General information

Levkokkorina: landing and leaving in an open ground


Herbaceous perennial shrub levkokorina attracts the eye with its small snow-white, sky blue, lavender and gently lilac flowers. Plant blooms discreetly, but expressive and very beautiful. In the middle lane, this flower is rarely found in flower beds, because it comes from Chile: a country known for its hot and dry climate. Levkokorina blooms long enough compared to other onion crops. This feature allows the plant to be widely used in the preparation of unusual flower arrangements and in the design of interior design.

Plant description

The plant belongs to the onion family. Fluffy flower stalks with small umbrella-like inflorescences develop from small bulbs, about 20 mm in diameter. The bulbs of the plant are covered with brownish scales. Levkokorina leaves have a noticeable groove, the arrow of the leaves reaches no more than 30 cm. An interesting feature of this plant is the unusual structure of its bulb. Not one but several inflorescences develop from each onion, each of which is represented by touching flowers, therefore you can quickly make a luxurious luxurious bouquet from levkokorina.

In order to grow a plant in the garden, you need to remember its southern roots. Culture is heat-loving, afraid of cold winds and drafts. It is necessary to plant a plant on elevated, open, well-lit areas. The vegetation of the plant should not obscure anything: near levkokorina should not grow tall trees with lush foliage or large household buildings.

Luxuriously blooming in a warm climate, levkokorina is a very light-loving culture. And this flower is quite demanding of the high fertility of the land on which it grows. In this connection, before planting the bulbs in the open ground it is necessary to introduce organic fertilizers. Used humus should be mature, fresh compost can damage the vegetation of the plant.

Features of cultivation in the open ground

Levkokkorina will surely please with its delicate flowering if the following conditions of planting and care are met:

The bulbs of the plant are rather small, they do not tolerate low temperatures, therefore levkokorina does not hibernate in the open ground.

In the cold season, dug bulbs are placed in dry cellars. To save the plant you need to roll it with a thin layer of sand or peat.

Watering small bushes should be stopped at the time when the plant stems die off. At this time, you need to dig up the onions and take them to a previously prepared place for storage.

Bulbs are dug in August, and spring planting of overwintered and selected bulbs occurs at the very end of May or early June.

In open ground, it is possible to grow a variety of levkokorina Purpurea without digging the plant for the winter. For this, it is necessary to provide a good shelter for the bulbs, which is usually made from a deep layer of wood chips of peat chips.

Soil for planting plants, you must choose sandy or loamy, beforehand the earth must be well loosened. So that the root system of levkokorina does not rot in summer rainy weather or under the condition of heavy irrigation, you need to take care of an effective drainage system in advance.

The depth of the bulbs during planting depends on their diameter. In any case, experts do not recommend to bury the bulbs too deep.

Under the described planting conditions, a grassy bush will bloom in the garden area in mid-July.

Growing at home

Levkokkorina In Landscape Design

Experienced gardeners recommend growing levkokkorina in large tubs, so the plant will bloom much faster. To do this, the bulbs need to be planted in a moist soil in mid-February. Watering it is unnecessary. In March and April, the culture develops indoors. When the weather stabilizes and finally warms up, the flower can be transplanted into the open ground, paying special attention to the preservation of the earthen coma.

For planting at home it is necessary to purchase a pot with a diameter of about 15 cm. At the same time, ten bulbs can be planted in one pot. Pot for planting should be deep. The long roots of the plant should have enough space for their development. If you do not plant the bulbs in a flower pot in March, most likely the plant this season will not bloom. But there will be daughter bulbs.

It is necessary to place a plant on well lit window sills. After flowering of the culture, it is necessary to provide it with a period of rest with the presence of a dry substrate; watering during this period should be stopped.

While watching the video you will learn about the bush.

A very beautiful exotic plant levkokorina can decorate with its delicate flowering a cozy house and a favorite garden. Grow it is not difficult, for this you need to take into account the simple rules of cultivation and care.

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Description and photo

A representative of the family lily, has a bulbous root system. The height of the flower reaches 75 cm, the number of flowers of the inflorescence is 10-12. The range of colors of levkokorina is very wide, and there are varieties capable of flowering in two contrasting shades. For the Russian summer resident, the specific smell emitted by the plant is very familiar, resembling garlic.

