It is unlikely that someone decides to dry for the winter carrots or beets, because these vegetables are in abundance in winter. Although even these vegetables can have a savory taste, if they are deprived of excess moisture and dried in a dryer or in an oven.
Most often dried is subjected to greens, eggplants, legumes, however, even potatoes can be dried. Unfortunately, vegetables with high moisture content are strongly dried and lose weight, so it can be irrational to dry them. It is recommended to dry the fruit without any signs of damage.
Before drying, vegetables are thoroughly washed, and then wiped off from excess moisture. Then they need to be cut into any shape, but up to 5 mm thick. To preserve the color of legumes, they are pre-treated with steam, and before drying the pumpkin, it must be soaked in syrup with the addition of lemon juice
How to dry vegetables in the dryer
You can decide on your own how to chop vegetables - into strips, cubes or layers. After that, load them on the dryer tiers and set the required drying time. To prevent vegetables from falling during drying, you can lay cotton fabric under each tier of the dryer.
Useful video: Drying herbs of vegetables and fruits in the dryer "Isidri"
The speed of drying of different vegetables is different, so if you decide to lay out all at once, then make sure that nothing is burnt. You can change tiers with time or better, dry one type of vegetables at a time.
We hope our advice will be useful and instead of preservation for the winter, you will make harvesting of dried vegetables. Now you know how to dry vegetables for the winter.
How to dry carrots and beets for the winter
You can dry and carrots, and beets. Without them, soup will not work. Like stew. If raw fruits are not available, there is no time for them to go to the market or to the dried store will be the way.
Born carrot small. What to do? Grate and freeze, troublesome. In the basement to hold, it makes no sense. Here, and decided to thoroughly wash, dry and cut in circles. Then she dried her crop on the sunny side of the window and put it in a paper bag. She put them in a cabinet with spices and calmed down. And in the winter I cooked soup and remembered dried carrots. Just zhmenku threw in the broth. Aroma went all over the kitchen. And small lumps of carrots bloomed with orange flowers. Since then, the land and beets. As soon as a small fruit is dug, I do it. There is time, I prepare canned dressings for borscht. Sirina S.
Canned dressings have vinegar, which not everyone likes in our time. Dried root vegetables - a win-win option. Without cans, sterilization and experiences.
How to dry vegetables
First, the vegetables should be thoroughly washed and rid of damaged areas.
Give the roots to dry out of the water.
On shredder rub vegetables or cut into thin circles. You can grate or cut into small pieces.
We pour it out on paper in a thin layer and send it to the shadow where the breeze is walking. It is impossible to substitute baking sheets or cartons with vegetables under the sun rays, the pigment will burn out. From time to time stirring.
Some, before drying, chopped root vegetables are blanched in boiling water for a couple of minutes, and only then the vegetables are dried in an electric dryer or oven. A good way to stop the fermentation and keep their color.
Cook borscht from dried root vegetables
After the broth and potatoes are cooked, add dried beets (2 tablespoons) and carrots (1 tablespoons) to 1 liter of liquid. Fry the onion and tomato cooked separately and pour it in before cabbage.
What vegetables can be dried for the winter
For the winter you can prepare:
- green and bulb onions,
- sweet pepper,
- parsley and celery roots.
Do not ignore and zucchini. Like eggplants, we cut them into circles and dry them strung on a strong thread. Vegetable "beads" hang out on the balcony with good ventilation of the room.
How to dry vegetables for the winter
Not every housewife knows that vegetables can be dried for the winter, although our grandmothers were well aware of similar methods of harvesting. But time goes on, modern harvesting of vegetables for the winter (conservation, freezing) replaces old ways, many recipes are either simply forgotten, or do not enjoy the same popularity.
Dried vegetables at home for the winter have excellent taste, they also retain all the beneficial properties. Therefore, they are practically equal to the raw vitamin content.
In order to make the drying of vegetables, you can use a regular oven or a special drying - the result will be the same.
Vegetables can not be dried in the sun, because this is not the best way to imprint on taste, besides the whole process can be delayed for a long time. Now we’ll dwell on the drying of each vegetable separately.
The most common vegetable for drying is potatoes. It is important to take a responsible approach to choosing a grade for drying - give preference only to late varieties, since they contain the most starch.
In order to avoid unnecessary waste, choose thin potatoes without hillocks and dimples. It is unacceptable to use old fruits and tubers with signs of rotting.
Next, proceed to the preparatory work: thoroughly wash the potatoes in running water, make cleaning with a special knife, remove all irregularities, cut into small straws.
In the next processing of the product, potatoes should be placed in boiling water for a few minutes, and then removed and soaked briefly in cold water. After the straw dries lay out a small layer on a baking sheet and place on the top shelf in the oven.
