Popular name: Caucasian palm tree.
Used parts: leaves.
Botanical description. Boxwood evergreen Buxus sempervirens L. is an evergreen shrub or small tree 2–5 m high. The leaves are ovate, oval or elongated, solid, opposite, 1.5–3 cm long and up to 1.5 cm wide, slightly curved at the edge, dark -green, glossy on top, light green, dull bottom, sessile or with small petioles. The flowers are same-sex, with a simple yellow-green perianth. Inflorescences-heads are located in the axils of the leaves. The fruit is a box divided into 3 parts, with horns above. Blossoms in April - May. The plant is poisonous! Cultivated as an ornamental plant in southern Russia.
Collection and harvesting. Usually harvest the leaves during flowering.
Active ingredients. Contains alkaloids (up to 1%), essential oil, flavonoids, resinous substances.
Medicinal properties. It has diaphoretic, choleretic, laxative, disinfecting, antifebrile and wound-healing effect, used to treat rheumatism.
Application. It is necessary to use preparations of boxwood with caution: an overdose leads to poisoning, accompanied by diarrhea, vomiting, convulsions, respiratory arrest and hyperemia of the chest skin.
Broth: 40 g of dried leaves of boxwood boil in 1 liter of water, evaporating the liquid to half the volume. Broth washed infected wounds. Compresses with decoction help with rheumatism, gout, feverish conditions.
Composition and properties
Evergreen box contains tannins, essential oil, resins, flavonoids and a large number of alkaloids, including poisonous ones. However, it is the content of alkaloids that causes the medicinal properties of boxwood to help alleviate the condition in a number of cardiovascular diseases. Also, boxwood has antibacterial, antiseptic, analgesic, hypotensive, urine, sweat and choleretic action.
In folk medicine, boxwood is used for:
- rheumatism and joint pain,
- arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia,
- inflammation of the biliary and urinary tract,
- helminthic invasions,
- infected wounds, ulcers,
- hair loss and seborrhea.
- 1/2 tsp crushed boxwood leaves,
- 1 tbsp. boiling water.
Fill the raw material with boiling water, let it brew for 20 minutes and strain. Take 1/3 cup three times a day.
- 1/2 tsp crushed boxwood leaves,
- 1 tbsp. boiling water.
Pour boiling water over the box and boil for 15 minutes over low heat. Strain the resulting decoction. Drink 1/3 cup three times a day.
Broth for external use:
- 40 g boxwood leaves,
- 1 liter of boiling water.
Pour boiling water over the box and boil it in a water bath until half the volume of the liquid has evaporated. Strain the broth and use it for making compresses for gout, rheumatism, fever and for washing wounds.
Tincture for hair growth:
- 50 g of fresh boxwood leaves,
- 500 ml of 45% alcohol (you can replace the rum).
Fill the box with alcohol and put in a dark place for 14 days. Next, strain the resulting tincture and add lavender essential oil to it for flavoring. Rub the finished product into the scalp daily. Also, this tool is recommended for the treatment of seborrhea.
Gathering from baldness:
- 5 pieces of boxwood leaves,
- 6 pieces of thyme herb,
- 1 liter of 60% alcohol (per 100 g of mixture).
Fill the herbal collection with alcohol and let it brew for 14 days, then strain. Rub the finished tincture into the scalp, as in the previous recipe.
Collection from hair loss:
- 100 g fresh boxwood leaves,
- 100 g of fresh leaves and seeds of nasturtium,
- 100 g nettle leaves,
- 500 ml of 90% alcohol,
- 2-3 tablespoons sunflower oil.
Pour the vegetable raw material with alcohol, let it brew for 15 days, strain and add sunflower oil. Rub the finished product into the scalp.
Means prepared on the basis of boxwood evergreen are contraindicated in:
- gastric and duodenal ulcer,
- serious heart disease
- susceptibility to allergies.
Even in the absence of contraindications, any means based on boxwood should be used with great care, as the plant poisonous! Overdose can lead to: loose stools, vomiting, hyperemia of the skin of the chest, convulsions and respiratory failure.
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Boxwood in nature
Boxwood is a tree or shrub that naturally grows in the Mediterranean, China, Japan, Central America and East Africa. It grows very slowly. In addition, it can be called a long-liver. The age of some specimens reaches 500 years. The box is listed in the Red Book. It can grow where other plants will not survive: in dark moss-covered forests, among shrubs and on calcareous soils.
All parts of the plant are poisonous, especially the leaves.
Types of boxwood
The genus boxwood has several dozen species. The most common ones are:
- Box evergreen(Buxus sempervirens), widely used in decorative gardening of sites. In natural habitat reaches a height of 15 meters, at home - 6 meters. It tolerates frost well, but is extremely sensitive to thaws and the bright sun. Has 3-centimeter leaves of an oval form and dark green color.
