilla flavor and aroma. It can be grown indoors, in greenhouses or open ground. It is usually used as an additive in confectionery.
  • "The aroma of cinnamon" grows up to 40 cm, the leaves are green. Up to 400 g leaves are collected from the plant. The aroma and taste of cinnamon. Used for baking, desserts, marinades.

Also for baking, you can use the varieties of basil "Cinnamon", "Pet", "Malachite".

What varieties are suitable for marinades?

Basil varieties for marinades have a rich fragrant aroma, do not lose their taste and smell for a long time, can be subjected to heat treatment.

Basil varieties for marinades

  • "Tempter" - a variety of basil, bred specifically for marinades. Its leaves are green, large. The aroma is sharp, so that small doses should be measured in the marinade, but the smell does not disappear during the marinating. Can be used fresh or dried.
  • "Osmin" It is recommended for marinades, due to its rich, rich flavor and unobtrusive taste. Grows as a cultural or ornamental plant. Its homeland is India, but not so long ago this variety won the love of Americans and Europeans. Это очень теплолюбивое растение, поэтому выращивается либо в южных странах, либо в горшках на подоконнике с солнечной стороны.

Сорта «Гвоздичный аромат», «Рубин Каира», «Итальянский», «Эвгенольный», «Широколистный», описанные выше также можно сюда причислить.

Зеленый базилик

Базилик зеленый (the old name is sweet basil) has long been known in Mediterranean Europe (in various forms it is commonly used in the preparation of various dishes). Cooks especially appreciate the tenderness of its aroma and taste. Green varieties are varied (from bright salad to dark green shades):

    Basil Genoese (or Italian) - has a strong aniseed odor, enhances the taste. This variety is a must-have ingredient of the famous pesto sauce. Used in fresh and dried form as a flavoring for salads, put in tea and lemonade with mint. It grows well in indoor pots.

    Evenil Basil - Thermophilic (home - South Africa). Large leaves have a complex smell (mint is combined with hints of lemon, cloves and pepper). Taste - with a slight bitterness. Can grow up to 1 m. Popular as a seasoning for soups, meat dishes. Often added to the preparation of marinades, jam and jam.

    Broadleaf basil - large succulent leaves (from one bush - up to 250 g) have a bright aroma of allspice, especially rich in essential oils. This variety is actively used for making salads and added to marinades.

    Purple basil

    Purple basil it has a very strong smell and taste, contains 1.5-2 times more aromatic oils than green. It is more traditional for the Front and South Asia (from the middle of the twentieth century it spread in Europe and America). Purple basil is traditionally eaten in the form of greenery, used in the preparation of various dishes. These include:

      Common basil (Ocimum basilicum, purple Ararat) - known worldwide. The plant has a pleasant pepper-clove scent. Grade height - from 30 to 60 cm. Very unpretentious. Suitable for indoor growing. Use fresh and dry in the preparation of salads, marinades for canning vegetables.

    Yerevan Basil - second in popularity and prevalence. For the season gives 2 - 3 harvest. It has a tart taste (taste of tea and allspice). Especially well gives the taste in soups, salads, meat and fish dishes, sauces. Bright basil coloring decorates flowerbeds well.

    Basil Dark Opal (red basil) - launched in the 1950s. in USA. Popular in the world for its pepper-and-clove aroma. Fresh leaves are used to make salads, dried - included in the composition of spicy mixtures, flavored oils, vinegar. Grows well in pots.

    Tulasi (Holy Basil) - has a sharp pepper-clove aroma, taste with bitterness. This spicy basil herb is especially popular in India, it is used to cook spicy dishes, it is used in rites.

    Basil Osmin - spicy and ornamental plant. Homeland - India. Used in the preparation of salads, marinade mixture. Heat-loving, easily planted in pots.


    Among the varieties with clove odor are clove, basil, Clove Aroma, Spring mood, Dark complexion, Red Rubin, Stella, Perfection, Dark night.