The temperature should be about 80 ° C, but not more. Every 10 - 15 min. you must turn the potato straw with a spatula and make sure that the drying takes place evenly.
The duration of the process takes an average of 5 to 6 hours. Ready drying should be cooled on a baking sheet and put in a cardboard box for several days. For long-term storage, it is better to use 3-liter jars.
Sun-dried tomatoes are less popular than potatoes, although if properly dried, long-term storage of tomatoes in this form will be provided.
In the selection of tomatoes should be guided by the main rule - it is unacceptable to use for these purposes overripe fruits. First, the sliced circles tightly stick to the baking sheet, and secondly, their appearance will deteriorate. Therefore, we choose slightly unripe tomatoes of small size.
We proceed to the stage of immediate preparation: carefully wash the tomatoes in running water, remove the stalks, cut them into 2 halves, put them on the baking sheet with the cut side up (to avoid juice running out). The first hours of the tomato in the oven set the temperature to no more than 60 ° C, because they have a lot of juice.
After 3 to 4 hours after the loss of the main part of the juice, gradually increase the temperature to 70 ° C. Tomato drying takes an average of 9 hours, but if necessary, it is possible to interrupt the process after 6 hours in the oven, but this process should be completed no later than the next day. Store dried tomatoes should be in airtight containers.
Beets - a unique vegetable with a huge amount of useful vitamin. It is widely used both for cooking and for the treatment of various diseases. To save the harvest until the next season, the beets can be dried like previous vegetables.
We start also with the selection of fruits: we choose only fruits with dark pulp, rinse in running water, remove heads and roots, once again wash well.
After that, the beets are necessarily boiled beets for half an hour, and as soon as we reach them, we put them in cold water for 15 minutes. (alternatively, blanching of beets can be carried out; this method of processing will minimize vitamin loss, but dried beets will be much tougher).
Then make peeling, cut into small strips and lay on a baking sheet. Set the temperature at around 85 ° C, stir every half hour with a spatula.
Drying should be carried out for 6 hours. Well dried beets will have a dark color with a slight purple hue. For storage should use glass jars.
Dried carrots are very useful and practical products that can be used for first courses, pastries and desserts.
In order to make carrots drying, we prefer soft varieties with bright color, discarding rotten and moldy fruits.
Prepare the vegetables: wash well, remove the roots and tops, drop into boiling water for 10 - 15 minutes. As soon as the carrots are cooked, we take it out and put it in cold water for 5 minutes.
Peel, cut into thin ringlets and put in a thin layer on a baking sheet. Set the temperature to around 80 ° C, do not forget to periodically stir and follow the process to proceed evenly. The duration of drying carrots is about 5 hours. It is better to store blanks in glass or tin containers.
For many amateur gardeners, there are sometimes several beds for green plants, which are often thrown away as useless. And in vain! An excellent addition to liquid dishes in the winter will be dried herbs, which will not be difficult to prepare.
We choose for these purposes only young greens. Harvesting is carried out on a clear sunny day. Cilantro, dill, celery must be washed in water, at the time when the dill is not in any way wet. Remove excess water by shaking. Remove dry and yellow leaves, cut off the roots.
If it was not possible to get rid of the ground on the leaves the first time, repeat the washing procedure. Then cut the greens in small pieces of 5 cm and lay on a trellis in a very thin layer.
For better preservation of smell and color, it is important to carry out drying at a low temperature - no more than 50 ° C, do not forget to mix the herbs every 30 minutes thoroughly. As a rule, 3 hours is enough for the grass to dry well.
Dried fruits at home for the winter
Who among us does not like to be pampered with tasty dried fruits in winter? But the purchase of such a delicacy does not always meet the expectations - poor taste, high cost, and who knows what the fruits were processed with?
Therefore, when there is an opportunity to make preparations of fruit and berry sushiks at home, then why not take advantage of this? In addition, it is possible to produce drying in natural conditions.
Apples are, perhaps, in every garden, and the drying process is very, very simple. For natural drying, you should choose the fruits of solid varieties. We start with the preparation process: we select mature fruits with no signs of decay, wash them thoroughly in running water, remove leaves, cuttings and nails, then cut them into small thin pieces.
You can lay out on anything - on the boxes, baking trays, trays, thick cardboard. The layer of apples should not be very thin to avoid rotting.
The drying process should be carried out in the sun for 2 weeks. If the weather deteriorates outside, the drying must be hidden under the shed. Apple drying is stored in fabric bags or cans with mandatory air access.
Among the most popular ways of preparing apricot for the winter, drying takes a leading position, because dried apricots have a unique taste and aroma, and its use in cooking is irreplaceable.