- Small-leaf box(Buxus microphilla). The main difference from evergreen boxwood is smaller leaves (from 0.5 to 2.5 cm).
- Balearic box(Buxus balearica), on the contrary, has larger leaflets - up to 4.5 cm.
- Colchian boxwood(Buxus colchica) reaches 8 meters in height. The leaves are dark green, slightly curved inside.
Many decorative types of boxwood have been developed. Depending on the color of leaves and the shape of bushes among them:
- Aureovariegata has leaves with yellow spots,
- Marginata, its leaves are framed with a yellow border,
- LatifoliaMaculata has golden leaves,
- CurlyLocks, the stems of which are twisted.
Boxwood at home
Most often at home are grown buxus evergreen. The photo of a boxwood tree shows how it can be used in the design of the plots. Tall trees are convenient to use as a hedge. An excellent solution would be a green wall, against which roses bloom.
Gardeners love to use boxwood as a border for flower beds, and also to make plants of various shapes from the crown of a plant. To do this, as they grow, the bushes of boxwood are cut, they bend shoots in the right direction, using wire. You can regulate the process throughout the year. The most simple shapes: a cube, a cone or a ball.
If you wish, you can make a bush in the form of, for example, an animal.
Recently, the box room has become widespread. It does not take up much space, as it grows only 5 cm per year. Quite naughty, with improper care boxwood quickly sheds leaves. The best place to grow it is a moderately lit window sill. Boxwood is transplanted as needed, usually once every 2-3 years, and is tolerated quite well by the plant. He can take root in any period, excluding the winter.Buxus Sempervirens is a moisture-loving breed, but do not be too zealous. Its roots do not tolerate overwetting. Well, in order to save the soil from drying out, pebbles or moss can be laid on its surface. In the spring and autumn it is recommended to spray the leaves with water. In winter, the plant must be kept cool and this usually becomes the biggest problem. Production of a special greenhouse for wintering can become a way out.
For irrigation it is not necessary to use filtered or separated water - the box is completely insensitive to the hardness of the water. The only requirement: it should not be too cold.
With the onset of heat boxwood in a pot, it is desirable to put on the street, protected from direct sunlight. It will feel good in the shade of trees or on a well-lit veranda. In autumn, when the first cold weather approaches, the plant should be brought back. At home, boxwood blooms extremely rarely. Usually before the appearance of the first flowers takes about 20 years. The flowers of the plant are small and not very beautiful, yellow.
If you do not provide conditions favorable for the growth of the plant, pests of boxwood may soon be felt. Usually it is a spider mite or scythe. To combat them, the plant is being washed by lathering the soil with a film. Wash pests, rinse the tree under the shower.
The box is propagated by cuttings in spring or autumn. Seed propagation is not so popular. The cuttings take root difficult. Out of 100 pieces, only 80 will be able to take root at best.
It is recommended to grow buksus in warm climatic conditions. Although it is sufficiently resistant to cold weather, the box in the Moscow region is unlikely to survive the winter. The minimum temperature that it can withstand -15 degrees. Ever badly affect the evergreen and strong winds. Therefore, to wait out the cold, boxwood can be placed on a cool veranda or loggia. Young shrubs need the most attention during the wintering period.
Useful properties of boxwood
With all its toxicity boxwood is a very useful plant. It releases volatile production - active substances that destroy harmful microorganisms in the air. The most valuable bark and leaves of the plant, in which alkaloids, bioflavonoids, tannins, resin are found. In folk medicine, boxwood is used as a laxative, diuretic, diaphoretic, painkiller, it has an antiseptic effect. The plant is not used in official medicine.
Evergreen box in official medicine is practically not used due to its high toxicity, but has healing properties. Leaves and cortex contain a significant amount of alkaloids, important in the treatment of hypertension and a number of diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Currently, evergreen boxwood is used only in homeopathy for the treatment of helminthic invasions, wounds, poorly healing trophic ulcers, rheumatism.
Contraindications and side effects
Boxwood evergreen is a poisonous plant, especially the leaves. In order to avoid side effects (vomiting, loose stools, skin flushing, convulsions, difficulty breathing) it should be used very carefully and under the supervision of a physician. Overdose is very dangerous and with delayed medical care, death is possible due to respiratory failure.
In other areas
Box evergreen - the best wood for woodcuts (wood engraving), especially end wood. Robust boxwood is used in turning for the manufacture of engraving boards, valuable handicrafts, exquisite products, expensive luxury items, chess pieces, pipes, even musical instruments and machine parts that require high wear resistance and a perfectly smooth surface. Rollers of printing machines, spools and weaving shuttles, parts of optical and surgical instruments, measuring devices, etc. are made of it. A sawn veneer is made and made of it in small quantities, but at present, boxwood veneer is used only for inlays because of its high cost.