      Clove Basil - small green leaves form a dense bush (height - 60 cm). Suitable for year-round cultivation at home in pots.

    Basil Clove Scent - medium early variety. The strength of the aroma is able to replace the cloves when pickling and salting. It is widely used in seasonings and sauces to meat and fish dishes. Height - up to 25 cm, ideal for pot growing.

    Color classification

    The main indicator by which distinguish varieties is color. The most important are the two colors of the stems and leaves - purple and green. After them, breeders began to deduce varieties of basil with other shades.

    The difference between green and purple plants is not only the color of the green mass.

    Delicate taste of green leaves allows you to use them while cooking desserts. Violet group of plants in this case is not suitable. It is better to add basil greens of a violet shade to dishes with meat and fish, soups, marinades. Violet mass gives food an acutate, rich taste.

    Basil with green leaves has a pleasant, delicate, delicate flavor. Many varieties are used to make refreshments. Violet varieties are characterized by a strong, strong odor.

    Spicy plant with green leaves is characterized by a special, delicate aroma and delicate flavor. The color of the leaves may be dark or light green. Apply while cooking a variety of dishes.

    The description of a grade of a basil Green fragrant. After sowing seedlings appear quickly and together. Bushes grow to 42 cm, well branched. The leaves form a large, smooth bright green color with a pleasant spicy aroma.

    A beautiful bush that will decorate any summer cottage, at the Basilica of the Thai Queen. The height of the branchy bushes reaches 50 cm in height. The leaves are large, elongated, dark green. Differs in beautiful flowering with the formation of large inflorescences of purple flowers. Plant blooms up to two months.

    At the Basil Tonus, the middle border of ripening, flowering begins 74 days after sowing. Bush height up to 58 cm. The leaves are not very large, light green color with a pleasant, spicy taste and delicate aroma.

    Decorative basil variety Basilisk can be grown in open beds as well as at home. Leaves can be cut off two months after planting. The stem grows no more than 20 cm. There are many smooth leaves, they are all small in size, dark green in color with a clove-pepper aroma.

    Strong fruity caramel aroma is characterized by a variety of basil Caramel. Ripeness comes after 32 days. The plant has a high resistance to diseases and pests, loves moisture, light and develops poorly in the presence of drafts. The leaves are large, juicy, dark green. Can be used fresh, as well as a spicy additive to many dishes.

    At basil Lemon aroma is fresh, pleasant taste and aroma. Greens begin to collect 42 days after germination. On a bush, 32 cm high, many leaves are formed with jagged edges of a light green color, medium size. The plant can be added to desserts, salads, refreshments.

    The Russian giant green belongs to early ripe grades of a basil. The variety is included in the State Register of the Russian Federation for cultivation in the garden. From the first mass shoots to ripeness two months pass. The large green leaves have a pleasant, sweetish, clove flavor and a delicate, spicy aroma. Stalk height 58 cm.

    The compact size of the bush differs variety of basil Greek. In height, it grows no more than 15 cm. From the period of appearance of the first shoots to maturation 60 days pass. The leaves are small, light green. The taste of the green mass is sweetish with a pleasant spicy, rich aroma.

    Varieties by aroma

    There is another classification of varieties of spicy grass, which differs in flavor. Each variety is characterized by its flavor, suitable for a particular culinary dish.

    Lemon basil has a peculiar aroma that resembles the smell of lemon balm, lemon or camphor. The plant is low, bush height 32 cm, the leaves are medium in size, light green in color. Leaves and stems due to the special lemon aromatic taste and smell are added to juices, ice cream, as well as during the preparation of soups, hot dishes.

    Spicy annual form of basil Clove forms oblong, jagged leaves of a light green color with a rich aroma of cloves. The stem of a bush in height can be stretched up to 57 cm. The plant decorates the dacha and replaces cloves in marinades and sauces with leaves.

    Clove-pepper varieties (Basilisk, Marquis, Dreamer) combined the taste and aroma of cloves and allspice. Spicy herb is often used in cooking.

