In case of violation of the technology of keeping pigs in the herd, outbreaks of various infectious diseases can occur. One of the most dangerous and unpleasant is pasteurellosis. Under certain circumstances, this contagious disease can even be transmitted to humans. To successfully combat this infection, it is important to know and recognize its symptoms in time, as well as to have an idea of how to prevent and treat it.
Forms of the disease
Infected with pasteurellosis often put on fattening juveniles. This disease can manifest itself in three forms:
Sometimes this disease occurs in a super-acute form.
To determine the pasteurellosis of pigs in the acute form by the following features:
- increase in body temperature of the animal to 41-42 grams.,
- loss of appetite,
- rapid breathing
- general weakness
- nasal discharge
Cyanosis of the ears and mucous of the piglet are also the main symptoms of this dangerous disease. Very often, animals infected with pasteurellosis have the so-called sitting dog pose. In addition, the disease in most cases manifests itself by multiple hemorrhages under the skin and conjunctivitis. Sometimes a pig may have diarrhea.
If the disease is not started to be treated within the first days, then soon after (after about 8 days) the animal will most likely die. Also, acute pig pasteurellosis (a photo of a sick individual can be seen above) often turns into a chronic form. In the latter case, the pig will be observed primarily symptoms such as general weakness, exhaustion, arrest. In addition, chronic animals may swell joints and show eczema.
These are the symptoms of pasteurellosis in pigs. Both its treatment and prevention are primarily aimed at improving the immunity of the animal, as well as the destruction of the pathogen itself. Pasteurella is an aerobic bacterium called Pasteurella, a short, fixed ovoid stick. There are only six of its varieties: P. haemolytica, P.pneumotropica, P.multocida, P.aerogenes, P.urea, P..gallinarum. The pigs are usually caused by the first and the third type of bacteria in pigs.
In nature, Pasteurella is very widespread. This stick, for example, is always present in the mucous household animals. However, it begins to show its destructive effect, of course, only when the carrier’s immunity is weakened. Discovered this pathogen was a famous microbiologist and chemist Louis Pasteur. Hence its name.
How is the disease transmitted
Animals become infected with pasteurellosis usually when the farm does not comply with sanitary and epidemiological requirements. The best medium for the causative agent of this disease is manure. In this substance, Pasteurella can survive for up to 72 days. Therefore, clean the pigs should be as carefully as possible.
Also, the cause of an outbreak of infection can be non-compliance with the rules of separation of animals. The main carriers of pasteurellosis are rabbits. These small animals are very susceptible to various kinds of contagious diseases due to the rather weak immunity. Therefore, they should be kept away from other household animals, including piglets.
In addition, the bacterium Pasteurella can get into the pigsty with feed acquired in a dysfunctional in terms of infectious diseases. Very often, infection is transmitted through stale drinking (bacteria and water can persist in water and soil for up to 26 days). It also happens that individuals purchased on other farms (for replenishment of the herd or as producers) become distributors of pasteurellosis. Pasteurella is excreted into the environment by sick animals, mainly with feces, as well as with effusions from the nose.
The course of the disease and the diagnosis
Not too long incubation period - this is what is characterized by pasteurellosis of pigs. Symptoms of the acute form of this disease usually appear 2-3 days after infection. Signs of hyperacute pasteurellosis can be seen in animals after a few hours. This disease occurs in pigs most often against the background of other bacterial and viral infections.
At the first appearance of symptoms of infection with Pasteurella on the farm, be sure to invite veterinarians. An accurate diagnosis is made not only on the basis of the clinical picture, but also based on the results of bacteriological examination.
Pig pasteurellosis - an infection is very dangerous, because as a result of its spread, the loss of livestock on the farm is significant. Reduce losses will help only in time taken measures. After the diagnosis has been made, the veterinarian usually prescribes the use of tetracycline or sulfa drugs for the pigs. For example, intramuscular injections of norsulfazole (2-5 g per 30 ml of distilled water) can help animals to overcome the disease. Antibiotics such as Dibiomycin and Ekmonovocillin are also effective against swine pasteurellosis.
Symptomatic preparations are often prescribed to infected pigs. This may be, for example, "urotropin" (2-5 g).
In addition, a very good method of treatment is considered a special hyperimmune serum against pigs pasteurellosis. Its required dose for adult animals is 60-80 ml, for young animals - 20-40 ml.