Since the main enemy of the presented decorative culture is cold temperatures, the main rule of its agrotechnical cultivation in the conditions of the Moscow suburbs is the observance of the temperature regime and the rules of winter maintenance.

Ways to grow in the suburbs

Levkokkorina mainly grown in greenhouses, greenhouses or under the open sky - in mobile, bulk containers.

Preparation begins at the end of January - February, when root bulbs are placed in containers with moist nutrient soil. Their close, dense arrangement is allowed, but the depth of the container must meet the requirements of the roots - at least 20 cm. The surface layer of the substrate should not exceed 2-3 cm. The container is covered with a sheet of paper or food film to avoid moisture loss, and placed sunny place.

The germination of levkokorina similar to the formation of the gladiolus germ. With the harmonious content of the "seedlings" the plant will be ready to move to a permanent place by mid-May. Capacity with sprouted bulbs is placed in open ground conditions, or the plant is removed with an earthy clod and moves into the ground. The main thing is to avoid the threat of night frosts that could lead to the death of a flower.

Popular species and varieties

All currently known varieties of levkokorina can be grown on the territory of our country only if it is dug out in the autumn and the grave contents of the bulbs.

  • Levkokkorina iksidovidnaya - thin-stemmed plant, gently rising up in the frame of bluish-emerald thin leaves. The height of the flower reaches 35-40 cm. Flowering begins in the period from the end of May to mid-June, has a rapid character and is accompanied by a strong release of fragrant essential oils.
  • Levkokkorina purple - a taller variety, having, as a rule, a height of up to 45-50 cm. It has a bright color, combining the purple color of the petals and the bright red, distinguished middle. Each shoot holds from 2 to 7 flowers, the diameter of which is able to reach 6 - 8 cm.
  • Levkokkorina Andes - like purple, reaches a height of 50 cm. The color of the petals is light purple with a dark red center and small green eyes. Dissolves in the middle of summer. At the time of flowering loses leaves. It tolerates weak cooling, down to -12 ° С.

Preparing the landing site

The capricious Chilean beauty needs warmth, sun and a suitable chemical composition of the soil. A richly illuminated place should be protected from sudden gusts of wind that can break the thin stalks of a flower.

If levkokorina is planted in the ground, then it is critical to perform all measures to ensure the necessary level of drainage - the plant does not tolerate wetlands.

Sandy soils that have been pretreated by pouring manganese solution are preferred. This measure allows you to stop the development of some common infections that can harm bulbous crops. If the garden plot does not allow to observe all the necessary measures for growing such a capricious culture, it is advisable to grow levokokorina in containers filled with a suitable substrate, purchased in specialized stores. This will greatly simplify the task for gardeners with no experience in floriculture.

The most significant criterion in the implementation of the landing levkokoriny - compliance with the temperature. If spring is not happy with the rapid temperature stability, the flower is placed in a greenhouse, greenhouse, or simply greenhouse.

Planting scheme involves the location of sprouted bulbs at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other. Under the conditions of open ground, looseness is more important, which must be constantly maintained. When transplanting a plant, one should transfer all available clod of earth to facilitate the adaptation period. After placing the seedlings in the ground, the surface can be pulverized with well extinguished humus, which can serve as a barrier to the drying out of the soil. Additional soil enrichment with mineral fertilizers is not required. After transplantation, watering is carried out with warm, settled water. You can use a weak, pale pink solution of potassium permanganate.

When placing the plant in a permanent place, one should be attentive to temperature fluctuations, and, if necessary, resort to means of protection - covering material and similar garden assistants. Watering levkokoriny - moderate, and is produced only by settled water during the growing season. At the end of flowering, watering is stopped altogether, and if the flower is in a container, they slightly moisten the soil, immersing it in a state of rest.

Unacceptable moisture, leading to rotting bulbs. Additional fertilization is usually not required, as the flowering of the plant is transient, and after it the need for an additional source of nutrients diminishes.

Pests and diseases

The most dangerous diseases of levkokorina, like those of other members of the bulbous family, are rot (white, gray). Since the peculiarity of the root structure is such that it cannot develop under conditions of stagnant water, if the irrigation regime is not observed or the marshy land of the planting develops rot, capable of destroying the flower as soon as possible. Therefore, the initial choice of a suitable place is very important, as well as careful attention to the level of soil moisture, which can serve as preventive measures against the occurrence of diseases.

