Calamondin was bred by crossing two cultures - Fortunella and Mandarin. Therefore, it is called citrofortunella or citrus calamondin. In the people other tree names are more popular - indoor tangerine or golden orange.
Description and features of the plant
Kalamondin belong to the family rutovyh. The habitat is Southeast Asia. Grows as a branched shrub or small evergreen tree. In nature, it grows up to 7 m, the maximum height of the calamondin room is 1.5 m. The root system is well developed. Thin, woody roots completely entwine a lump of earth in a pot. The roots and stems of the tree are covered with a light, rough bark of a pale brownish color. Branching begins almost from the base of the stem, the shoots are densely leafy. The leaves are small, glossy. A slight fold along the main vein is characteristic. Leaves sit on dense, short petioles.
Young branches closer to May are covered with inflorescences. Buds white, collected in two or three pieces. Flowers are fragrant, up to 2.5 cm in diameter. Each bud consists of five petals. The flowers are pollinated on their own, but you can increase the likelihood of fruit making artificial pollination with a brush. In a month or one and a half, the tree is covered with small orange fruits similar to tangerines.
Actions after purchase
Calamondins, often studded with bright orange fruits, are often on sale. After fruiting, these trees cease to grow, gradually die. To save the life of a calamondin, you need to help him adapt to the new conditions. What should care for calamondin after purchase?
- Change pot. Immediately after the purchase you need to replant Calamondin in a larger pot. Soil is used nutrient, transplanted by the method of transshipment. The roots dry easily, so you need to act quickly.
- Isolation The tree is placed on a ten-day quarantine. They are set apart from other plants, protected from the sun, watered moderately, do not feed.
- Search pests. Daily inspected for the presence of pests. When detected, they are sprayed with insecticidal agents.
- Additional processing. If the tree begins to shed its leaves, all the flowers and ovaries are torn off, sprayed with Epin.
Care of the calamondin: what to consider
Growing Calamondin citrus at home involves creating a favorable microclimate, timely feeding, watering and pruning. The tree is quite hardy, it is not difficult to care for it. Experienced growers recommend adhering to basic requirements.
- Lighting Light should be bright but diffused. Try to place calamondin in the east and southeast. On the north side it is too dark, on the south it is hot. In the summer pritenuyut from the sun. In winter, do without shading. On the north side, both in summer and in winter, they organize additional lighting with fluorescent lamps.
- Temperature . Calamondin loves soft warmth. Normally adapts to room temperature. Ideal conditions in the summer of 22-24 ° C. In winter, the temperature is lowered.
- Watering In warm seasons, Calamondin is plentifully watered up to twice a day. During fruiting make sure that the soil was moistened evenly. Sometimes it is better to water less often, but very plentifully. Moisture should flow to all roots. In the fall, watering is gradually reduced. The lower the air temperature in the room, the less watered. After drying the surface of the soil waiting for about three days. In winter, watering is minimized, but does not allow drying out. With a lack of moisture, calamondin leaves curled, dried, showered flowers and ovaries. Excess moisture leads to the appearance of rot.
- Humidity Calamondin is neutral to moisture. Spraying is recommended during hot summer days and in winter during the heating season. Next to the battery Calamondin do not put. If the humidity of the air in the apartment is below 40%, it is necessary to increase it artificially by arranging the water tanks and placing the tub in a wet sphagnum tray.
- Hygiene For hygienic purposes, the tree periodically arrange bathing under a warm, almost hot shower. The maximum water temperature is 55 ° C. Hot water under pressure well cleans the leaves of accumulated dust, serves as a prevention of the appearance of spider mites. Land in a pot while swimming is closed with polyethylene.
- The soil . Calamondin ground should be nutritious and breathable. The optimum acidity is not higher than pH 6.5. One part of biohumus and the same fine gravel are added to three parts of the universal soil mixture.
