Tulip is a bulbous perennial herb of the family Lilein. Initially, plants were found only in the wild. The zone of greatest species diversity and the center of origin are considered to be the mountains in the northern part of Iran, Tien-Shan, Pamir-Alay. Due to the self-propagation of human breeding, tulips can now be found throughout almost the entire northern hemisphere. There are about 80 species. All species diversity can be divided into 4 groups:
- early flowering
- medium flowering
- late flowering
- team group of hybrids.
Tulips bloom in May. The entire growing season lasts a relatively short time, after which a period of rest begins, during which young bulbs are formed. In the fall of these bulbs give roots. A generation change of bulbs occurs every year.
The tulip bulb is a reproduction organ and source of nutrients for a developing plant. It consists of a bottom (a modified stem in the form of a disk), storing scales (leaves), and covering scales.
In stockpiling scales concentrated stock of nutrients. Dry leathery integumentary scales protects the bulb from external influences, pests and diseases, excessive evaporation of moisture. Also the protective function is performed by undisturbed remnants of last year's shoots and flakes of the dead maternal bulb.
The average lifespan of a bulb is two years. The first year it is in the form of a kidney inside the mother bulb. In the second year, it turns into an onion. Child buds are formed between the maternal onion accumulating scales — the future onions, the central of which is substitute. In many species of tulips, especially wild, it develops faster than other buds. But in cultivated varieties all the buds develop approximately equally.
Also, the buds are laid in the axils of the covering scales - these are bulbs.
During the summer-autumn period, the bud of the stem and flower and new buds form inside the young bulb. After hibernation, the bulb produces a sprout and bulbs of new generations, then it dies off.
Reproduction of tulips with seeds
Seed multiplication of tulips occurs only in the wild. It is also used to create new plant hybrids. The duration of the cultivation of a tulip from a seed can take 5-6 years.
In order to obtain the desired hybrid, simultaneous flowering of selected plants is achieved. Pollination occurs by artificial means. Two days before the procedure, anthers are removed from the flowers and the pestle is pollinated. Pollination is produced twice with an interval of two days. After that, the flowers protect against accidental repeated pollination by insects.
As soon as the boxes of tulips begin to ripen (darken and covered with cracks), start collecting seeds. After that, the seeds are dried and stored in cool dark rooms at a temperature of about 5ºС. Seeds must be protected from possible pests and dampness.
In the fall, seeds are sown in containers or open ground. In the winter they should be protected from frost. Tulips grown from seeds are further propagated by vegetative means.
Bulbs reproduction of tulips
For the reproduction of tulips with bulbs, it is necessary to dig them out annually in order to obtain healthy beautiful flowers next year. Digging is done after the tulip leaves begin to turn yellow (for later varieties) or turn yellow completely (for early varieties).
Before digging up and after flowering, seed boxes and part of the leaves must be removed from the flowers. The timing of digging is very important to comply. When digging the bulbs early, they may not die until the spring, when late it is difficult to determine the location of the bulbs, as a result of which they can be damaged.
After digging out the bulbs, it is necessary to examine for damages and diseases, selecting only healthy, intact specimens for storage. Then you need to wash them under running water and incubate for half an hour in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Then the bulbs are dried, sorted, daughter bulbs are separated from the parent and sent to storage.
The planting of tulip bulbs is carried out in early spring.
While watching the video you will learn about growing a tulip.
Breeding tulips - quite a feasible task for amateur gardeners. Propagation occurs bulbs. The main thing is to remember about the need to dig out the bulbs every year and follow the rules for their selection and storage.
The rate of water for tulips, how to water the flowers
You can often hear that a tulip is a very unpretentious flower, a perennial plant that does not require special care. By and large this is true, however, it is worth remembering that, like any other plant, it still needs some attention. Tulip belongs to the bulbous form, and like most of these plants likes moist soil, therefore watering is very important for it.Of course, in most cases, the flower grows in open ground and inexperienced growers think that natural moisture is sufficient for it, but it is not. In especially dry weather, a tulip requires abundant watering, which will be one of the best steps in caring for a flower. It is especially important to water the tulip during budding, flowering and two weeks after flowering. The rate of water for irrigation is about 10-40 liters per square meter, but it all depends on the weather and the soil on your site.
Important!AThot weather nDo not allow water to fall on the leaves of a tulip, it can cause burns.
Tulip fertilizer features
Care for tulips in the spring at the cottage implies a proper and high-quality procedure for feeding the plant. Many gardening magazines in articles on the cultivation of tulips say that you need to fertilize a flower once, in early spring, using eco-fertilizers. In fact, this is a myth, because experienced gardeners have long been convinced of the need for feeding in 2-3 stages.
When and how to do the first feeding
The first dressing is carried out when the snow melts and the first shoots appear (most often it is called “dry”). All you need is to simply spread fertilizer over the snow.
It is possible that choosing a dressing in the store, you will be wondering "What is the best way to fertilize tulips in early spring?". When answering it, it should be remembered that during this period flowers require a large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus. As an additional element, you can choose potassium. The best ratio for such feeding will be 2 parts of phosphorus, 2 parts of nitrogen and 1 part of potassium. Fertilizer is applied in a small amount of 40-50 grams per square meter.
How to feed the plant a second time
Most gardening magazines offer a huge amount of advice on growing tulips, paying attention to the fact that these The plants are especially sensitive to external factors during the time of budding and flowering, and therefore during this period special attention should be paid to fertilizing and care. As you already understood the second dressing should be carried out during the budding period. At this time, the nitrogen content should be lower, and phosphorus and potassium - higher. So, fertilizers should be used in proportion: 2 parts of phosphorus and potassium and one part of nitrogen. You can take soluble vitamins (3 liters per square meter) or dry (60-70 grams per square meter).