We turn to the preparation process: carefully select the fruit without signs of rotting, remove unnecessary garbage, wash in running water and lay out to dry in the sun.
It is better for this purpose to spread a clean cloth on the ground and arrange apricots on it, because it is better to drain the water, and the fruit will rather dry out. Before starting the treatment of pits, you need to make sure that the fruits are exactly dried, otherwise the probability of rotting during the drying period is high.
Divide the fruit into 2 parts and remove the bones, try not to damage the integrity of each of the halves. We spread out a thin layer on trays and we expose on the solar place.
Apricots should be dried only in hot and sunny weather, otherwise your efforts will be in vain - drying will deteriorate. Drying time is usually from 10 to 14 days.
The beneficial properties of dried grapes are high in thiamine (vitamin B1), sodium and iron. Raisins are particularly popular in many diets and in order to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in the body.
To prepare grape drying, one should prefer seedless varieties. The selection is rigorous: rotten, moldy, overripe and spoiled grapes and should get into the total mass of drying.
Selected berries are poured onto the grill with a thin layer and set in a sunny place. Every day we turn the berries for better drying.
Drying time takes from 2 to 3 weeks, if the weather did not spoil the heat - a little longer. To determine if the raisins have dried, just press them a little. If juice appears, then the raisins are not sufficiently dry.
For drying, you can pick up almost any kind of cherry, but preference is better to give the most sweet - they have much more sugar, which means they are tastier and will be stored longer.
We choose berries only moderately ripe, with no signs of over-ripeness and rottenness. To do this, carefully sort out the cherries, select the best berries, remove cuttings and leaves, reject the wormy, thoroughly wash in running water.
For better drying and removal of excess air from the pulp, we recommend balancing. To do this, lower the berries in boiling water for a few minutes. After this procedure, the process of dividing into 2 parts of each berry will be easier, do not forget to also remove the bones.
To do this hard work you need to be extremely careful - it is important to preserve the integrity of each half, because otherwise we will have cherry jam.
As soon as the separation stage comes to an end, place the berries on a tray and set it to dry in the open sun. It is best to choose a place with good ventilation and illumination, because only so can the berries dry quickly. To protect our insect drying we will surely cover the trays with 1 layer of pure gauze.
Dry Rose Hips
About the benefits of rose hips, perhaps, everyone knows: a very common remedy in the period of colds, containing a baggage of various vitamins and trace elements. To dry rose hips do not need to make a lot of time and effort, and the benefits of such tea in the winter will be incomparable.
We wash the berries in water, remove the leaves and twigs from the common heap, discard the soft and spoiled fruit. We spread on a baking sheet with a thin layer and sent to dry in an oven at a temperature of 90 - 100 ° C.
Stir with a spatula every 30 minutes. Ensure that the drying occurs evenly. To determine the willingness of wild rose, you need to press on the berry with your fingers. If it fell apart, then the drying process can be completed.
Drying berries, vegetables and fruits is a great way to make winter preparations in which all the vitamins will be stored. You can dry almost any fruit from the garden, it is only important to follow all the necessary rules.
Drying the harvest from your own vegetable garden will always be distinguished by excellent taste and useful properties, which cannot be said about the purchased ones. Therefore, use in advance the gifts from your garden and vegetable garden, make high-quality workpieces for the winter, eat diversely and correctly, then your health will definitely not let you down!
Advantages and disadvantages of this method
Drying is a very popular way of storing and stocking up supplies in the winter. However, this method has both positive aspects and disadvantages.
- long storage of fruits
- saving space when storing the finished product,
- most of the preservation of beneficial properties and vitamins of the fruit
- simplified procurement process, compared with salting or seaming,
- the possibility of long-term storage of dry fruits and vegetables (compared to canned),
- ease of use of dried products, the preservation of its taste and nutrients,
- the ability to dry those fruits that are not suitable for salting.
The disadvantages of this process are:
- significant loss of weight and volume of the fetus in the finished form - they lose up to 90% of their mass,
- some loss of vitamins and beneficial properties of the product - the fruit loses up to 30% of its minerals and vitamin C,
- due to the loss of moisture, the fruits become dry, sometimes hard, which complicates the process of their preparation in the future,
- the drying process is not suitable for all vegetable fruits,
- the difficulty of preserving dried products - often mold spoils the fruit.
Which are not recommended
Traditionally, the drying method is not used for those vegetables that are more than 85% water, since when they are prepared in this way they lose a lot of mass and the productivity becomes very low. These include:
- iceberg lettuce,
- White cabbage,
Preparing vegetables for drying
Сушить лучше всего сезонные продукты — в это время они мало подвержены химическим обработкам и сохраняют максимальное количество витаминов и полезных минералов. При заготовке урожая со своего участка, лучше всего использовать 2-3 сбор овощей — такие плоды приобретают сочность и ярко выраженные вкусовые качества. Лучше всего использовать крепкие, здоровые плоды, без повреждений кожуры или гнили.