Despite the natural protection against insect pests, namely, a sharp spicy smell resembling garlic, in the dry summer levkokorina can be attacked by aphids. At the first manifestations of the pest's vital activity, it is necessary to treat the plant.

Preparing for the winter

Prepare the plant for transfer to the winter maintenance should be immediately after the end of flowering. After the stem is completely dry, the onions do not water, and they are still in the ground for a week or two. Then make a careful digging and placing in the calcined sand - when storing the bulbs in the conditions of grave contents. If levkorina is planned to be transplanted into a pot and grown indoors, you must follow the rules for the germination of seedlings, as in the spring.

If the rest period was sufficient, levkokorina will delight the gardener to bloom again.

Features and appearance of the plant

In nature, there are about 20 species of flower. You can meet them in the Chilean Atacama desert, which is considered the most "dry" of all deserts. Recently, most successfully cultivated in the gardens of the locals and around the world.

The plant behaves like a typical "desert dweller". Most of the time the bulbs sit quietly underground. As soon as it rains, the levkokorins produce several flower stalks, each of which blooms a bouquet of delicate flowers. You can describe the plant as follows:

  1. The bulbs are small in size. Their diameter is about 3 cm.
  2. Leaves up to 30 cm tall, narrow. They appear after flowering. In the center of the plate is clearly expressed groove.
  3. Peduncles up to half a meter high. From each bulb of them appears on a few pieces.
  4. Inflorescences, umbrellas. Each blooms up to 12 pieces of fairly large flowers.
  5. The color of the buds depends on the variety. They can be white, lilac, purple, and also combine several colors. Some of them are presented in the attached photo.

If the cultivation of levkokorina occurs in the conditions of the room, the flowering period falls on the middle of spring, more precisely on its second half.

Attention! In the middle lane can not be left for the winter in the garden of levkokorina bulbs. They do not tolerate low temperatures. The exception is the Purpurea variety. This flower is able to winter under a safe cover.

How to grow a flower in the room

For the cultivation of levkokorina in the room will suit a pot of clay of small diameter. In such containers, the bulbs grow very well and the plants bloom beautifully. The substrate in which it is planned to land levkokoriny, has to be nutritious and friable. To avoid stagnation of water, from which the plant suffers greatly, the bottom of the pot must be covered with expanded clay. Bulbs planted close enough to each other. Up to 10 can be placed in one small pot.

The most suitable time for planting is the beginning of March. If you plant a plant later, flowering can not wait. But in the later periods there is a plus: a lot of children form on the bulb. The plant is very light-loving, so the cultivation of levkokorina should be carried out on sunny windows. At the same time drafts are unacceptable.

After withering of peduncles leaves appear. At this time, the bulbs are stored nutrients. Right now you should start preparing levkokorina for a long rest. To this end, immediately reduce watering and stop fertilizing. Store material in a dormant period in a completely dry substrate.

How to grow in the garden

Growing levkokorina quite possible in the gardens of cool areas. The main thing - be sure to dig up the bulbs for the winter. Landing site should be well lit, without cross-winds. Shading is also unacceptable, so there should not be near shrubs and trees with a dense crown.

Garden soil for growing levkokorin requires loose, fertile. When digging it is desirable to make compost. You can use and manure, but always rotted. Adding fresh plant may die.

The best time to plant levkokorin in the garden - the end of May. Frost is not terrible, and the natives of hot deserts will feel great.

Planting bulbs is very simple:

  1. Shallow holes are made in the chosen place (up to 4 cm).
  2. Spread onions. Sprinkled with a layer of soil.

After the work done, it remains only to water the flowerbed regularly and wait for a violent flowering.
Very often flower growers practice growing levkokorin in tubs. They are planted there in late February. As a result, by spring a fully formed plant is obtained, which is transplanted into the garden with the onset of heat.

Council In order for levkokorina to tolerate transplanting from the tub into the ground, it should be carefully removed along with a clod of earth from the container.

The flowering of this interesting bulbous in European territory can be observed in June. In August, the bulbs are dug and stored.

Lovers favorites

In European gardens, levkokorina is a rare visitor, but flower growers from all varieties emit a few particularly loved.

  • Levkokkorina Andes. Lilac-purple flowers. At the base of a bright cherry spot and a tiny light green eye. The variety is very thermophilic, so in places with a cold climate it is grown in containers.