The rapid spread of non-compliance with the rules of the animals - this is what is primarily characterized by pig pasteurellosis. Treatment and prevention of it must be made. Otherwise, the lunge in the herd will be very large.
Of course, a farmer who wants to protect animals from infection should first of all attend to the maintenance of cleanliness in the pigsty. However, taking measures such as treating the premises with antibacterial drugs and cleaning manure is often not enough. The fact is that Pasteurella, unfortunately, is resistant to most disinfectants. Therefore, prevention against pastererese should include, first of all, the implementation of measures to prevent the penetration of this bacterium into the pigsty. And this means that the farmer first of all should attend to the arrangement of the quarantine room intended for the purchased repairing stock or producers. It is also necessary to take the most responsible approach to the choice of the supplier of feed and to equip an uninterruptedly functioning water supply system on the farm.
The piglet's immune system is usually quite strong. However, to weaken the animal, and, consequently, lead to infection, may including improper or inadequate feeding. Pigs in the process of breeding should receive the necessary protein-rich feed, as well as all sorts of supplements containing vitamins and trace elements useful for their body.
Vaccination of piglets
And, of course, the most effective measure to prevent outbreaks of this disease in pigsty are vaccinations. Emulsified vaccine against pigs pasteurellosis is usually used twice. The immune response in animals is formed approximately 25-30 days after the second injection. The actual effect of the use of the vaccine lasts up to 6 months.
Very small piglets do not get sick of pasteurellosis. The fact is that the milk of the vaccinated sows already contains substances that support their immunity. Therefore, the first vaccination of piglets do only at 25-30 days of age. The second vaccination is carried out in 20-40 days. Injections are made into the neck of the animal intramuscularly. The required dose of the drug in this case is 0.5 cm 3.
Pregnant pigs should be vaccinated once - 30-45 days before farrowing. The dose of vaccine in this case, you need to apply a double - 1 cm 3. In this case, the drug is also injected into the neck intramuscularly.
The expiration date of an emulsified vaccine against a disease like pig pasteurellosis is 1 year from the date of release. Store it in a warm, dry place.
Pig's pasteurellosis is a disease, therefore, very dangerous indeed. After all, it is transmitted very quickly. In this case, all infected animals may die. In any case, sick piglets will gain weight poorly, which ultimately will have a negative impact on farm profitability. Therefore, the owners of the pig houses should definitely carry out all necessary preventive measures aimed at preventing the spread of pasteurellosis among animals. In the case of the manifestation of the symptoms of this disease, the veterinarians should be summoned to the farm immediately.
General characteristics of the disease
Pasteurellosis is an infectious disease, the causative agent of which is the immobile pasteurella bacterium, which grows rapidly on ordinary nutrient media. The infectious origin of this disease was proven in the second half of the 19th century.
The pathogen is active in water for 3 weeks, in the body of a dead animal - up to 4 months, in frozen meat - up to 12 months.
Pasterella is unstable to disinfectant solutions: it dies a minute after treatment with phenol (5%) and creolin (5%). Also, the bacterium is sensitive to high temperatures: indicators within 70-90 degrees contribute to the inactivation of the pathogen for 5-10 minutes.
Pasteurella dies when treated with a solution of blue vitriol (1%) and lime milk (5%). Also, ultraviolet rays negatively affect this pathogen.
Penetrating into the body of a pig, the bacterium enters the lymph and begins the process of reproduction. As a result of the vital activity of pathogens, toxic substances are produced that increase the permeability of blood vessels. The bacterium is localized in the alveoli of the lungs, which contain a lot of oxygen.
As a result of the activity of pasteurella, edemas are formed, and increased bleeding develops.
The animal's immune system produces a large amount of antibodies that die along with pathogenic microorganisms. Because of this, mucous masses are formed, which clog the passages of the respiratory tract, and also provoke sneezing reflexes, which cause the further spread of bacteria.
Pork pasteurellosis is spread all over the world. In Russia, cases of this disease are most often recorded in the central European part. The peak incidence occurs in the period of early spring and autumn.
Causes of the disease and ways of transmission
The development of pasteurellosis due to such provoking factors as:
- non-observance of sanitary and hygienic standards in premises that contain livestock,
- poor nutrition of animals, lack of vitamins in it,
- too many individuals in the room,
- increased humidity in the room
- weakened immunity
- non-compliance with vaccination schedule.