- Potatoes. Vegetable should choose late varieties, since it is in these species is the largest amount of starch. It is desirable that the fruit of the potato was with a thin skin, smooth, without eyes and dimples - so will not decrease performance. Tubers are thoroughly washed in cold water, then the fruit is peeled. Before drying, peeled and cut portions of potatoes must be kept in boiling water for 3 minutes and then cooled in cold water. Potatoes boiled in this way retain their nutrients. Now the potatoes are ready to dry.
- Beet. Fruits are selected with a bright, rich color - this indicates maturity and juiciness. Beets are washed in cold water, then boiled for 25 minutes. After the beets have cooled in cold water, they must be removed from the skin and cut into portions to dry.
- Carrot. The best fruits for harvesting are even with bright color. Preliminary training is carried out, as for beets, only the cooking time is reduced to 15 minutes. In order to preserve as much nutritional properties of this fruit as possible, it is better to use a blanching method for its preparation.
- Cauliflower. For the proper drying of cabbage is to remove all the leaves, stalk and damaged areas. Divide the inflorescences into small areas, wash them well and lower them for 10 minutes in salt water (this will save the product from caterpillars and aphids). Then you need to blanch the fruit in hot water for 25 minutes. The cauliflower is now ready for drying.
- Celery and horseradish. The roots are well washed, allowed to dry. Rub on a coarse grater and carry out drying in the appliance. Dried horseradish need to grind into powder. It is noteworthy that in the process of drying horseradish loses its aromatic properties by 70%.
- Red hot pepper. This fruit is dried whole, and already at the ready, dried pepper, seeds and peduncles are removed.
- Green pea. For harvesting, sweet pea varieties are used. As a preparation of peas, the method of blanching in hot water is used — 1–2 minutes for small peas, and 3 minutes for large ones. After this procedure, the peas are rapidly cooled in cold water and allowed to dry. Now the product is ready for drying.
- Greenery. Spicy herbs such as parsley, spinach, nettle, dill, basil, mint, arugula, etc., are the most favorable material for drying. Before the greens need to rinse in cold water, removing dust and dirt from the leaves. It is advisable to use young shoots. Roots and damaged leaves must be removed. Clean grass is cut into pieces, laid out on the surface and dried naturally.
- Asparagus. Vegetable must be washed in cold water, cut off the hard parts, allowed to dry. After that, the pods are strung on a string - now the asparagus is ready for drying in the oven.
- Swede. It is better to choose the fruits are round, with thin skin, with a uniform color of the peel. Purified swede is also boiled in boiling water for 10 minutes, and then proceed directly to its drying.
Blanching and steaming
Blanching - This method of heat treatment of the product, in which there is the elimination of the specific odor and bitterness of the vegetable. The process consists in short-term immersion of the fruit in boiling water (boiling usually lasts no more than 10 minutes). Steam treatment is the process of drenching products with hot air released from boiling water. This procedure is carried out to disinfect the product and destroy unwanted bacteria.
Blanching and steaming are compulsory procedures before drying for most vegetables (the only exception is greens). This treatment retains the beneficial properties of the fruit, cleans them of dust and harmful chemicals (if the product was treated with chemical poisons or poison from parasites). Also, such procedures soften the fruits, making them more pliable when drying, and help to preserve the fruit more vitamins during subsequent drying.
Popular drying methods
If earlier housewives used mainly ovens and the sun to dry vegetables and fruits, today modern equipment provides a lot of electric ovens and dryers, which in the shortest possible time will allow to prepare the product, preserving its useful properties. Let us consider in more detail each method of preparation.
In the open air
This method has more disadvantages than advantages. First of all, not everyone has the opportunity to dry products in the open air - vegetables laid out in a row require a lot of space and a flat surface, otherwise the drying process cannot be carried out. Also, with this method of harvesting, there is a high probability of damage to the fruit by midges, bees or birds - the secreted juice of the product is bait for insects.
It is difficult to keep track of the process of drying - a strong scorching sun can turn the juicy flesh into charcoal, and a sudden rain - completely spoil the product. Do not forget to stir and turn the fruit, for their uniform drying. The main disadvantage of the method is the duration of the process - up to 4 days, which significantly reduces the quality of the finished supplies. This method is well suited only for greenery - the sun and fresh air will quickly turn the grass into a dry powder. It is important to ensure that no moisture gets on the dried grass. It is also not recommended to spread the greens under the scorching rays - in this case, the grass and leaves will quickly burn. It is best to shade suitable shade in hot, dry, windless weather.