  • Levkokorina Blue Ocean. The petals of this variety are blue-violet with a white base. Blooms in June, lush bouquets. Good for landscaping balconies and loggias. Looks great on rock gardens, as well as against the background of conifers. To make the composition brighter, it is recommended to plant onions 15-20 pieces.
  • Levkokkorina Spotlight. Very interesting species. The flowers are blue-purple with a wide white and narrow burgundy stripes. At the base is a bright, light green eye. Petals slightly corrugated. Best suited for landing in rockeries.

Growing levkokorina - is not at all difficult. The plant does not require any special relationship. With all this, delicate bouquets can easily become the main decoration of the garden.

Clematis - planting and care in the open field

Clematis - planting and care in the open field

Регулярно с клумбы, где растет клематис, требуется вырывать все сорняки. Поскольку это растение забирает всю влагу и питательные элементы себе. Наилучшим вариантом будет засеять специальной травой все клумбы, где растет клематис. Такая процедура поможет уберечь куст от вредных растений, а также спасет его от сильного солнца.

This is the beauty that you can grow in your home.

Clematis reproduction

Clematis can be propagated both in spring and autumn. There are several ways of breeding:

To grow clematis from seeds, you need to use seeds from a new crop. They should go through. Larger ones are sown in January, because they germinate very long. And those that are sown smaller in March, from these seeds, the first sunrises appear in two weeks.

For sowing, a special substrate is prepared, you can make it yourself, for this you need sand, peat and earth in equal parts. Everything is mixed and the soil for planting is ready.


Clematis need to fall in the fall. One of the main conditions is the age of the bush, it must be at least five years old. From the shoots, cuttings are incised, on which there must be two developed buds. Then, each process is treated with phytohormone (can be Phytosporin).

After this procedure, the cuttings are buried in a container with earth and lowered into the basement. Thus, they are stored until spring. During storage, you need to monitor the condition of the earth, it must be constantly wet. And the temperature is preferably about 0 ° C. In late February, transferred to a room with a temperature of 10-15 ° C.

Clematis can be diluted in summer with green cuttings.

In March, the first small shoots will appear. Containers with cuttings carried out in the greenhouse. When the seedlings reach 10 cm, pinch off the lower leaves to give rise to the growth of the roots. In the open ground seedlings planted in mid-May.

Air slips

This breeding method is the easiest.

First you need to dig up the soil around the bush. Then level the soil and make a 6-cm-deep groove in it. Put the escape chosen for withdrawal into the groove and press it in several places with ordinary wire. Next, take a bit of humus mixed with wet soil and sprinkle escape from above. The tip should remain on the surface.

This method should be used in the fall. Therefore, before winter, the place where the otvodok, you need to properly warm.

In the spring, the insulation is removed. When the sprout appears, it will be necessary to mulch the entire soil that is around the layer. When September comes, the already grown seedling can be dug up and planted in a permanent place.

Levkokkorina landing and care 3978

Levkokkorina: landing and care

Europeans do not often deal with levkokorina. This is easily explained by the harsh climate in winter, which the plant in the conditions of open ground is simply not able to endure without loss. In such climatic zones, levkokorina is grown as a Kadochnoy plant. You can also apply to them the technique of growing gladiolus - to pick out onions for the winter and then put it in storage in a cool room. If this is not an option, leucocorins are also grown as a room culture, taking care of them, by analogy with gloxinia. Then during the rest period the plant should live in dry, mild conditions.

Levkokorina something akin to Zefirantes, more precisely, its South African varieties for leafless wintering. But if we draw parallels, the plant has the most similar features with freesias.

If you live in latitudes with a European climate, the plant blooms in the spring - in its second half. Although some species can boast a later flowering, lasting from May to June.

Landing levkokorina

For planting this place must be sunny, reliably protected from the cold wind and even more drafts. The soil is preferable to sandy, loamy and necessarily well loosened. In addition, there must be good drainage. Otherwise, if the summer turns out to be rainy, nodules may rot.

Levkokkorina is characterized by extreme light-loving. In addition, the plant is really demanding on the indicators of soil fertility. Given this fact, the introduction of rotten organic matter into the soil is encouraged before planting levkokorina.

