The ephedra are valued by designers and private gardeners as a decorative inclusion in landscape compositions on home gardens. This is due to their ability to maintain a beautiful view year-round. But, like other plants, they tend to hurt. What are the diseases of conifers and their treatment, the pests of conifers and the fight against them is an important aspect to understand when cultivating these representatives and wanting to keep them healthy.
Coniferous tree general information
At the cottage can grow any kind of hvoynikov. This culture is particularly prevalent in regions with a cool climate, but the southern inhabitants are gradually joining the number of adherents of needle decoration. Despite endurance to external negative factors, conifer can be with different adaptations to environmental conditions.
In an unusual environment, conifers are difficult to take root, wither and lose stamina against various infectious diseases. Therefore, in the first 5-6 years after disembarkation it is required to provide them with comprehensive care. If the tree looks unhealthy, despite all the actions taken, it is important to find the root cause. These may be infectious and non-infectious pathologies.
Noncommunicable diseases of conifers and the fight against them (photo)
Sources of non-infectious lesions are:
- defective planting material
- violation of the integrity of seedlings,
- underdeveloped rhizome,
- nutritional deficiencies
- ultraviolet burns or nighttime cold snaps in early spring,
Such illnesses do not apply to nearby landings and are amenable to adjustment with proper care. After corrective procedures, coniferous springs are treated with biological means in order to raise their immunity. Suitable drugs: Kornevin, Zircon, super Humisol, Silinplan.
Spring burn does not lead to mass destruction, but in the absence of appropriate measures, leads to a reduction of coniferous plantations. It is detected by a change in the green color of the needles to brown and cracking of the bark, which arise due to prolonged direct exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Often this happens in early spring, in clear weather, when the snow has not melted.
Because of the scorching rays and the constant wind, the needles lose moisture, and the roots that have not woken up after wintering are not able to give the plant strength to recover. In such a situation helps spraying water planted in the fall of seedlings. Protection of conifers from pests and diseases of this kind will serve as a shelter for the winter with non-woven material, like agryl.
Permanent twilight in the winter period inhibits the processes of photosynthesis in plants, which allows them to endure cold without loss. True, there are varieties of virginian juniper that sleep even with abundant solar flux: Skyrocket, Blyualps. They have ephedra covered with a protective wax coating of gray tint.
A tent against spring and winter burns will serve awnings or canopies, constructed to counteract direct sunlight. Or, during planting, they pick up a place where the sun is active only in the mornings and evenings. To reduce the reflection of snow cover, they spread mulch under the trees, in the form of: peat, leaf compost, humus.
Sometimes, successfully overwintered seedlings, suddenly die in the spring. The reason is no later than planting time, but injury in the process of the roots. A fresh look of pine needles in winter is explained by the fact that it does not emit moisture in the cold. With the onset of heat, intensive moisture release begins, and the roots are still asleep and do not share their reserves. Therefore, it is necessary to transplant the transshipment method, with the seizure of a clod of earth.
Infectious diseases of conifers and the fight against them, photo
This kind of problems arise when there is no protection of conifers from pests and diseases. Infectious pathologies include those that are naturally or artificially transmitted to adjacent plantations. We reveal the common diseases of conifers and their treatment.
The list of active diseases of coniferous representatives includes:
- fusarium, root rot,
- different types of rust,
- infectious drying of the shoots
Presented diseases of conifers and their treatment are universal for fruit crops, including conifers. However, there are specific, inherent only coniferous, for example, Schütte (snow, brown, present).
Shutte: brown, snowy, real, ordinary
Brown shyutte inherent: ate, juniper, pine, cedar, thuja, cypress. The pathogenic fungus overwinters under the snow flooring, after which it begins to progress. In the spring, brown needles are seen on the trees. On the affected needles, there is a web-colored curl of gray color - mycelarii. Through a magnifying glass, you can see the small black specks, which is the fruiting body of the fungus.
At risk are young plantations, with a weakened immune system. On juniper, the first signs of the disease appear in the first summer months, and not in early spring. As a result of the intensive spread of the mycelium deep into the cortex, the needles lose their nutrition. It changes color, dries and crumbles. Spores of the fungus by the wind are transferred to healthy trees.