    Pepper spicy grass is characterized by an island-sweet aroma. Some spicy herbs of this group have a subtle aroma, others have a clear, rich pepper smell. Popular varieties include: Rosie, Pepper, Aramis, Osmin, Magic of the East.

    Caramel appearance is added to pastries and desserts to add spicy sourness and sweet, fruity flavor. The varieties of spicy plants of this group include: Cinnamon, Caramel, Vanilla Flavor, Pet, Red Ruby.

    During the winter harvesting use marinade varieties of basil. In most cases, these are plants with green leaves (Basilisk, Greek, Broadleaf). A variety with purple leaves, such as the Ruby of Cairo, may be suitable. Breeders bred and a special variety for marinades - the tempter.

    The basil variety Aniseed has a strong, fragrant aroma. The leaves are light green with a silvery sheen, the stems, the buds are painted in lilac-purple color. Aniseed aroma also at Aperitif, Delight, Gourmet.

    Peppermint variety of herbs included the aroma and taste of mint and allspice. A well-known representative of this group of spicy herbs is the Greek variety.

    Menthol basil is often added during the preparation of desserts and drinks. The main representatives of this group are the following varieties: Velvet, Gourmet. Dark green leaves have an elongated shape. They have a tonic and absorbing effect.

    Vanilla varieties are mainly used in the preparation of confectionery. Differ fleshy, juicy leaves. A well-known variety of spiced basil is Vanilla Flavor.

    Plant Varieties

    The height of the growth of the stem of a bush is distinguished by short, medium-tall and high varieties of basil. This characteristic becomes decisive when choosing a variety for cultivation. If there is not enough space, then you can choose a stunted variety.

    Low-growing varieties in height are drawn no more than 30 cm: Basilisk, Gnome, Gourmet, Stella, Malachite, Velvet. They can be grown at home, on the windowsill, all year round.

    The average height of a variety of basil reaches a height of 58 cm: Ararat, Gentle Early, Delight, Greek, Karakum, Smuglyanka.

    Tall varieties of spicy grass in height reach 82 cm: Pearl of the Moscow region, Ruby of Cairo, Dreamer, Crimean purple.

    By cultivation method

    Basil can be grown in the greenhouse, in the home and in the garden. Before choosing seeds, you need to decide which flavor is preferable. If you like a strong smell and rich taste, it is better to choose a purple group of plants. Green leaves have a thinner and delicate fragrance.

    Basil is planted in open ground with seedlings or seeds. Planted seeds begin when the soil is warm enough. Landing time coincides with the first of May. The best varieties of basil for open ground are: Cinnamon, Table, Anise, Lemon, Caramel.

    The plant should be watered regularly, loosen the soil and fertilize. When the stem extends to 19 cm, the top is cut to increase the green mass. It is not necessary to allow the bushes to start blooming, otherwise the taste qualities of the leaves will be lost.

    Greenhouse bushes of basil grow faster and gain a large amount of green mass, are more protected from pests and diseases, as well as air temperature drops.

    In the greenhouse you can grow basil purple, camphor, lemon, cinnamon. To get a good harvest, you need to prepare the soil, it must be loose, light and fertile.

    The air temperature in the greenhouse is better to set at around 25 degrees. In the summer, you need to periodically air the room. Once a week plentifully water beds. Cut the tops carried out at a height of 20 cm. During the period of growth, you can add urea and an infusion of chicken manure.

    For the window sill and balcony are suitable varieties such as Marquis, Dwarf, Lemon, Yerevan, Gvozdichny. When growing seasoning at home, the main thing is to properly prepare the ground for planting. At the bottom of the tank must definitely lay out the drainage.

    Seeds deepen by 10 mm, the distance between the holes is 6 cm. The air temperature in the room should not be less than 21 degrees, the seedlings must be provided with access to light. To loosen the soil is recommended every two weeks, the soil is moistened every two days.