Evergreen Box is one of the most ancient beautiful ornamental plants, which was used for landscaping and ornamental gardening. The tree is very plastic, due to the slow growth since ancient times used in the art of curly hairstyle. Real green sculptural compositions that adorn many southern gardens and parks create from boxwood. In landscape design (especially in the Crimea), evergreen boxwood is used to frame flower beds and rabatok, as a hedge and curb, as well as a green backstage and as a soliter on the lawn. From the bushes of boxwood make a variety of long shape-keeping fancy figures and geometric shapes. Also, boxwood is grown in indoor gardening, it is also suitable for bonsai.
The branches of boxwood decorate their homes on Palm Sunday, Catholics in Western European countries and Orthodox Christians.
On the Black Sea coast, evergreen boxwood is an excellent honey plant that gives early bribes (in late February - early March), although honey from it is considered poisonous.
The evergreen box (latin. Buxus sempervirens) is a Mediterranean species, belongs to the genus Boxwood (lat. Búxus) of the Box family (Buxaceae). The genus is the largest, comprising about 50 species of mainly shrubs and trees, most widely distributed in the Mediterranean countries, Western Europe, coastal areas of Europe, East and Southeast Asia, the Himalayas, the West Indies, the island of Madagascar and in Africa itself, Bulgaria, as well as in the South Caucasus, Crimea.
Evergreen shrub or small tree in height from 2-5 (12-15) meters. The leaves are opposite, entire, leathery, short-petiolous, peristerna, ovoid or oblong-elliptic, obtuse or slightly notched at the top, dark green above, luminous below. Flowers are small, blind, greenish-yellow, actinomorphic (regular), same-sex, usually monoecious, collected in axillary ears or wrists, numerous male flowers are collected in the lower part of the beam, female (1, less often 2-3) - at its apex. Perianth simple, four-member. The fruit is a round box. Blossoms (in the south) in March - April. Lives up to 500 years or more.
Box evergreen grows in Western and Southern Europe, northwest Africa and Western Asia. Its range is the most extensive, stretching from southern England to northern Morocco, and in the east reaches Turkey and the Western Caucasus.
In Russia, the habitat of boxwood is small and almost all are declared protected. Wild boxwood grows only in the south of the Krasnodar Territory, where evergreen undergrowth forms in mountain forests, as well as in the Crimea.
The only large boxwood grove in the world is located on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, on the slope of Mount Big Akhun. In addition, a unique natural monument is a sysso-box grove near Khosta, an almost solid mass of boxwood with an area of 300 hectares, declared protected in 1930 (part of the Caucasian State Reserve).
In Western Europe, the culture introduced in ancient times. In the southern regions of Russia, it is mainly bred as an ornamental shrub in gardens and parks, as well as for curbs and green walls. It is very shade-tolerant and thermophilic, lives in nature on slightly acidic soils.
Use in traditional medicine
Evergreen box in ancient times was used for medical purposes as a remedy for cough, gastrointestinal diseases, as well as chronic fevers, in particular malaria. These days, boxwood preparations are used much less frequently due to their toxicity.
In folk medicine, the infusion of evergreen boxwood leaves is most often used at elevated temperature, inflammation of the biliary and urinary tract. In China, boxwood preparations are recommended for arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia. Outwardly boxwood is prescribed for alopecia and seborrhea. Compresses with decoction of boxwood leaves help with joint pain. Broth leaves can also be washed infected wounds and abrasions. As an external means boxwood is used for head seborrhea and baldness.
Even the ancient Greek doctors noticed that the evergreen box has many unusual beneficial properties. Aphrodite's flute was made of evergreen boxwood. Special boxers from evil forces were prepared from boxwood, attributed to it the ability to drive away nightmares. For this, we advised a twig of a plant to be put under the pillow, so that one could ensure quiet and healthy sleep. The branches of boxwood served as a symbol of longevity. Until now, Adygea boxwood is revered as a sacred tree. Boxwood combs found in the excavations of ancient Novgorod.
The Latin name of the genus comes from the Greek. “Buxe” is dense and indicates the exceptional density and hardness of wood.
Folk names of an evergreen boxwood are bougnebo, axle bush, axle bush, axle bush, bukshpan, precious tree, iron tree, strawberry tree, greenery, palm tree, Caucasian palm tree, palm tree, palm bush, shamshit.
In the "Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language" there are other names of boxwood - books, greenery tree, gevan, bukshpan, shamashit, as well as palm.