The cause of the development of the present and ordinary schutte is the fungus Lophodermium seditiosum. In the first case, the individual needles darken and fall off, in the second case they turn yellow, during the warm period they acquire a more saturated color and do not linger long on the shoots.
Snow shutte is caused by spores of the fungus Phlacidium infestans. Do not die even at sub-zero temperatures under the snow. With the first spring heat, they begin to grow, moving to the coniferous component, changing its structure. As a result, the green color changes to a dirty brown.
Methods to counteract the diseases of conifers and their treatment (photo):
- for planting select species with high resistance to the disease,
- young saplings are isolated from coniferous adults,
- in late autumn, they collect the fallen leaves, take it out of the site and burn it,
- regularly carry out autumn sanitary pruning, removing dead branches,
- during the summer, they are alternately treated with copper-containing compounds and fungicides (Abiga-Pier, Scor, Hom, Chistotsvet).
An external treatment of conifers in spring from diseases and pests for prevention is done. When a lesion is found, repeat the procedure 3 times, with an interval of 5-6 days. Oriented to the dosage indicated in the attached instructions to the drug. Effectively additionally spill the root space with fungicidal solutions: Gamar, Fitosporin.
Fusarium and root rot
Fusarium, as well as root rotting, is attributed to the fungal disease of conifers and their treatment (photo below) is of the same type. The causative agent is the harmful microorganisms that originate and function in soil mixtures. At risk are some coniferous representatives: spruce, pine, larch, fir. Signs of damage: modification of needles, with the change of green to red, followed by a fall. Only pine needles turn yellow. Distribution starts from the center of the crown. Recently planted seedlings begin to rot from the roots, which leads to their sudden death.
The reason for such anomalies is excessive moisture, caused by abundant watering or close groundwater flow. Therefore, it is recommended to plant at elevations or lay drainage and loosening compounds: peat, humus.
Recommended protective measures in case of occurrence of this disease of conifers and its treatment:
- break through in the early spring around coniferous plantings channels for removal of thawed snow,
- dig up the ground to provide oxygen access to the roots,
- watered with a solution of basezol (cartocid).
This disease affects mainly pine and larch. Manifested in the form of rusty spots on the needles in the initial stage, then the fungus grows, and forms a mass formation of spores. The peculiarity of this phenomenon is that pathogenic fungi pass the embryonic stage on other, nearby plants, and then are transferred by wind or rain to conifers.
- spruce spit - on the wrong side of spruce needles dust-like, dark-brown formations are formed. Shoots are twisted, cones open,
- pine pinwheel - affects the pine, characterized by deformation of the branches, followed by the death of the apical part. At the initial stage, it captures the crowns, then moves to the bole. In the tissue gaps are marked reddish-lemon mycelium. The bark swells, the wood is partially exposed. The disease cannot be cured,
- pine rust pine needles - pathogens are several pathogenic fungi. Spores multiply in the spring on the needles. Bubble rust in addition to the crown, captures the trunk and old shoots. In the cracks there are bright orange growths,
- juniper rust - goes to conifers from neighboring fruit and berry plantations: currants, pears, apples, quinces. In the spring, microorganisms develop on their leaves, and at the end of summer they migrate to juniper. With the descent of snow found yellowed needles, covered with a jelly-like substance. The affected parts of the plant are compacted, followed by the death of the skeletal composition. The root collar area swells, the bark dries and falls off,
- larch rust - a pathogenic fungus settles on larch, which leads to yellowing of the crown.
Prevention of the manifestation of signs of coniferous diseases and their treatment is carried out by treating them with fungicidal preparations two or three times: Strobe, Exp. Adhere to the interval of 17-20 days. Effective watering with the same solutions, with the inclusion of cartocide. To do this, each ingredient is diluted separately, according to the instructions. After checking for compatibility, mix.
Biatorella difformis microorganism, which belongs to the conidial group of the Biatoridina pinastri. Localized and actively develops in wood damage, causing necrosis. The provocateur of the rectal cancer is the fungus Nectriacucurbitula.
Signs of diseases of conifers and their treatment, drugs that use:
- Biortella cancer - the bark acquires a brownish tinge, cracks and dries out. In place of dead wood, ulcers stretched in length form on the trunk. If nothing is done on the affected areas, prominent resinous tumors protrude in which the pathogenic fungus parasitizes. Against this background, the needles turn yellow.