In the process of planting, the depth depends on the diameter of the onions, but in any case, fluctuations ranging from 2.5 to 4 cm are permissible. For their planting, you will need a pot of 12 to 15 cm in diameter, in which you can plant no more than a dozen onions at a time. The depth of the planting tank must be sufficiently large, otherwise the long root system of levkokorina will simply have nowhere to develop to its full potential. If you do not plant onions in early spring, the flowering most likely will not come this season - but the development of daughter onions will develop. If the planting dates are in order, flowering will come in normal for the plant time. That is why flower growers who pursue flowering prefer tub and balcony cultivation of culture, bringing it to the open air only after stable warming.

The vegetation period is short enoughtherefore, it is very important to provide the onion bulb with a full dormant period as soon as the plant fades. If you grow levkokorina as a room culture, you can do it in compulsory order. Gradually nullify all irrigation and fertilization, or abruptly stop them as soon as the flower stem dries out. If levkokorina grows in open ground, stop watering and allow the foliage to dry, after which the onion is dug out and sent to storage. And you can dig it in August, to plant in May next year.

You shouldn’t plant out earlier, otherwise the question of return frost remains open. To store onions, you will need dry peat or sand, as well as a dry, cool room.

How to grow levkokorinu

How to grow levkokorinu

In Europe, levkokkorina is grown mainly as a pot culture to decorate balconies and verandas. In the northern areas, the plant is given a place in the greenhouse. Unfortunately, the capricious princess can die even from the slightest cold.

If the climate allows you to plant levkorina in the open field, choose a sunny or pritennaya, protected from drafts place, it is possible on a small hill, so that the nodules do not rot from moisture stagnation. The soil should be loose, drained, fertile, preferably fertilized with compost or rotted manure (fresh cannot be used). In the spring, usually in May, the bulbs are planted to a depth of 4 centimeters and this year the plant will delight in flowering. Agrotechnika plants most similar to the cultivation of freesia.

To the southern beauty got stronger in a pot or tub, planted in February, always in a moist soil. In one container with a diameter of up to 15 centimeters about 10 bulbs will fit, but it should be quite deep, the roots will reach down. By spring, the plant is already formed and as soon as the warm weather without frosts is established, it can be transplanted into the garden along with an earthen clod, or just taken out in a tub on the street.

Dutch varieties often go on sale in summer. If you are late with the landing, in the first year of flowering will not, but there will be small daughter bulbs.

Levkokorinoy care

The key to success lies in choosing the right place for planting levkokorina, care will help save an unusual plant. It is important to keep in mind regular watering, especially during dry periods. After the growing season it is necessary to ensure the rest of the bulb. After flowering is over, it is stopped to be watered and fed until the stem dries. The bulbs are dug before the onset of the first frost and stored in a cool room in a container with dry peat or like gladiolus in boxes and paper bags.

At the site, the southern guest will decorate flowerbeds and borders, rock gardens and will wonderfully revive the landscape design if you just arrange tubs with bright colors near the house and on the terrace. It is also suitable for cutting - you get charming bouquets.

Diseases, pests and prevention

Some specific, inherent only levkokorina pests and diseases are not marked, but it can affect the diseases and parasites characteristic of bulbous plants:

    White rot, gray rot, brown rot, bulbous mite, aphid, scoops onion hoverfly.

The most reliable way to prevent diseases and pest invasions are preventive measures, the main of which are:

    Optimal soil selection, in which it must be borne in mind that plants are affected by acidic soil fungal diseases, and alkaline soil - bacterial diseases, moderate use of nitrogen supplements, the excess of which reduces resistance to fungal diseases, in sufficient potassium and phosphate fertilizers, which strengthen the resistance of plants to pests and diseases, conducting regular weeding.

This overseas exotic flower with a no less exotic name in many garden farms and on windowsills in Europe feels almost like home. People, imbued with the peculiar beauty and pomp of flowering of levkokorina, learned how to create optimal conditions for their maintenance, and she responds to the care with gorgeous, lively bouquets that adorn human life.

How to plant levkokorinu

In Europe, levkokkorina is grown mainly as a pot culture to decorate balconies and verandas. In the northern areas, the plant is given a place in the greenhouse. Unfortunately, the capricious princess can die even from the slightest cold.