In the electric dryer
This method is the most convenient and modern - in a special device you can dry the fruits in a few hours. In addition, electric dryers evenly warm the fruits from all sides, thanks to the function of air convection. There is a rule that speeds up the process of harvesting vegetables in an electric dryer: you need to lay the fruit skinned down, and the pulp can be slightly pressed down to speed up the process of excretion of liquid.
As a rule, electric dryers for home use have small dimensions, which facilitates their transportation and operation. In some models, an additional grid with a fine mesh is provided - it is intended for drying of particularly small fruits, such as peas, cherry tomatoes, etc. As a rule, the optimum temperature when drying in the appliance is from +40 ° С to +60 ° С.
The way to dry vegetables in the oven also has its advantages and disadvantages. This method is called artificial. It became popular because of the availability of available appliances - practically every hostess has ovens in the kitchen today.
In order to use the oven as a dryer, it is necessary to cover the baking sheet with parchment paper, arrange the harvested vegetables on it, place the baking tray on the top shelf and turn on the oven to the minimum temperature. The door must be open. After 25 minutes, you need to move the vegetables down and dry until done.
Please note: if the blanks in the oven continue to produce juice, then they have not yet dried. If the fruit is broken during compression, this also indicates the unavailability of supplies.
The disadvantage of this method of preparation is the need to dry the vegetables in several approaches - if you dry them in the oven at once, they will look like crackers. Therefore, usually vegetables are cooked in this way for 2-3 days. For processing it is recommended to use an electric oven.
In the microwave
Drying vegetables in the microwave is also gaining popularity. The main trick of this method: the thinner the fruits or vegetables are sliced, the faster they will dry. The disadvantage of this method of processing is the impossibility of harvesting a large number of fruits - so this method is convenient only when you need to quickly dry a small amount of the product.
Electromagnetic oscillations in a microwave oven allow you to quickly heat and dry the product, which makes this method the fastest of these. In addition, the faster the vegetable material is processed, the less useful vitamins have time to “evaporate” from it. It is noteworthy that if the fruit is sliced with a thickness of more than 2 cm, the microwaves, passing into it, lose up to 50% of their capacity - this significantly reduces the speed of cooking supplies. Also processing of the product with microwaves is carried out evenly, unlike drying in the oven.
How to store dried vegetables at home
The main rule of storage of the finished dry product: eliminate moisture and moisture ingress into dried vegetables. Therefore, the best way to store is considered to be the preservation of the dried product in glass jars with a resealable lid, or in food-grade plastic containers. The main thing is to ensure good sealing of the container in order to prevent the ingress of air (particles of moisture in the air can disturb the quality of the dry product).
Please note: it is impossible to keep dry products in a plastic bag - this is how mold is triggered. Do not forget to periodically review the supplies, throw away the spoiled fruit, dry, if necessary, softened vegetables.
Having considered various options for drying vegetables for the winter, it can be said that harvesting the product in this way is a very convenient and low-cost way that will provide the whole family with useful vitamins and trace elements during the cold season. Adhering to the basic rules and recommendations on the harvesting of vegetables, you can without any efforts and particular hassle prepare dried vegetables at home.
Drying fruits and vegetables
Drying is considered the oldest method of preserving the crop, and it has not lost its relevance for many years. We also offer you to practice drying vegetables and fruits, perhaps after that you will have a desire to completely abandon other methods of harvesting products for the winter.Photo source: ru.depositphotos.com
What vegetables and fruits can be dried?
The answer is very simple - almost everything. The exceptions are fruits that contain a lot of water, like watermelon, cucumber, radish, varieties of large tomatoes, cabbage.
The most popular for drying are: greens, tomatoes (only small varieties!), Hot peppers, bananas, kiwi, potatoes, carrots, onions, cauliflower, beets, mushrooms, garlic. It should also be borne in mind that the taste of the fruit after drying will be different from the original. But in some cases it is for the better, for example, dried garlic and onions give aromatic piquancy to dishes, losing their true spiciness.
It is recommended to dry vegetables and fruits during their peak yield, as there is a small probability that they have undergone chemical treatment, and in addition, during this period they contain a maximum of vitamins and minerals. It is necessary to choose beautiful, juicy fruits without drying with pronounced taste qualities for drying.Photo source: ru.depositphotos.com
Preparation of products for drying
Before you begin the process of drying, vegetables and fruits should be thoroughly rinsed in cold water, and some, like cauliflower, soaked in salted water for an hour to get rid of worms. After that, if necessary, remove excess leaves, tails, roots.
The next stage of preparation is blanching, that is, you need to dip the product in boiling water for about 10 minutes. It helps to prepare the vegetable for drying, to preserve all the nutrients in the product, as well as relieve it of dust, bacteria and chemicals.