- Nectrium cancer - is characterized by multiple buns sticking out on the surface of the trunk, with a diameter of up to 2-3 mm, brick-colored. Gradually they wither and darken. Coupled with necrosis of the bark, there is yellowness on the coniferous cap.
Cancer treatment will be the emergency sanitation of the bushes with copper-containing substances and the shedding of the soil with fungicidal solutions. Plant debris accumulated in the root zone and remaining after pruning is systematically collected, taken out of the garden and burned.
Altenariosis, mold and infectious shoot drying
Thuja and juniper at an early age often suffer from similar diseases. Characterized by black, grayish-brown spot and loss of decorative appearance. The reason for the development is the density of the planting, when there is no access to light and oxygen.
Drying of the shoots is caused by several fungi and, according to external symptoms, is similar to rust. The infection is localized in the ruptures of the bark and fallen needles.
How to prevent these diseases of conifers and their treatment, drugs:
- In spring and autumn, the affected and excess branches are cut off, thereby thinning the crown. Sections are treated with garden bar or oil paint, for disinfection.
- During the summer season, they pollinate the ephedra Bordeaux liquid or fungicides: Chistotsvet, Early, Abiga-Peak. An alternative will be tank mixes, which are enough to process the plants three times during the warm season.
Conifer pests and control
Predator, as well as deciduous representatives, tend to suffer from harmful insect raids. Some specimens are the greatest threat against which obligatory processing of conifers is necessary in spring:
Fake guards are no less dangerous. Different from their counterparts in the structure of the shell - does not grow together with the body. Therefore, when removing a pest by hand, it remains in place, only its tip is separated.
The ephedra lose their decorative appearance, turn brown. Another sign is a large accumulation around wasps, which are attracted by these beetles.
It is important to know, than to treat the ephedra in the spring from pests and diseases that they cause. If you ignore this item, the conductive function of the plant is disturbed, which leads to inevitable yellowing and shedding of the coniferous frame. Soon the trees die, because they do not have the ability to recover, due to lack of nutrients.
Treatment of conifers in the spring from diseases and pests
It is recommended to treat conifers from diseases and pests as soon as the last snow has melted and the air warms up to +6 ° C. It is important to have time to do this before the revival of the kidneys. A thorough inspection of the conifers after wintering for the presence of substandard branches, followed by a total sanitary cleaning (cutting), is an integral part of preventive measures. This procedure can be started earlier - in early March.
Only after that it is decided how to treat coniferous trees in spring from diseases and pests. If last year there were already problems with the health of the trees, and in the spring there was a clear symptom of the beginning of the disease, then antifungal pollination is mandatory. Otherwise, not only is the decorative appearance of the conifer lost, but the immunity is also undermined. In the absence of proper treatment, the plants inevitably die.
No less relevant is the issue of parasitic attacks of pests that cause significant damage to coniferous plantings. Spring disinfection with specific insecticides creates a protective barrier for their settlement in the summer. It is advisable to carry out the procedure before the onset of consistently warm weather, with temperatures ranging from +10 ° C and above. Such conditions favor the appearance of insects and their intensive reproduction.
How to treat the ephedra in the spring from pests and diseases
Successful cultivation of coniferous representatives in the garden plot is impossible without creating comfortable conditions for them:
- planted in a well-lit area, with protection from the midday heat,
- regularly fed,
- plentifully watered, but without bogging the area,
- mulch pristvolny space: peat, pine needles sawdust.
How to treat coniferous in spring from diseases and pests:
- Spark (Double Effect or Golden)
Above are insecticides of the contact spectrum. Pre-prepare the solution according to the instructions on the package and the indicated dosages. Spray outside the crown and other parts of the plant after sunset or early in the morning. Repeat the procedure after 12-14 days. After that, they observe in order to prevent new mass insect attacks in time.
A good effect is shown by feeding with complex formulations at the beginning of summer. Plants favorably relate to compounds containing magnesium: Magbor, Kalimagneziya.
Diseases of coniferous trees.
Non-communicable diseases of conifers
The causes of noncommunicable diseases can be the following:
- poor quality planting material
- mechanical injury of the seedling,
- undeveloped root system
- lack of certain nutrients
- sunburn by the spring sun, when the roots are not yet functioning in cold soil,
- spring frosts causing cracking and dying of the bark,
- excessive moisture (even stagnant water) of the root system and others.