    By geography of cultivation

    Special varieties of basil for Siberia is not derived. It is best to choose early ripe varieties with good resistance to cold. Another feature is the cultivation of crops through seedlings. The following varieties are suitable for the cold climate of Siberia and the Urals: Basilisk, Baku, Yerevan, Anis Flavor, Tempter, Wizard.

    The best grades of basil for the Moscow region are: Velvet, Yerevan, Robin Hood, Orion, Small Leaf, Ararat. Since the weather in the Moscow region and central Russia is characterized by inconstancy, it is recommended to grow basil through seedlings. Transplanted in open ground begin in the twenties of May, when the risk of frost return is reduced.

    Perennial varieties

    Rhode basil includes more than 140 species of culture, among which there are perennials. They are grown as indoor plants in flower pots. The well-known perennial varieties of basil include: Rama Tulasi (Fine-color basil), Evengolny, Myatnolistny.

    Collection and storage

    The leaves and stalks of basil must be cut before flowering, otherwise they will lose their taste and aroma. The optimal size of the twigs for cutting is 12 cm. After cutting, the bush quickly forms new leaves, so a new crop can be harvested before the frost.

    The leaves can be dried for the winter, but only in the shade, laying one layer on a paper surface. Dried herbs retain their aroma and taste. Store dried herbs in an airtight container, away from light and moisture. You can spice the grass and freeze.

    Basil retains all its properties and taste even when salted. The green mass of the plant is cut and placed in glass containers, sprinkling each layer with salt. Then move to the fridge.

    Cooking Application

    Basil is widely used in cooking. It gives the dish a special taste and wonderful aroma. In addition, it enriches the body with vitamins and minerals, improves the functioning of the digestive organs and soothes the nervous system. Basil is often added to salads. Spicy herb goes well with all vegetables.

    Basil is a good addition to drinks and various dishes. Dried and fresh herbs are added during the preparation of meat, fish and seafood dishes.

    To make ordinary tea with basil, you will need to put black tea and fresh purple leaf of spicy herbs in a teapot. Mixture pour boiling water and leave to infuse for 10 minutes. Sugar is added to the finished tea.

    Basil is often used in the preparation of marinades. Basil branches and garlic cloves are required. Grass and garlic are placed in prepared sterilized jars. At this time, prepare the marinade from a liter of water, to which is added salt, sugar and vinegar. Banks pour boiling marinade. Spicy herb, prepared in this way, can be further added to hot dishes.


    Among the best varieties of basil you can always choose a suitable variety. Among the classic varieties are varieties with pleasant notes of other spicy herbs.

    Knowing the characteristics of planting and caring for the crop, it will be possible to grow the best varieties of basil at a country house in a greenhouse or in open beds, as well as in room conditions, on a windowsill.

    Biological culture characteristics

    Varietal description of the plant tells about its additional names - basil fragrant, camphor, mint-leaved, ordinary, fragrant. All of these varieties have a bush or grassy stem, white, light pink or purple flower stalks, collected in a brush.
    A culture with ovate oblong leaves, framed by teeth, is used to prepare the essential oil and culinary spices. There are almost no wild species in the Russian territories, but photos of travelers in social networks prove that they are found in Africa, Iran, the Caucasus, India and China.

    Main varieties

    Selecting the best varieties of basil for the site, summer residents should distinguish between its species. For planting in the conditions of the domestic climate, the following varieties are relevant:

    • spoon-shaped. The leaves are shaped like a spoon or miniature lettuce,
    • large. Branched plants with greenish toothed foliage towering 4 cm from the soil. Whitish-pink inflorescences appear in the middle of summer. Sheets taste like allspice,
    • small-leaved. Potted culture reaches a height of 25 cm. The stem is thickly covered with leaves of a grayish-green color,
    • puchkovy. Thanks to its spherical shape and small fragrant foliage, it is used for decorative purposes Stem 25 cm tall covered with small leaves.