1. Biological encyclopedic dictionary (ed. MS Gilyarov). M. “Soviet Encyclopedia” 1986. 425 p.
2. Plant life (ed. By AL Takhtadzhyan). M. Enlightenment, 1981. V. 5 (1). 508 s.
3. Peshkova GI, Schroeter A. I. Plants in home cosmetics and dermatology. M. Ed. Дом МСП, 2001. 680 с.
Химический состав самшита
Самшит (или буксус) богат алкалоидами. Эти вещества издавна применялись в медицине и не только. Many alkaloids have both a therapeutic effect (vincristine - antitumor), and psychostimulant or narcotic (caffeine, cocaine).In all parts of the box (root, leaves, shoots and even bark) contains about 70 alkaloids, which have different effects on the human body. The main ones are cycloreanin B, cyclobuxin D, buxin, parabuxin, buxipiin. The leaves of boxwood contain approximately 3% of these substances. This percentage is considered elevated and valued in traditional medicine.
In addition to alkaloids, boxwood contains bioflavonoids (regulate the action of enzymes and restore body cells), resins, essential oils and tannins (have an antimicrobial effect).
The use of boxwood in traditional medicine
Box in official medicine is not used due to the fact that the plant is very poisonous. However, in folk medicine it is used to treat many diseases and ailments.
Due to the fact that tannins are included in the composition of the leaves and bark of the buccus, it has an antibacterial and antiseptic effect. In Chinese medicine, various plants are used to treat ailments. Even poisonous boxwood in the East is used to treat arrhythmias and myocardial ischemia. In addition to the treatment of heart disease, the plant is used as an anesthetic.
Buxus treats unhealed wounds and ulcers on the body. Also, the plant is used in the treatment of seborrhea and alopecia. We use coughs, diarrhea, joint pain and baldness to treat the leaves and bark of this plant. Worth mentioning sweatshops, diuretic and hypotensive properties of boxwood.
Let's start with the infusion of boxwood for pain relief. Take 0.5 tsp of dry leaves of the cusp and brew in a glass of boiling water. To accept inside on 1/3 glasses 3 times a day.
When baldness and seborrhea use another tincture, which is designed only for external use. At 0.5 liters of vodka take 50 grams of fresh leaves and insist 2 weeks. This infusion is necessary to rub small doses into the skin (in bald places on the head or in the hairy part with seborrhea).
These are basic recipes that have an accurate dosage. It is necessary to use boxwood carefully, since even a adjusted dose can cause allergies or skin rashes.
The magical and bioenergy properties of boxwoodBoxwood is used not only in traditional medicine, but also in magic. Therefore, when you hear the phrase "magic and boxwood" - do not be perplexed.
According to legend, the flute of Athena (ancient Greek goddess) was carved out of boxwood. Amulets and amulets that protect their masters from evil forces are made from buxus wood. Also, these amulets can protect from energy vampirism. If you fall asleep badly, or you have nightmares, you can put a sprig of boxwood under the pillow. The plant will relieve bad dreams and you will not suffer from insomnia.
Studying myths and legends, one can conclude that boxwood is something good, bright. If you dream of this plant, then you are waiting for the fulfillment of desires or the fulfillment of goals. If in a dream you make your way through boxwood bushes - a bright future awaits you, a “white line” will come in life.
Collection and preparation of medical raw materials from boxwood
For therapeutic infusions, the bark and leaves of the plant are used. But before using them, you need to carry out proper preparation of raw materials.
Buchsus leaves are collected during flowering (spring or summer). It is necessary to select the whole and healthy leaves, wash them and dry at a temperature not higher than 45 С. Therefore, only natural drying can not be used.
We must not forget about the benefits of boxwood bark, which is also used in traditional medicine. The shrub has a dense heavy bark, which is not easy to separate. The bark is cut from plants that are at least 4-5 years old. Pruning is carried out with a sharp knife after the plant has faded. Then it is washed, crushed and dried.
How to use boxwood evergreen in other areas
The box has various properties that are used in woodcutting, turning and landscaping.
The unique density of evergreen shrub used to create valuable luxury items, small crafts and even chess. Just imagine that the smoking pipes of the highest ranks were made of this tree. Many expensive musical instruments are also made of boxwood. Buxus is used to create perfectly smooth car parts, parts for surgical instruments and measuring instruments.Boxwood is used as an ornamental plant, which is planted in gardens throughout Europe. If you once saw photos of curly pruning of trees in the form of animals or people, then these photos show a box. Due to its plasticity and slow growth, it is possible to make an incredibly beautiful living sculpture from a bush. Boxwood is also grown in indoor gardening, as it is suitable for creating bonsai.