In the end, the vegetable or fruit should be peeled, if necessary, and cut into portions.Photo source: ru.depositphotos.com
Storage of dried fruits and vegetables
After drying, vegetables and fruits must be placed in a sealed container, for example a jar with a lid or food container. There should be no air to the products, because the smallest amount of moisture will lead to damage to the fruit. Plastic bags are not suitable for storage, because it promotes the formation of mold.
Dried fruits and vegetables are safely preserved for about a year, but one should not forget to periodically check them, removing spoiled ones.
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We dry up vegetables and fruits - prepare for the winter!
The most common and useful method is drying in the sun. This method of drying was used in ancient times, when there were no special devices for drying products. Until now, drying in the sun is for many the main method of drying vegetables for the winter. In addition, almost all vegetables and fruits undergo a similar drying. This method consists in the fact that the products are dried in the sun during warm and dry weather in an environment that does not contain dust, where foreign substances and insects that can harm the workpieces cannot penetrate.
Often, drying in the sun is combined with drying in the oven, while in the sun the fruits are dried or dried.
For drying in an oven, an electric oven or an oven in a solid-fuel stove is suitable. The use of the oven in the gas stove is possible only when the heated volume of the oven is completely separated from the burner. This is necessary because the combustion products of gas adversely affect the quality of the prepared products and, in addition, contain large amounts of water vapor, which is also undesirable when drying vegetables and fruits. When drying, the water contained in the products evaporates from them and turns into water vapor, the content of which in the oven increases with time. Therefore, it is necessary to remove the air saturated with water vapor. To do this, in most cases, it is enough just to open the oven door.
When drying fruits in the oven, it is necessary to control the temperature (not higher than 45 degrees) with a thermometer and regulate the degree of heat supply. Most often, the supplied heat is reduced by interchanging the gratings with products to a different distance from the heat source or reducing the access of heat to the preparing fruits.
Drying on central heating radiators, i.e., on batteries, is possible only during the heating season, and only small pieces or greens can be dried on them. To do this, make a special grille, suitable in size to the top of the radiator, or use a simple newspaper. Such a grille is placed directly on the radiator, and a newspaper or other paper is placed on special stands. Lay out the pieces of fruit or vegetables from above.
For drying large quantities of fruits and vegetables, you can use a small home dryer, which can be built independently. Such a dryer will facilitate and accelerate the drying of products. It is especially convenient to use if you harvest a lot of dried vegetables every year.
Home dryers can be heated by the warm air coming from an ordinary gas stove. To do this, simply put or hang it over the stove.
The dryer box is made of metal plates (tin), while the front wall is removable, as it serves to install the gratings on which the fruits will be dried. In the bottom plate of the box it is necessary to make dampers, with the help of which the heat influx will be regulated. And in the upper plate of the dryer holes are made through which excess air and water vapor will escape. Moreover, if the dryer is heated due to the warm air coming from the stove, the heat influx can be regulated by moving the dryer to different places of the cooker.
In the oven, stove or dryer, it is recommended to dry large fruits, such as cauliflower, apples, pears, plums, tomatoes. If you want to dry the green parts of the plant, greens or small pieces of the same fruit, then drying is best done in the sun.
For drying vegetables in the open air, an open and well-heated area is picked up. The ground is usually sprinkled with gravel, thus avoiding the accumulation of dust on the product. At the site set canopy, under which you can hide vegetables in the rain. Dried vegetables on screens, on trays consisting of thin strips or on plywood sheets, in which holes are drilled for ventilation. They are installed on a low pedestal built of boards and slats (so as not to put directly on the ground). In the process of drying, the condition of the product must be monitored - the vegetables are gently mixed and the spoiled pieces are removed. Another method of natural drying is hanging on the ropes, stretched in the open area of the sun or under a canopy.
You can make special trays and sieves. . To do this, they make a frame of wooden planks, and wooden planks parallel to each other, spaced 3-4 cm, are nailed to it. You can also stretch a stainless steel metal grid with holes of 2–8 mm to the frame to make small pieces of fruit or greens do not fall out of the box. In order for the net not to sag under the weight of the fruits placed on it, several wooden planks should be attached to the bottom of the frame, which will support the metal net. Such frames can also be made from ordinary rods, wire or plastic. Если вы сделали плетение из проволоки или нержавеющей стали, то решетку необходимо накрыть тканью, сделанной из натуральных волокон (но ни в коем случае не синтетической), или бумагой, чтобы сохнущие плоды не касались железа и не впитывали его запах.
Однако при изготовлении подобной сушилки следует помнить, что железные сита и рамки не годятся для сушки. Если же вы все-таки решили использовать жесть, то при сушке ее лучше всего покрыть пергаментом или тканью из натурального волокна. В этом случае ткань будет впитывать влагу с нижней стороны сохнущих плодов. Also on sale you can find a special tin with small holes, designed for drying fruits. This tin is called perforated.