    Listed species and varieties of culture - only the initial classification. Fragrant spice is selected for planting by the color of foliage and aroma.

    Characteristics of green basil

    Basil green began to be cultivated in the Mediterranean as a seasoning for dishes - delicate aromatic and taste indicators attract cooks. Green fragrant species is represented by crops with foliage coloring from light green to olive tones:

    • Italian or Genoese with a strong smell of anise. Leaves and stems are used as a flavor enhancer when making pesto, salad, tea and lemonade. Cultivated in ordinary flower pots
    • эвенольным. Теплолюбивый высокий (до 1 м) сорт отличается крупной листвой с многогранными ароматическими оттенками – от мяты до гвоздики, лимона и перца. Легкая горчинка не вредит вкусовым свойствам маринада, супа, блюд из мяса или повидла,
    • широколистным. Juicy foliage and yield - the dignity of the plant with the aroma characteristic of the pepper fragrant species. The leaves are used as an ingredient in salads and marinades.

    Basil varieties are attractive green aromatic indicators and the possibility of cultivation at home.

    Features of purple crops

    Violet subspecies are attractive by their sharp taste and aromatic properties. A plant native to Asia has a high content of essential oils. Culture is used as greens for salads and meat dishes. The following varieties are popular among Russian gardeners:

    • Purple Ararat. Variety also called ordinary. Culture height of 30-60 cm has an attractive aroma - pepper mix and cloves. The unpretentious look can be grown up on a window sill, using for salads, marinades and vegetable preservation,
    • Yerevan The tartness of taste with light tea and pepper notes justifies the use for dishes from fish, meat, vegetables and soups. The brightness of the leaves provides an application in the landscape design of flower beds,
    • Dark Opal. Reddish leaves with the scent of pepper and cloves decorate the window sills as a pot plant. The foliage is used in fresh and dry form - for spices, aroma oils, vinegar,
    • Tulasi, or Sacred. Spicy herb is grown on a huge scale in India. The sharp taste and characteristic bitterness reveals the taste of meat, vegetable and rice dishes,
    • Osmin. Violet shade of foliage justifies its decorative possibilities. Thermophilous cultivar grown in pots, chosen as an ingredient in lettuce and marinade mixture.

    Purple varieties are known to contain essential oils and ascorbic acid. With the first goal, the collection is carried out in spring time, and with the second - at the time of flowering.

    Clove plants

    Summer residents like Clove Flavor, Red Ruby, Perfection, Dark-skinned woman, Stella and Spring mood, which can be grown year-round. Novice gardeners are advised to purchase:

    • Clove fragrance. It belongs to the medium early subspecies, is an alternative to cloves in marinades and pickles. Low, up to 25 cm, bushes, grown in pots and selected as a composite sauce for meat and fish,
    • Red Rubin. Attracts purple-bronze oval foliage and versatility of use - in dry and fresh form. Crop harvested during flowering,
    • Darkie Dignity sredneranny culture - medicinal and taste properties. The leaves have a tart pepper taste that makes them relevant for meat, fish dishes and the preparation of balms,
    • Spring mood. Fans of spicy spices will appreciate the bushy mid-early look. Basil is thermophilic, but it is cultivated in room conditions as salad greens and an additive to various dishes.

    Clove varieties differ in a set of useful properties - regulate blood pressure, help strengthen the nervous and immune systems.

    Clove-pepper and pepper cultures

    Compactness and the possibility of growing in a pot and on the open field - the advantages of varieties Phantaser, Basilisk, Marquis. These clove-pepper subspecies attract the bright colors of the leaves and yield.
    Varieties of pepper basil - Aramis, Magic of the East, Ruby of Cairo, Rosie are chosen because of their peppermint smell. The leaves are soft, have a color from green to black and purple. Gamma tastes varied - from tart and brackish to burning, which are preserved during drying. Plants are planted in pots and pots, used as a seasoning for cheese, meat, pasta and fish.