This type of "disease" is not transmitted to other seedlings and can be corrected in the process of caring for plants. After all the procedures, it is useful to process such seedlings and adult plants with biological preparations. At the same time, plant resistance to adverse environmental factors and care errors will increase. Of the drugs, it is possible to recommend root, super humisol, zircon, immunodeficiency, siliplant and other modern safe for human and animal health biologically active drugs.
Infectious diseases of conifers
Infectious diseases are diseases that can be naturally or artificially transmitted to other plants. Such diseases include soil fungi and bacterial diseases (fusarium and root rot, Alternaria, mold, infectious drying of branches, rust, cancer and others). The above diseases are peculiar to fruit and other broadleaf crops and can affect conifers. But conifers have diseases peculiar only to this type of vegetation. This is shyutte (brown, snowy, present). Возбудителем болезни являются некоторые виды грибов-аскомицетов, внедряющиеся в древесину хвойных и вызывающих гибель растений.
Обыкновенное (детское) шютте сосны. Вызывается грибом Lophodermium seditiosum. © I.Sáček
Mycelium of brown fungus fungus develops under snow at a temperature of + 0.5 * C and above. After the snow disappears from the conifers, the brown one is visible, affected by the needles disease. On the diseased needles, a black-gray cobwebby patina — an overgrown mycelium — is clearly visible. If you look closely (through a magnifying glass), black dots are clearly visible - the fruit bodies of the fungus-pathogen. Especially strongly affected are young plants with a weakened immune system after transplantation. On juniper shyutte appears on the old needles later - at the beginning of summer. The needles get yellow-brown coloring or brown coloring. By the end of summer, dark points are visible at the tips of the needles - fruit bodies with spores of the fungus. Best of all, the fungus develops in humid conditions on weakened plants. Mycelium quickly fills the wood, cutting off the possibility of obtaining food needles. The needles turn yellow, dry, almost never fall off. Bags with ripe spores quickly spread in the air and infect healthy needles. Fallen snow creates the necessary conditions for wintering. With the springtime slow melting of snow, the disease gets an opportunity for further rapid spread of the disease.
The present and snow shütte strikes various types of pine. The harmful fungus develops at a temperature of about 0 * C under the snow. During the spring and early summer period, the fungus grows rapidly, affecting wood. In the autumn spore-bearing bags ripen. The affected needles turn yellow, becoming red-brown. Trees, especially young ones, are dying.
Protection of conifers from Schütte
Positive results provide comprehensive protection measures.
- On dacha and other sites planted coniferous species resistant to damage to Schütte are planted.
- Young seedlings should have significant isolation from mature trees and conifers.
- On the summer cottages in the fall, the fallen needles of the needles are necessarily cleaned, the diseased and dried branches are cut. Waste is incinerated.
- During the summer, with the preventive and curative purpose, the ephedra process 1-2% Bordeaux liquid or other copper-containing preparations, alternating them with fungicidal preparations (Scor, HOM, Abiga-Peak, Pure Color, lime-sulfur decoction and others). With the preventive purpose they carry out spring processing, and the diseased plants are treated in 10-15-20 days with preparations in doses according to the recommendations. It is possible to carry out the treatment of conifers with tank mixtures, having previously checked the preparations for compatibility. The preparations treat not only plants, but also the soil. Good results are achieved by tillage of the soil and the aerial part with biofungicides phytosporin, gamair, and planriz.
First of all, we take away the underground or accumulated water after melting snow and torrential rains, water so that oxygen can flow to the roots. We treat the soil and the root system of plants. We spill the root system with a solution of cartocid or foundation. When processing plants in the dacha plots, especially if there are small children in the family, it is better to use biological products (biofungicides) - phytosporin, gamair, alirin, planriz. From them it is possible to prepare tank mixtures and process the crown and the soil under the plants at the same time. Biological products are effective in systematic processing throughout the season of warm weather.
The fungus mainly affects larch and pine. In the spring on the needles appear yellow-orange spots. Later mycelium forms spore-bearing bags. Needles covered with brown spots. The peculiarity of rust damage is that the individual stages of development of the fungus take place on various herbaceous plants and, under successful circumstances, affect coniferous crops (wind, wet weather). Bubbly rust can affect the trunk and perennial branches of a Weymouth pine and Scots pine. In the ruptures of the cortex appear yellow-orange spots - the mycelium with spore carriers.