There are some rules that will allow you to dry products so that they are suitable for further use.
Not all fruits and vegetables can be dried, but only some of them, as well as basically all types of greens (parsley, dill, lovage, celery, mint, sage, etc.). For drying, ripe, fresh and healthy vegetables and fruits are suitable. You can also take a bit spoiled, but in this case, you should remove the entire damaged part so that the rest of the fruit does not disappear during drying. Selected for drying products are well washed, peeled, if necessary, remove from them the bones, the core, the remnants of the inflorescences and the stem. The tops and herbs are also washed, the hard parts, such as the stem, are removed, and then dried on a sieve or on a cloth.
Drying is recommended at a temperature not higher than 45 degrees.
Most often, storage of dried fruits is made in wooden cans and boxes, for example, in mailboxes. It is best if such a container is tarred inside or coated with varnish, which will be harmless to the stored fruit. In this case, moisture from the outside will not be able to get inside the box. Fabric and cellophane bags should also be stored in places inaccessible to moisture. For this fit food cabinets.
If dried foods are stored in the pantry or in the basement, which is often damp, then the condition of the fruit should be checked regularly. In order to preserve the fruits for a long time, you should fill the container in a dry and cool room.
So that dried fruits and greens do not take up a lot of space during storage, you can tamp them in a prepared container. This is especially done with tops of plants and greens, as they are fairly easily broken, with the result that a large amount of dry grass can be placed in a small jar. It should not be afraid that the greens can spoil. This will not happen to her. However, it is not recommended to put slices of vegetables and fruits tightly, as they can break, and during long storage crumble into very small pieces.
It often happens that various insects, especially moths, infest in a container with dry fruits and herbs. Its larvae can devour and pollute dried fruit. Therefore, it is very important to periodically inspect the fruit.
If you notice that your dried products have been attacked by insects, they should be searched and damaged, and the intact ones should be used as soon as possible. Moldy and insect-eaten fruits are not recommended for use, so as not to cause harm to their health.
Dried vegetables are perfect for preparing various soups, borscht, broths in winter. Since inedible parts, such as peel and seeds, are removed from vegetables before drying, these products do not need to be pre-cleaned and sorted before they are consumed.
In addition, dried vegetables retain nutrients and even the smell of fresh vegetables, so during the winter months they are an excellent supplier of vitamins and minerals to the human body.
Dried herbs also contain many nutrients and are useful in preparing various dishes. Since dried greens are more compact, they can be crushed and, having thoroughly tamped, placed in a small jar in capacity. Each of the dried herbs is best kept separately from the others, in a jar with a tight-fitting lid. And you can take greens only with a dry spoon or dry hands to prevent moisture from entering the jar.
Mature corn can not be put in the oven, because there is not too much excess water in it. It can simply be cleaned of fibers, take out the grains, wash them, let them dry and put into fresh air, even under the sun, for 2-3 days. Well dried corn should become wrinkled and firm. You can store in any container in a dry place.
For drying ripe pumpkin. It should be washed, cut, remove the seeds, peeled, and the pumpkin flesh cut into cubes, triangles or medium-sized straws. After that, put the pieces of pumpkin on a baking sheet or wire rack, put it on a soft sun. To pieces dried out evenly, you must periodically turn them over to the other side. In the sun pumpkin should lie for 1-2 days. After that, it is removed in the shade and dried for another 3-4 days. Store pieces of dried pumpkin in wooden boxes lined with paper in a dry place. You can also strung dried pieces on a wire or thread and hang it on a wall in a dark and dry room.
Store dried tomatoes is recommended in wooden boxes lined with paper. But you can not push too many tomatoes into the box, otherwise they may become moldy.
Housewives with experience usually dry celery, parsley and parsnip roots. But for some reason, the roots of coriander and dill are not dried. In addition, some collectors, living not in very spacious city apartments, therefore, not being able to store beets and carrots in their natural form at home, they also dry them. The only drawback is that a significant amount of vitamins is destroyed during drying in the open air of the above-mentioned root crops.
To dry the roots of celery, parsley and parsnip, clean them from the remnants of the earth, wash, dry, scrape or knife the top thin layer, and then finely cut into slices or strips of 3 millimeters thick. Then put the pieces of root crops and roots (each species separately!) On a sieve or tray, covered with clean paper, and dry, placing, based on the weather, on the battery, on the balcony or just on the windowsill, turning it daily. Or put the pieces on the thread with 0.5 cm intervals between them and hang it directly in the room or in the air in the shade and away from the direct rays of the sun.