    Lemon Basil Types

    Light notes of citrus make the following cultures attractive. Shrubs of semi-sprawling type are fruitful - up to 250 g of leaves with pronounced aromatic properties are collected from it. Greens are used as an aromatic additive to drinks, mousses, jellies, salads and desserts. Despite the rarity of the Novotype, Moscow Bogatyr, Istra and Novelty types, they are cultivated in open areas and pots.

    Caramel Types

    The priority among gardeners include:

    • Red Rubin Him Zaden. Dutch basil has the smell of caramel with hints of fruit, therefore it is an excellent flavoring for drinks, vinegars and pickles. Used in dry, fresh and pickled forms,
    • Caramel Early ripening, together with the pronounced aroma of sweet caramel, is attractive to chefs,
    • Pet A high yield crop has rich caramel notes. Natural flavoring is recommended as a seasoning for salads, preservative flavor enhancer.

    Essential oils in the composition of caramel species serve as a means for the prevention of cancer tumors, the regulation of the immune system.

    Marinade varieties

    Basilisk, Ruby of Cairo, Clove Flavor and Greek can be used to make marinades and preserve. The selection tempter was developed as a spice for pickling vegetables. Fragrant large foliage is used fresh and dried.

    A line of unusual species

    Unusual flavors to fully reveal the taste indicators of dishes. For self-cultivation, you can purchase seeds of the following types:

    • Anisovyh, which include Anisovy Delight, Anisy Gourmet, Aniseed Aperitif. Fragrant leaves have a silvery color, the inflorescences also have a silver tint,
    • peppermint. Possess taste and aromatic properties of Greek basil,
    • menthol. A popular representative is Velvet. Dark green long leaves are known for their ability to tone up the body and remove toxins from it,
    • vanilla. Unpretentious species differ in succulent leaves, which, depending on the stage of maturation, change color from green to purple.

    Unusual cultivar types are a worthy choice for Mediterranean dishes, sauces, marinades, and aromatic oils. Leaves and stems are dried, frozen.

    Height classification

    The height of the stem of the plant is divided into short, medium and tall. At the dacha according to the dimensions of the space you can land:

    • undersized basil - Basilisk, Troll. Bushes rise to 15-30 cm and are suitable for the design of tracks and flower beds. Fragrant plants are cultivated in pots, creating the effect of daylight fitolamps,
    • medium-grown crops with stems 30-60 cm high. Gentle Early, Violet, Cinnamon and Wonderful,
    • tall species that reach 60-85 cm. Representatives - Gourmet, Ruby Cairo, Russian Giant.

    Basil the Philosopher, Troll, Dwarf, Marquis, and Kinky are planted in pots in order to create a decor for living space.

    Varieties suitable for Russian climatic zones

    Basil is grown seedlings or seeds, depending on regional characteristics. Summer residents stop on the following types:

    • Greek, Ararat, Orion, Robin Hood, Velvet, which are suitable for the climate of the Moscow region. The culture is germinated under room conditions, and the ready seedlings are transferred to open areas,
    • Anisette Flavor, Basilisk, Yerevan, Wizard, Limonny, justified for the weather of Siberia and the Urals. The zoned varieties of Caucasian and domestic breeding are early maturing, they take root well on cold grounds.

    When growing basil grass in non-chernozem areas, it is worth sprouting shoots at temperatures from +20 to +25 degrees. As an earthy mixture, loose soil is necessary, fertilized with humus and rotted compost with the addition of peat and fine sand.

    Planting and Growing Algorithm

    Agrotechnical instruction is relevant for novice gardeners. Experienced gardeners will add to their knowledge of planting and caring for basil. The algorithm is simple:

    1. In open ground, seedlings are placed in early March. Sprouting in pots involves deepening the seeds by 0.5-1 cm and covering the material with a film.
    2. Saplings dive, filling the root system with a nutrient mixture based on 1 liter of water, 2 g of wood ash and 4 g of superphosphate.
    3. A week before disembarking, hardening is carried out at a temperature of from +5 to +10 degrees.
    4. Before planting, the soil is loosened, and then at a distance of 15-20 cm between cultures and 30 cm between rows they plant shoots. Basil grass takes root in the field of potatoes, tomatoes and cucumbers.
    5. The material is covered with a temporary film and pinched about the 6th or 8th leaf.