Juniper rust. © Littleinfo
Altenarias, mold and infectious branches drying out
Altenario and gray mold most often affect the aerial parts of young juniper and thuja. Manifests a disease in the form of gray-brown or blackish spots. Shoots lose decorative. Upon closer examination it can be seen that the spots consist of fungal conidia, which serve as a source of infection of plants. Sick plants with thickened, unventilated plantings, low light. Infectious desiccation of branches is caused by several mushrooms and in appearance resembles rust. The infection persists in cracks in the bark and plant debris of unclean needles, weeds, and other half-rotten garbage.
- Sanitary pruning of diseased and thickening branches. Dilution of the crown and aboveground parts of plants. All cuts must be treated with garden pitch, copper sulfate solution or oil paint to prevent further infection of plants.
- Starting from early spring and throughout the warm period, systematic spraying in 20-30 days with Bordeaux mixture, preparations of abigak-peak, soon, pure color. You can prepare a tank mixture of the above and other recommended preparations and sprinkle the plants. When using tank mixes, the number of treatments can be reduced to 3 per season. Like the previously described diseases, altenariosis and mold, infectious drying of the branches is well removed by the above-mentioned biologics.
The article presents the main, most common diseases of conifers ornamental plants most often planted in the dacha and house adjoining sites. It must be said that all fungal lesions are cured well enough with biological preparations. Therefore, at home, look for ways to protect trees from infection with drugs that do not harm the health of the family and pets. The article lists some of the most frequently used chemical and biological products. They are not a disease dogma. Every day, the chemical industry offers new, more effective drugs. You can choose the ones that are suitable for your coniferous species grown at home.
Causes of occurrence of diseases, or major errors in the care of spruces
The main diseases of the spruce are caused by fungi, infections or pests. The most common causes of disease of conifers are improper planting, adverse weather conditions and care, the consequences of which we have to face:
- ground with stagnant water
- high acidity of the soil
- high density of plantings, resulting in insufficient air flow and reproduction of fungal,
- lack of light
- increased air humidity
- too deep landing
- lack of or excess fertilizer
- a strong decrease in temperature leads to the death of young plantings,
- water scarcity is a well-known factor leading to the loss of plantings.
The main diseases ate and methods of their treatment
Consider what are the diseases of conifers and how their treatment is determined. Spruce diseases are most often caused by fungi and ground pathogens. Among all the diseases that ate has, the tree is most susceptible to schütte, fusarium, ulcerative cancer. Meanwhile, diseases of conifers are not so terrible, so we recognize them and treat them according to the following tips.
Shutte (ordinary)The lesion is caused by several species of Lophodermium pinastri mushroom. There is a disease in the month of May. If you noticed the browning of the needles ate, this is shyutte. With further development of the disease, the lower part of the needles is covered with shiny black outgrowths of a dotted or dashed character, which increase in size with time. Subsequently, the plant dries and dies. A particularly dangerous disease is for young plants (up to 10 years) and seedlings.
The causes of the spread of fungal diseases of spruce are warm weather and heavy rainfall (dew, drizzling rain).
Real shyutteThe source of this schutte is the Lophodermium seditiosum mushroom. As a result of this disease, needles prematurely fall off in spruce. Saplings in nurseries and weakened young plants are affected. During spring and summer, the needles turn brown and crumble.
In the autumn, small yellow dots appear on the needles, gradually they increase in size and become brown in color. The fungus is stored in the fallen blackened needles.
The causative agent of brown schutte, or snow mold, is the mushroom Irpotrichia nigra. The disease occurs in several stages: infection with spores of fungi begins in the autumn, the development of the disease occurs in winter under the cover of snow at temperatures above 0.5 ° C. The disease manifests itself in the spring with the descent of snow.
The symptom of the disease is the appearance on the brown necrosis needles of a black-and-gray bloom, similar to a spider's web, and with the passage of time the point fruit bodies of the fungus. Thin branches of trees die, the needles do not crumble for a long time. Young trees, saplings and self-seedlings are subject to the disease. Increased humidity of the air, dense planting of plants, depressions in the area of growth are the main factors contributing to the ontogenesis of fungi.