If the climate allows you to plant levkorina in the open field, choose a sunny or pritennaya, protected from drafts place, it is possible on a small hill, so that the nodules do not rot from moisture stagnation. The soil should be loose, drained, fertile, preferably fertilized with compost or rotted manure (fresh cannot be used). In the spring, usually in May, the bulbs are planted to a depth of 4 centimeters and this year the plant will delight in flowering. Agrotechnika plants most similar to the cultivation of freesia.

To the southern beauty got stronger in a pot or tub, planted in February, always in a moist soil. In one container with a diameter of up to 15 centimeters about 10 bulbs will fit, but it should be quite deep, the roots will reach down. By spring, the plant is already formed and as soon as the warm weather without frosts is established, it can be transplanted into the garden along with an earthen clod, or just taken out in a tub on the street.

Dutch varieties often go on sale in summer. If you are late with the landing, in the first year of flowering will not, but there will be small daughter bulbs.

Botanical description

The whole fifty species of levkokorina belongs to the onion herbaceous perennials and most of them smell like garlic, which some people like and others do not. But almost everyone is delighted with the flowers of white, blue and purple colors, which on the flowering plant delight the eye for a month.

But the blooming of levkokorina is not only long-playing, but also very magnificent. And this is not surprising, since a small 2-3 cm bulbous bulb produces several flower stalks at once, each of which is crowned with an umbrella inflorescence consisting of 5-7 or even 12 flowers. As a result, a miniature onion gives a whole bunch of spectacular flowers.

And the leaves on this plant appear only after flowering and are long, reaching 35 cm, narrow and corrugated at the edges of leaf blades with a groove in the middle.


This plant is endemic to Chile, preferring the desert regions there and not wanting to settle voluntarily elsewhere on the planet. Garden distribution of the flower in temperate latitudes is hampered by its tendency to dry climate and the fear of cold weather.

Therefore, in Europe, with the exception of the southern regions of England, levkokorina is cultivated in the open field only by digging up the bulbs for the winter and re-planting them in the spring. Much more widely, this flower is common as a pot culture.

Application in landscape design

Blooming magnificently in June, levkokkorina decorates any place with bright colors for a month, wherever it is placed. It looks especially harmonious in rock gardens, that is, in the alpine slide created in the garden.

Beautiful bright spots stand out inflorescences of this plant in flowerbeds and borders. And already almost classic was the revival of the garden and estate landscapes levkokorinoy in tubs.

Conditions of detention

Since levkokorina is extremely light-requiring, to cultivate it in the open field should choose a sunny place. At the same time it should be protected from cold winds and, if possible, be on a certain elevation in order to avoid stagnation of water in the root system, which this plant does not tolerate in principle.

When growing a flower in pots, one should choose a window sill that is maximally lit by the sun. If possible, it is preferable to place pots with levkokorina on the balcony or loggia.

In addition to maximum illumination, another major condition for the successful maintenance of the plant is its complete protection from the effects of cold.

Watering and moisture

Immediately after completion of flowering should stop all watering, if the plant is in the open ground. If you find a flower in an apartment where there is a high temperature and low humidity in winter, the soil in the pot should be slightly moistened. During the active growing season of levkokorina, it should be watered moderately, so that neither the flower beds, nor the pots and tubs in the root system have an overabundance of water. Otherwise, it can lead to bulb rot.

Vegetative reproduction

Levkokkorinu propagated by daughters. To do this, in August, the bulbs dig out and separate the children from them. Store them in a cool room in dry sand or peat. Plant the plant in the open field mainly in May in fertile, well-drained soil to a depth of four centimeters.

In February, a flower is planted in a pot or tub in February in wet soil. Usually take a wide tank of sufficient depth, since the roots of the plant stretch down. A necessary condition for this is the presence of good drainage at the bottom of the tank.

After the threat of frost has passed, the plant can be removed from the pot along with a clod of earth and transplanted into the open ground. And you can take a tub with flowers to the fresh air and decorate the surrounding landscape with it.

Possible difficulties in growing

Being an ephemeroid, that is, a herbaceous perennial plant with a very short growing season, after the end of the flowering period, levkokorina needs rest. Therefore, with the potted method of cultivation, you have to artificially send a flower to rest, ceasing to water it. Practically the same thing happens on open ground: after the termination of watering, the stalks of the plant gradually dry up, after which in August you can start digging out the bulbs.