The sources of the virus that causes the development of pasteurellosis are:
- sick pigs and animals that suffered this disease
- healthy animals that have been in contact with infected individuals,
- blood-sucking insects,
- wild birds
- kitchen and slaughter wastes that have not undergone heat treatment and are used as feed additives,
- the person carrying this bacterium
- contaminated soil
- contaminated water
- milk from an infected sow feeding piglets,
- waste of sick pigs,
- substandard, virus-infected feed.
Pigs are infected with pasteurellosis through faecal-oral and airborne droplets. Pathogenic microorganisms enter the body through damaged skin, mucous membranes, and airways.
Symptoms of pasteurellosis are often observed in pigs that have recently suffered other diseases.
Symptoms of the disease depending on the form
The incubation period of pasteurellosis lasts from several days to 14-16 days. The term depends on the resistance of the animal to the disease. The symptomatology of the pathological process depends on the form of the disease.
The following main forms of pasteurellosis are known:
- Super sharp. In this case, the infected individuals die quickly - in a day or two after the appearance of the first symptoms of pathology. The manifestations of pasteurellosis in the super-acute form include an increase in body temperature of up to 42 degrees, difficulty breathing. Sick pigs lose their appetite. They get tired quickly, there is marked weakness, apathy. This form of the disease is also characterized by impaired activity of the heart muscle, the appearance of bluish spots on the surface of the legs, ears, and hips. There is inflammation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract.
- Spicy In this form of the disease, animals rarely survive, death occurs at 3-8 days after the onset of the pathological process. For acute pasteurellosis, a sharp rise in temperature to 41 degrees, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, and cough are characteristic. There may be discharge from the nasal passages, in which there may be traces of blood. On the lower part of the belly, piglet and ears cyanotic spots are formed. If the disease occurs for a long time, there is a strong cough, swelling limbs.
- Subacute. This form of pasteurellosis leads to the death of pigs at 5-8 days after the start of the pathological process. This type of pasteurellosis is characterized by fever, chills, cough, and shallow breathing. Making the exhale, the sick individuals moan. On different parts of the body bluish spots are formed, there are violations of the chair.
- Chronic. This form of pasteurellosis is quite rare. Death of an infected individual occurs in 1-2 months. The symptoms of this type of illness are persistent cough, swollen joints, rapid weight loss. Also, diseased individuals develop patches of eczema on the skin. All these symptoms are observed against the background of normal body temperature.
Pathological changes depend on the duration of the disease and the severity of the pathological process. They are expressed in the following:
- hemorrhages in the larynx, lungs, myocardial membrane,
- serous swelling in the sternum and neck,
- swelling of the mucous membrane of the larynx,
- inflammation of the digestive tract,
- changes in the structure of the vascular walls.
Determine the form of the disease is possible only with the help of diagnostic studies.
In case of the appearance of dangerous symptoms that allow to suspect pasteurellosis in pigs, you should immediately contact the veterinary service.
For an accurate diagnosis necessarily conduct a differential diagnosis. Pasteurellosis is distinguished from the plague, erysipelas, pneumonia of viral origin, salmonellosis. To do this, use a mixture of antibiotics with anti-pasteurellosis serum.
Also for the diagnosis requires a biological test and seeding.
Treatment of pasteurellosis in pigs
Infected animals with confirmed pasteurellosis are placed in a warm and dry, well-ventilated area. Mandatory component of treatment - a full high-quality diet.
Infected animals must be injected with serum against pasteurellosis.
Individuals who suffer from this disease are given systemic antibiotics throughout the entire therapeutic course. The following drugs adversely affect the causative agent of this disease:
An isotonic solution of chloride or glucose is administered intravenously.
Symptomatic drugs for the maintenance of cardiac muscle activity — Mildronate, Trimetazidine — must be prescribed to sick animals.
The treatment course must include ascorbic acid, glucose, vitamins of group B.
In severe cases, blood transfusions are indicated, as well as inhalations with oxygen-containing mixtures.
When pasteurellosis must comply with the following recommendations:
- isolate sick pigs in spacious rooms,
- regularly provide animals with high-calorie feed and clean water,
- daily air the room that contains infected pigs.
The temperature in the rooms where sick animals are kept should be within + 10-15 degrees.
The buildings are disinfected daily. Suspended lime (10-20%) or bleach solution (2% active chlorine) is suitable for processing.
Pigs that have died from pasteurellosis are burned or disinfected in deep pits. Their waste products are also disinfected and disposed of.