How to care for tulips during flowering
If you want to know how to grow tulips, then you need to thoroughly examine the question "How to care for tulips in the spring at the cottage?". A very important factor in this care is the removal of weeds, because it is in them that many bacteria live that can harm flowers. Also, many gardeners recommend an additional spring dressing of tulips.
Did you know?Additional fertilizer should be carried out only by those compounds that do not contain nitrogen, since during the flowering period it can dry the plant.
It is very important to water the plant plentifully in dry weather, because during the flowering period it needs much more moisture to make the flower look brighter and richer. An important element for the health of the tulip and integrated care for him, it is important to timely loosen the soil. It is best to start this process after the removal of the “winter shelter”, and continue until the leaves close up. Loosening helps the plant to "breathe", but it is worth remembering that due to the rapid growth there is a serious likelihood of damage to the tulip.
Important!When watering a tulip during flowering, you should make a liquid so that it does not fall on the leaves and flower.
Many can not wait to cut the tulip, which is asking in the vase, but you need to properly perform this procedure. So, the leaves should be left below, and for cutting you can use only clean tools, otherwise the plant will fall ill.
Digging and storage of bulbs
In order to know everything about tulips, about the rules of planting and caring for them, first of all you need to understand which planting material is better suited for planting. The bulbs can be bought, and you can harvest yourself. If you decide to prepare planting material in an independent order, after the tulip has flowered, you need to be very careful, trying not to damage, dig up the most developed flowers and carefully inspect the bulbs. A healthy bulb has a dense texture, it is smooth and slightly shiny. Such specimens spread in a container in a single layer and air several days in the fresh air. Then, the tank is moved to a place where the temperature is kept at + 22 ° C. After two weeks, the bulbs are cleaned of the crust and earth and stored until planting (late September-October) at a temperature of + 15 ... + 17 ° C.Did you know?If you place the bulbs in a container so that they do not touch each other, the risk of rotting will be much lower.
How to grow tulips from seed
Tulips are very common in our territory, so each gardener selects for himself an individual way of planting and caring for a flower in the open field. For beginners, growers are recommended to grow tulips from seeds. It's pretty easy to do. Seeds can be bought, but you can also collect from the bud, which has already faded. In order for the flower to be bright and large, it is necessary to wait until the seed fully ripens, becoming red.
You need to store the seeds until the cold, in a period of rest, placing in a dry place with normal room temperature. Then they are planted in the soil, in a pot, or in a seedling box to a depth of 3-4 cm. You can also germinate in the refrigerator, leaving them between two wetted napkins. Meetings appear on average in a month. Sprouted seeds should be sown in boxes, fenced with a low fence, in a mixture of humus and soil, sprinkle sowing from above with sand. Such seeds do not need any shelters. They germinate very slowly and only by the autumn can we see a few new roots.
Did you know?Land for planting need to take only fresh, but in any case not last year.
Vegetative reproduction of tulips
The first weeks of October are considered to be the best period for planting bulbs. Given the fact that the plant rooting period is 35-40 days, before the first frosts begin, it should already pass. Plant the bulbs in the ground, fertilized and moistened. The depth of planting is determined by the size of the bulb: the larger it is, the deeper it needs to be planted. Bulbs are planted at a distance of 1.5-2 centimeters, and their rooting should be expected after 10-15 days.Important!The rooting process will be faster if the soil is promulgated with humus a few days after planting.
Very important is the fact that such planting material does not like to be exposed to direct sunlight, therefore, after planting, it is better to shade it a little. When the first signs of soil drying appear, it is necessary to water the bulbs moderately.
As you can see, the tulip, although it is called the “royal flower,” but does not put special demands on it. Just a little care and your garden will delight you with a beautiful view and a pleasant, light aroma.
Tulip care at home
The main task for growing is the timely removal of weeds and loosening the soil. Weeds are best removed by hand, and loosening should be carried out regularly so that the soil is saturated with air and moisture (Figure 1).
Note: In the process of loosening you need to act very carefully, so as not to accidentally damage the bulbs in the ground.
In varieties with large buds, the stems can bend and wilt. To prevent this, the plants spud. This will not only prevent the stems from breaking, but also will not allow rainwater to wash the planting material to the surface.
No less important is watering. These flowers love moisture, but over-wetting the soil is also not recommended.Figure 1. Basic crop care: watering, feeding and hilling
Watering flowers is desirable so that the water is absorbed faster into the soil, but it does not fall on the leaves and buds. To do this, it is best to dig a groove between the rows, fill it with water and sprinkle with soil on top. In early spring, plants need feeding. For this purpose, complex mineral fertilizers are used, which are applied when the first shoots appear.
The video details the process of caring for these flowers in the spring.
It is especially important to remove all damaged plants - unevenly blooming, with signs of diseases or pests (for example, late blight), with uneven stems, etc. Such plants can cause more harm than beauty during flowering, affecting the rest of the bulbs.
Tulips are dug up after yellowing leaves. It is at this time that the flowers form scales on the bulbs. Having missed the moment, you risk not finding a landing site at all later, because the stems die off quickly. Separate the kids, put them in another container. Planting in the spring on a separate flower bed, provide them with conditions for rapid development, where they will not be drowned by adult plants. If you want a luxurious flowerbed, which will be beautiful and evenly planted tulips, care should be year-round.