    Basil, the varieties of which are described above, takes root on chernozem, loam and sandy sesame soil.


    The best varieties of basil with a similar smell - Marquis, Basilisk, Dreamer.

      Basilisk - compact variety (from 15 cm) with small smooth ovoid leaves. Grows well in pots and open field. In cooking used in various forms.

    Marquis - green upright small-leaf variety (height - 25 cm), grows well in pots in room conditions, on window sills. The mass of one plant is 150 g.

    Peppery aroma is distinguished by camphor basil, Magic of the East, Aramis, Orion, Rosie, Ruby, Compatto, Osmin, Ruby Cairo, etc.

      Camphor basil (mint leaf) - known for tartness and brackishness, mild pepper flavor. This is one of the most common species. Height 55 - 70 cm. It is a wonderful seasoning for meat, cheese, pasta, fish.

    Ruby Cairo - black and purple variety with bright spicy pepper flavor. The taste is slightly hot. When dried is preserved. Height 25 - 30 cm. Can be grown in pots and vases.

    Among the varieties with lemon flavor - Lemon Basil, Moscow Bogatyr, Spark, Novelty, Lemon Aroma, etc.

      Basil Lemon Aroma - has one of the strongest flavors. Semi-bushy bush brings 250 g of smooth light green leaves. Greens are used to add flavor and to decorate jelly, desserts, mousses, salads and drinks.

    Lemon Basil - small-leaf variety (height - 35 cm) with lemon flavor and camphor smell. It gives the main dishes, salads and desserts a light sour flavor.


    The aroma of caramel is most pronounced in varieties of Red Rubin Nem Zaden, Caramel, Lyubimchik, etc.

      Red Rubin Nem Zaden - derived in Holland, has a rare smell of fruit caramel. The bush gives a harvest of 300 g. They flavored drinks, vinegars, used in the preparation of salads, pickles. In addition to fresh and dried, you can use frozen basil.

    Caramel - early ripe high-yielding with rare fruit and caramel aroma. Widely used in cooking as a flavoring agent.


    Basil used to make marinades is mainly green leaf species and varieties (Basilisk, Clove Flavor, broadleaf, Evenol, Greek). Also suitable for the black and purple variety Ruby Cairo. There are also specially bred varieties for marinades.

      Tempter - specially bred vegetable marinade variety with a very large green leaf and a sharp aroma. When canning and pickling used fresh and dried.

    Among the anise flavors are known - Anise Basil, Gourmet Anise, Anise Delight, Anise Aperitif, etc.

      Anise basil - One of the varieties of sweet basil. It has silvery leaves and purple stems and inflorescences. It grows equally well in indoor pots and in the garden. In the garden quickly multiplies and suppresses weeds.


    The most prominent representative of this flavor is Greek basil:

      Greek Basil - the most delicious basil, world famous for its classic aroma and peppermint flavor. Bushes (height - 15 cm) have the form of a ball of small leaves. Well grown in pots. Actively used in Mediterranean cuisine (salads, marinades, tomato sauces, etc.)


    A classic representative of menthol flavor is Basil Velvet.

      Velvet - with dark green elongated (8 cm) leaves, height - 25-30 cm. Used for pickling, flavoring vinegar and oil, drinks, can be dried and frozen. It has tonic properties.

    These varieties are used mainly in the production of confectionery.

      Vanilla Flavor - tall unpretentious variety. Juicy leaves (at a young age - green, when ripe - purple) have a savory vanilla flavor. Good susceptible to growing in room conditions. Serves as a food additive in confectionery.