At revealing of pasteurellosis in a cattle-breeding complex, a quarantine regime is introduced. The list of mandatory activities in this period includes:
- restriction of import and export of animals,
- ban on walking and watering contact animals,
- appointment and treatment of infected individuals,
- administration of antibiotics and serum to piglets and contact animals,
- ban on the export of non-disinfected waste products of animals, bedding, slurry,
- сжигание туш павших животных с соблюдением всех санитарно-ветеринарных норм,
- daily disinfection of the quarantine room.
All quarantine restrictions are removed 14 days after the mass vaccination and termination of the pathological process.
In order to prevent pasteurellosis among pigs, it is necessary to:
- to keep the newly arrived animals in quarantine for a month,
- provide employees with clothing and equipment, as well as require the passage of complete sanitary control,
- refuse to purchase animals in farms that are considered unfavorable in terms of sanitary and veterinary standards,
- limit the contact of adults and piglets with animals from other farms,
- routinely carry out activities for vaccination of pigs.
To prevent the development of an infectious process in an area where there is an outbreak of this disease, it is necessary:
- to limit the export of animals outside the enterprise,
- destroy the bodies of pigs who died from pasteurellosis at special stations,
- disinfect skins
- inject serum and antibiotics to all animals that have been in contact with infected individuals,
- destroy rodents in the room where pigs are kept, as they are potential carriers of infections,
- regularly disinfect the places of walking pigs,
- do not take out feed and equipment from the pasteurellosis unfavorable economy,
- do not remove manure from sick animals into the fields,
- disinfect the waste products of sick individuals.
Prophylactic restrictions are removed 2 weeks after the last case of the disease has been recorded.
Sources of infection
A piglet can become infected with Pasteurella spp through droplets, through the excreta and saliva of already sick animals. Infection is unavoidable if microorganisms live in water, soil or feed. Often the carriers of the infection can be insects (mites), wild birds or rodents. The wand is able to enter the body of the pig through the skin and mucous membranes, provided that there are small wounds.
Infecting the body, the bacterium enters the lymph and multiplies very quickly. The result is that toxins are produced that increase vascular permeability. As a result, various edemas, diathesis, increased bleeding and the risk of hemorrhage due to low blood clotting appear.
This infectious disease is manifested not only by blood infection, but also by croupous pneumonia, pulmonary edema. Unvaccinated and raised for fattening youngsters in the risk zone (10 to 70% of livestock die). Pasteurellosis can occur in three forms - hyperacute, acute and chronic. The incubation period of the disease is 14-16 days. After symptoms appear.
- In the case of over-acute, the pigs suddenly increase the temperature to 41 degrees. The normal temperature of a healthy animal is 38-40 degrees. Breathing becomes difficult and quickens, the pig begins to choke and looks depressed. Eats nothing and drinks a lot. Manifests a strong edema in the neck, develops cardiovascular failure. The death of a pig or adult occurs within 2 days from the time of asphyxiation.
- In acute, in addition to the oppressed and painful condition of the animal, there is a very strong shortness of breath. As well as the development of lobar pneumonia. The sick individual strongly coughs. The ears, mucous membranes and snout have a bluish tint. Pig die for 3-7 days.
- In the subacute form, the veterinarians state a feverish state in pigs, a rather strong cough, croupous pleuropneumonia, cyanosis and diarrhea.
- Chronic pasteurellosis is accompanied by eczema, cough, exhaustion and depression. Piglet has a normal body temperature.
It is possible to diagnose the disease in a different way. For example, click on the chest of the animal and see its reaction. The procedure is usually painful for him. In places of contact, reddish bluish spots appear - the result of blood stagnation.
Experts recommend the use of cephalosporin prolonged action antibiotics, in particular, Ekmonovotsillin and Dibiomycin. Prescribed a solution of "Novarsenol" in combination with distilled water. Well helps serum against pasteurellosis of pigs in conjunction with broad-spectrum antibiotics - "Penicillin", "Tetracycline" or "Chloramphenicol."
The maximum dose rate for young animals is 40 ml, for adult pigs - from 60 to 80 ml. The treatment will be successful if the animals are provided with plenty of feed and plenty of drink. Farms in which pigs are located must be properly equipped: with good ventilation, no drafts, there must be plenty of space for each individual.