The detonator of the snow shütte is the mushroom Phlacidiumin festans, which has got accustomed well in heavily snowed regions. The development of the disease begins under snow at temperatures around 0 ºC. Infection occurs gradually: from needle to needle, and then from tree to tree. With the snow melted, the affected needles and branches become brown and die. Sick trees are covered with gray films of mycelium.
In summer, the needles change color from red-red to light gray, begin to crumble, but do not crumble. In the autumn black dots appear on the needles. Spores of fungi from these points are carried by air currents to spruce trees that have not yet been affected before the snow falls. Light drizzle, warm snowy winter, prolonged spring, snow fall and melting in the autumn have a positive effect on the spread of mushrooms.
Fusarium (tracheomycous wilt)
Tracheomic wilting refers to viral diseases caused by a soil pathogen. Plant root system is affected: the roots turn brown and begin to rot. Mycelium of the fungus damages the sap flow system, as a result of which beneficial substances do not reach the ground part of the plant.
Due to poor nutrition, the needles become red, then brown color, crumble, and the tree dries out and dies. Coniferous seedlings are susceptible to the disease under wet cold atmospheric conditions. Symptom of the disease is a gray-white coating on the needles. The causative agents of the disease persist in dead plants and spread with seedlings or affected soil.
Fusarium can not be treated, after a few years the plants die. To prevent tracheomycosis, it is necessary to plant healthy seedlings, carefully remove infected parts of plants. With the manifestation of the primary signs of infection, they are treated with biologics or fungicides.
Rust diseases of fir trees occupy a special place among all diseases that conifers are prone to, and their treatment should be aimed at eradicating the mushrooms Pucciniastrum areolatum, Coleosporium, Cronartium ribicola, which also affects deciduous plants. Ate most susceptible to diseases such as rust of the cones and rust of needles.
The rust of the cones is caused by the mushroom Pucciniastrum areolatum. A sign of the disease is the appearance on the inner walls of the cones of round dusty brown etsiopustul. Subsequently, the buds open wide and hang without falling off, the seeds lose their germination, the branches are deformed.
The cause of rust rust is the mushroom Coleosporium. Fungal disease develops in the spring, hitting the needles. Yellow vesicular etsiopustuly are placed on both sides of the needles. If the plant is severely affected, the needles change their color from green to yellow and fall off.
If rust has appeared on spruce, it must be dealt with, as with other fungal diseases. It is also recommended to cut diseased branches and make microfertilizers.
A gray rot carrier is the mushroom Botrytis cinerea. The disease affects the terrestrial parts of young plants. The branches are gray, brown or black. Covered with conidia that look like a layer of dust. Plant re-infection continues during growth.
As a result, trees weaken and lose their appearance. Most often, the disease is common in areas with thick plantings, poor sun and breathability.
Protective measures to prevent gray rot - this is the early removal of affected branches, decontamination of cut sites with a solution of copper sulfate. If you think how to treat conifers for diseases as a preventive measure, Bordeaux mixture “Skor” is a good remedy.
Spleen cancerSpruce ulcer cancer causes the fungus Lachnellula pini. A sign of infection is the appearance of tar on branches. Over time, depressed dead areas appear in the tarred area, then the crust covers the cracks, and closed or open sores are formed. Thin branches die without the formation of ulcers.
Open sores can be dry and wet. The dry ones look like small cocked corns of brown color. Wet like saucer on a short leg, which can be seen above the bark. The ulcers are covered with brown hairs with an orange, round hymenial layer. Plants affected by cancer, weaken and dry.
The main measure in the fight against cancer is watering under the root of fungicides, processing with copper-containing drugs, timely cleaning of dry branches, processing of cuts with garden pitch. Burning infected branches and needles.
Diseases ate: disease prevention
You can prevent the diseases of trees and their treatment by conducting preventive measures. Adhere to the rules of proper planting and placement of trees, trim and remove dried and infected shoots and needles from the site in time. Be sure to disinfect stem sections. For planting, use healthy and resistant seedlings.
Diseases mainly affect young, not matured trees. To increase the resistance to infection by sores, microelements are used, complex fertilizers that increase the plant immunity. Remember, the plant should receive moisture moderately. Preventive spraying will help to avoid disease and death of the plant.