By the way, out of 100 grams of fresh root vegetables you will get 14-15 grams of dry.
When the roots and roots dry, put them in storage, and for each species prepare a separate jar or bag.
By the way, in the same way you have the opportunity to procure dried spinach or sorrel.
The main point when drying herbs: the sooner it is dried, the more it preserves the natural aroma, taste and color.
After the greenery dries, rub it into large powder by hand, arrange each species separately in glass jars with lids or paper bags and store in a dry place. Unfortunately, dried herbs partially lose their characteristic aroma and taste, so they should not be stored for too long. However, their flavor and taste acquire a different sound, which is also not bad. Greens and herbs, properly dried and stored, can be added to dishes (both in the first and second) for a few minutes before the end of cooking.
To prepare the spicy mixture, rub between palms or fingers, then sift and mix 1 tbsp. a spoonful of dried green celery, the same amount of dried green parsley, 1 tsp dried herbs of savory, the same amount of dried green basil. Then add to them finely worn spices: half a teaspoon of fennel seeds, two bay leaves, one pea of black pepper. Store the mixture in a tightly closed jar in a dark place.
Drying berries and fruits, as well as vegetables, is one of the most common methods of canning. Dried fruits and berries become several times easier due to loss of moisture. They well maintain storage and transportation.
Such varieties as Antonovka, Anis, Borovinka, Titovka and some others are best suited for drying apples. Apples can be dried peeled and not peeled from the skin and core, but they must be cut into circles, slices or halves. Dried apples contain 40–45% sugar and up to 24% water, while in fresh apple water up to 85%.
Pears are dried in whole, halved or quartered. Such varieties as seedless, bartlet, green Ilinka and others go for drying. They remove the pears for drying from the tree, which are still hard when they are just beginning to ripen. Dried pears contain up to 36% sugar and up to 24% water.
Dried apricots are of three kinds. Apricots are apricots, dried together with seeds. Dried apricots - apricots, dried in halves. Kajsa - dried whole apricots, from which the stone is removed. Dried apricots contain up to 46% sugar and 15 to 20% moisture.
The best for drying plum variety is Hungarian. Dried Hungarian is recommended for some diseases of the gastric system. Other varieties of plum are also used for drying, including cherry plum and blackthorn. The sugar content of dried plums varies depending on the variety. It is believed that, on average, the sugar content of dried plums does not exceed 39–41%, and their moisture content is from 12 to 25%.
Very tasty dried figs. It is one of the most nutritious dried fruits, because it contains up to 55% sugar.
Raspberries are dried to 10% moisture content. In dried cranberry moisture, only 5% remains. Dried cherries contain from 15 to 20% moisture. Peaches are recommended to be dried without stones, until the moisture in them remains 15–20%, and the sugar in dried peaches is 51%.
In addition to the listed fruits and berries, grapes, blueberries, cherries, black currants, etc. are also dried. From dried dried fruits, you can make magnificent compotes, which are most often made from dried apples, apricots and grapes. The best compotes of dried fruits are also composed of dried pears, prunes and cherries. Dried fruits retain to a large extent the vitamins contained in fresh fruit.
Dried berries should be stored in glass jars, tightly closed with a nylon or glass lid, or in well-closed wooden boxes. Containers with dried fruits should be stored in a dry, cool, well-ventilated place, the air temperature in which should not exceed 10–12 ° C.
Watch the storage of dried berries and fruits. If dried fruit becomes wet and sticky during storage or will be covered with mold, it is better not to eat them.
Berries to sort, wash, dry. Place on a baking sheet and leave in a dry warm place for 6–7 days, then transfer to jars, close with plastic covers.
- For drying, you need mature or overripe cherries. It is necessary to sort the cherry, getting rid of spoiled fruit, wash, dry and remove the stalks, but do not remove the bones. Drying should be spread out on a baking sheet or covered with parchment paper grid, put in the sun or in the dryer, as well as in the oven at a temperature of 35-40 ° C. Dry so that the bones can be removed from the cherry.
Place on a baking sheet and leave in a dry warm place for 4–5 days, then transfer to jars, close with plastic covers.
- It will take mature and slightly lay down fresh plums. They need to sort, wash, cut in half, remove the bones. After that, spread out on a baking sheet or grid, covered with parchment paper, and dry in an oven or dryer at a temperature of 40-50 ° C. Drying repeat several times. Properly dried plums should be as soft as dried prunes.
Properly dried sweet cherries should be soft, but when pressed, juice should not flow out of it. Dried sweet cherry is put in the dough instead of raisins.
Properly dried blackcurrant should be slightly firm and wrinkled. Store dried currants recommended in glass jars in a dry place.
After drying, apples can be stored in jars or wooden boxes, keeping them in a dry place.