Serum is a solution for injection, made from the blood of oxen-producers. It has in its structure deactivated cells of Pasteurella bacteria of the most common strains, preserved with 0.5% phenol. The main objective of the drug is to ensure the formation of passive immunity in livestock for 1-2 days, lasting from 14 days.
It looks like a yellowish-reddish liquid. Sometimes with a white precipitate (this is protein), by agitating which the mixture becomes homogeneous. By itself, the serum is harmless, used for the prevention of pasteurellosis, and for treatment.
It must be stored in a dry and dark room, at a temperature not lower than 2 degrees and not higher than 15. Before using the ampoule with the drug is heated in a water bath (temperature up to 36 degrees), and the injection site is disinfected with ethyl alcohol. If a piglet has an allergic reaction after the introduction of serum (salivation, cyanosis of the mucous membranes), in addition to antihistamines, it is necessary to repeat the introduction of the drug.
Serum can not be used simultaneously with live immunobiological drugs. Can be used with antibiotics or sulfanilic acid-based synthetic antimicrobials.
Vaccination as a prevention of pasteurellosis
Veterinarians claim that pasteurellosis is a concomitant disease after immunosuppression, due to hypothermia and helminthic invasion. Therefore, in order to prevent the pigs' body from being infected by a group of Pasteurella spp bacteria parasitizing the animal’s throat, it is necessary to worry about timely vaccination of the livestock.
The principle of action of modern associative vaccines is the introduction of pasteurella sticks to animals weakened. It is the vaccine against pig pasteurellosis that helps the body adapt, learn to distinguish and, most importantly, fight parasitic microorganisms.
Other preventive measures
- Infected pigs are strictly forbidden to be exported for sale to other farms or donated to meat processing plants. The precautionary measure is removed if the individuals are healthy.
- If you have seen the above symptoms, do not transfer cattle from one group to another and begin vaccination of the livestock of the farm.
- It is forbidden to eat or sell the meat of slaughtered pigs infected with pasteurellosis.
- Recently acquired young and newly born pigs need to be vaccinated in a timely manner.
- If the animal died from this disease, the corpse of the sick individual must be burned in a specially designated place.
After a two-week quarantine, the backyards, sheds or farms should preferably be treated with special solutions with disinfectants. Frequent cleaning and maintenance of sanitary and hygienic standards will help to cope with the epidemic.
Slaughter products from healthy pigs immunized with serum or vaccine can be implemented without restrictions.
Causes and pathogens
One of the main causes of the disease of pasteurellosis is the failure to comply with sanitary and hygienic standards in the pigsty.
Increased humidity, poor nutrition, a large number of pigs in the stall, weakened immunity, hypothermia - all of these factors contribute to the reproduction of the pathogen, Gram-negative Pasteurella multicida. This microorganism has an oval shape (the shape of a capsule) and has morphological variability - it takes on the appearance of some types of coccobacteria and ovoid.
A healthy animal may become ill after contact with a diseased individual when consumed with pasteurella water and feed.
Pasteurellosis in piglets can occur when feeding milk from an infected sow.
Symptoms of manifestation in various forms
The incubation period of pathogenic microorganisms Pasteurella multicida is from several hours to 3 days. The disease can occur in acute, over-acute and chronic forms. Let's look at the signs of pasteurellosis and the course of each of the forms of the disease.
The acute form of the disease is characterized by a rapid rise in temperature to 41 ° (38-39 ° is considered normal temperature in pigs), refusal to eat, shortness of breath, and the general state of the animal is oppressed.
There may be a cough, nasal discharge, often with blood. When pressing on the chest, the animal may react painfully. Developing cyanosis of the ears and mucous membranes. In the acute form of the disease, the animal rarely survives. Death occurs at 3-8 days.
In some cases, some improvement occurs and the disease takes a chronic form. In this case, the symptoms of the disease remain coughing, swollen joints, the animal begins to lose weight and weaken rapidly, and eczema of the skin appears.
Increased body temperature is normal. In this case, the death of an infected pig occurs within 1-2 months.
Diagnosis of the disease
The occurrence of at least one of the above symptoms is a reason to apply to the veterinary service. Sick animal must be urgently isolated.
In order to make an accurate diagnosis and eliminate the plague and pork erysipelas, laboratory studies are needed.
For the treatment of pasteurellosis used antibiotic therapy. The following antibiotics - Tetracycline, Enrofloxacin, Dibiomycin, Levomycetin, Terramycin - effectively affect Pasteurella multicida.
In order for your pigs not to suffer from pasteurellosis, it is necessary to monitor the implementation of sanitary and veterinary standards, among them the main ones are:
- timely introduction of serum against pigs pasteurellosis,
- regular airing of rooms (but drafts should be avoided)
- providing animals with a healthy and balanced diet, clean drinking,
- regular vet checkups,
- conducting timely and regular disinfection, disinsection and disinfestation of premises,
- timely isolation of a diseased pig from healthy ones.
Distribution and transmission routes
The disease is spread all over the world. In the Russian Federation, the highest incidence is observed in the central European part. Outbreaks cause significant economic damage, although they are sporadic, isolated.Pasteurellosis can quickly hit all livestock.
In case of untimely taking measures to identify and treat, the disease can become epizootic in nature, cause mass and death and spread to other farms.
The rapid spread of infection contributes to: high humidity, non-compliance with the temperature regime, veterinary and sanitary rules, standards for the density of livestock, shortage and imbalance of feed, non-compliance with the schedule and vaccination rules. Pigs can become infected at any time of the year, but the peak of the incidence occurs in early spring and autumn.
Carriers of infection are:
- sick and ill animals,
- healthy animals, in contact with the sick,
- blood-sucking insects, wild birds, rodents,
- unpasteurized inverse obtained from animal carriers,
- infected person
- soil, manure,
- poor quality, contaminated feed,
- poorly disinfected inventory
- not heat treated kitchen and waste materials used as top dressing.
Animals become infected with alimentary (fecal-oral) and airborne (aerogenic) routes. Bacteria enter the body through mucous membranes, skin damage, respiratory tract.
Important. When vaccinating against plague and erysipelas of pigs, in 3–9 days pasteurellosis can be diagnosed in weakened and sick animals. Often with an outbreak of plague, salmonellosis, erysipelas, pasteurellosis develops as a concomitant disease.
The nature, severity, location of pathological changes during pasteurellosis depends on the severity of the disease and the activity of the carrier.Hemorrhages are visible on the internal organs of the sick pig.
In pigs who died from the acute form of pasteurellosis, at autopsy, hemorrhages, edemas, accumulation of edematous fluid (transudate) are observed in different parts of the body - on the skin, lungs, larynx, liver, spleen, brain, peritoneum, neck, mucous membranes and serous shells of the stomach, uterus. Lymph nodes are enlarged, blood vessels are filled with blood. In the lungs there are patches of alien gray or gray-red particles (gray hepatization), necrosis of individual areas. The gastrointestinal tract is inflamed.
The chronic form is characterized by thickening of the lung tissue, inflammation of the pleura, and severe exhaustion.
Clinical signs of the disease
Signs appear immediately after the end of the incubation period, which lasts from days to two weeks. The clinical picture of pasteurellosis is due to exposure to toxins secreted by the pathogen.
Harmful bacteria, once in the body, multiply rapidly, migrate to the lymphatic and circulatory systems, causing numerous lesions of small blood vessels and, as a consequence, the appearance of edema in different organs and parts of the body.
The immunity of animals weakens, the temperature rises, a large amount of antibodies is released into the blood, which leads to infection and thickening of the blood, development of heart failure, pneumonia, and gastrointestinal dysfunction.One of the signs of pasteurellosis is the appearance of edema on the body.
The nature and speed of flow differentiate the primary (septic) and secondary forms of the disease.
Septic pasteurellosis is considered as an independent disease - hemorrhagic septicemia and, in turn, has the following types:
- Super Sharp Shape It is characterized by common signs of systemic inflammatory processes. In animals, the temperature suddenly and rapidly rises to 41-42 ° C, breathing becomes difficult. Animals lose interest in food, their general condition deteriorates, they get tired quickly. Cardiac activity is disturbed, there are bluish spots on the ears, legs, hips, belly. The throat swells noticeably, the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract become inflamed. Animals die 24-48 hours after the onset of the first symptoms.
- Acute form. Her clinical picture is similar to the symptoms of over-acute form. The temperature rises, the animal is depressed, appetite disappears. Breathing quickens, shortness of breath, discharge from the nose. On the patch, ears, lower abdomen cyanotic spots appear. For acute varieties, typically high levels of leukocytes in the blood. In case of over-acute and acute forms, bluish spots appear on the body of the pig.
In the case of a protracted course of the disease, the symptoms of pneumonia become especially noticeable - the formation of fibrous (cicatricial) tissues, severe cough, palpitations, swelling of the extremities, purulent mucous discharge from the nose. In most cases, death occurs, usually the animal dies for 5-8 days.
Pasteurellosis often occurs as a secondary form of severe swine diseases - plague (including African plague), erysipelas, salmonellosis. Symptoms of pasteurellosis (pneumonia, leukemia) "mixed" with signs of the underlying disease, which complicates the correct diagnosis and the development of a treatment strategy. A sick animal usually dies for 5-8 days.
Diagnosis of the disease
Diagnosis is carried out using pathologo-anatomical and microbiological studies, studying the data of epizootology, clinical observations. Blood samples, mucus from the nose, and from the fallen animals - lymph nodes, blood from the heart, parts of the internal organs and bones are taken for research.
Important. At preliminary statement of the diagnosis, before receiving results of laboratory researches, press hands on an animal's chest. Ели свинья выказывает болезненную реакцию и на коже, спустя некоторое время, проступают отчетливые красные пятна, диагностируют пастереллез.
Окончательный диагноз ставят после посева на Pasteurella multocida и заражения полученной культурой лабораторных животных. In the case of suspected secondary pasteurellosis, when the animal suffers from plague, an additional biological test on piglets is carried out.If pasteurellosis is suspected, veterinarians take a biomaterial from sick pigs and examine it.
What is this disease and its causes
Pasteurellosis is a very dangerous form of an infectious disease that can lead to pulmonary edema in animals. The causative agent of this infection is an oval-shaped microorganism called Pasteurella multicida.
Blood contamination is characterized by the fact that micro-organisms of a grayish color appear in it, which, after an incubation period of several hours to fourteen days, begin to multiply actively, cause pulmonary edema and lead to the death of the animal. The bacteria spread by airborne droplets and is carried by insects.
Pigs are mainly infected, adult pigs are less susceptible to infection. This microorganism is very sensitive to ultraviolet and is easily destroyed by direct rays of the sun, but it is mainly individuals that are in rooms with high humidity and poor sanitation.
Microorganisms enter the body of the animal through food and water, and through the skin. If time does not respond, then you can lose up to forty percent of the population.
What are the forms of the disease?
First of all, the bacteria infect the mucous membrane and respiratory organs of pigs, therefore the signs here are obvious - an inflammatory process. There are three forms of disease progression:
- Acute form. Characterized by fever, nasal mucous discharge and cough. Accompanied by pain, which with the progression of the disease can increase many times. The mucous membrane takes on a blue tint and, when inflamed, adds puffiness, which can lead to insufficient oxygen supply to the body. The animal is fatal within five to ten days.
- Super Sharp Shape It is characterized by an increase in body temperature to 41 degrees, shortness of breath appears, and the cervical region swells. The animal refuses to accept food, lethargic and depressed. There are interruptions in the work of the cardiac cycle, swelling in the abdomen, ears and thighs. Death occurs after one to three days.
- Chronic form. Against the background of improved well-being, the animal still sometimes coughs, its joints swell up and a rash appears. The animal steadily loses weight and death occurs within two months.
Symptoms of the onset of the disease
Symptoms of infection of the animal with a viral infection are a rise in temperature, the appearance of swelling of the neck, hips, abdomen. Disturbances in the functioning of the heart, swelling of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract are noticeable. There is no appetite at all.
Methods of struggle in the event of a disease
If, however, the pigs were infected and death occurred, such a household is quarantined for some time, and then filled with only vaccinated, tested livestock during the year. A veterinary inspection of the entire unfavorable population of such a farm is carried out. Animals that are sick and suspected of being infected are isolated; trained personnel are attached to them, provided with special clothing, disinfectants and a first-aid kit.
Sick animals are injected with serum against pasteurellosis, and healthy animals should be vaccinated.
The buildings where the diseased animals are located are disinfected every day. The following composition is used: 10 - 20 percent suspension of freshly sour lime or bleach solution containing 2% active chlorine, 1% formaldehyde solution, 3% creolin solution, 2% sodium hydroxide solution.
Dead animals are either burned or disinfected in special pits. The waste products, such as manure, are also disinfected and disposed of, since they are no longer suitable for further use.
Prevention of infectious diseases in animals is necessary not only to save livestock. For example, pasteurellosis is unusually contagious and it is not only an animal that risks it, but also man.