- Transplant Up to the age of three, annual transplantation is recommended for trees. Adult calamondins are transplanted less frequently - once every two or three years. The optimal time for a transplant is spring. If the pot has become very cramped, the roots have rotted, salinization is observed or souring of the soil can be transplanted at other times of the year. Calamondin root system is vulnerable, they try not to hurt her - the old earthy lump is not destroyed.
- Pot and drainage. Choose a pot equal in depth and width. Large drainage holes are made at the bottom. Large claydite is well suited as a drainage. It can be replaced with walnut shells.
- Top dressing. Feed from the beginning of spring to the end of summer. Make complex fertilizers. The dose of nitrogen in the composition of the drug should be minimal, potassium and phosphorus - increased. The intervals between feedings - two weeks. Drugs are added to water for irrigation. If Calamondin blooms in autumn or winter, the fertilizing schedule is revised. They continue to make at monthly intervals. Strictly adhere to the recommendations on the dosage of the instructions for each specific drug.
- Crop. Cut calamondin (tsitrofortunella) necessary. He easily tolerates pruning, quickly lets side shoots. As a result, regular pruning form a spherical dense crown, stimulate flowering, fruit set.
Cultivation from a stone
Features Growing calamondin from the bone is a long and laborious process. Theoretically, Calamondin will begin to bear fruit in six years, but in practice it takes about ten years before the first flowering. The seeds of calamondin very quickly lose their germination, so they should be planted immediately after harvest. The fruit is left on the tree to the last - it must be fully ripe.
- Prepare a nutrient soil mixture. It consists of fertile soil, sand and peat.
- Pour the soil into the container, lay the seeds on the surface, sprinkle them with a layer of 1–2 cm of earth.
- The soil is well moistened with an atomizer, the container is covered with a film. Keep in a warm, well-lit place. The optimum temperature for seed germination is 25-28 ° C.
- After emergence of shoots the film is removed. Dive at the stage of two true leaves in separate pots.
Features You can propagate Calamondin cuttings. Cuttings are cut at the beginning of spring from strong, healthy branches. It is easiest to root apical cuttings with three or four internodes, fully matured leaves.
- Cut the cuttings, cut for an hour dried.
- The lower part of the cutting is treated with a solution of phytohormone, placed in a light soil. Dig into the soil to the bottom sheet.
- Capacity with a handle covered with a jar. Maintain a temperature of about 24-28 ° C.
- Daily shelter for half an hour removed, as needed moisten the soil.
How to instill
Features If properly planted calamondin, it will be more resilient to drought, will develop a good root system. Most often it is grafted on orange seedlings. You can vaccinate at any time from March to late summer. During the period of active growth, grafts take root well and start growing.
- With the rootstock removed the lower leaves and branches, cut at a selected height.
- The stock is vertically incised to a depth of about 2 cm. The bark is separated from the wood.
- Choose a suitable branch for the scion. On the bottom side of the cutting make a cut.
- A stalk is placed in a vertical incision, clamped and wrapped with insulating tape.
- The junction is tightly wrapped with plastic wrap.
- A month later, you can remove the polyethylene, after two - an insulating tape.
What is this plant?Get acquainted a little closer! This compact tree or shrub differs from other flowering plants by its small bright green leaves and glossy surface. Even at the slightest touch to them, shoots reproduce a fresh citrus scent. Citrofortunella is the name for this prominent member of the ruta family in a different way. He came to us from the countries of Southeast Asia and firmly secured the honorary title of "golden orange".
Kalamondin - an evergreen plant obtained by the method of hybridization of mandarin and kumquat. The first buds in the form of small white flowers appear on it in 3-5 years after planting. After about 6 months, they are replaced by small tangerines, bringing warmth, light and indescribable delight to the house. With proper care, they will appear throughout the year, raising the mood and bringing memories of sunny summer.
It is interesting, but on the branches of calamondin can simultaneously accommodate, as bright orange, ripe fruits, and full-blown buds, together with the emerging green "oranges". Very often, many new growers are interested in whether they can be eaten. Yes, calamondin fruits are edible, but it is impossible to call them especially tasty. Its aromatic, sweet crust is combined with bitter-sour, slightly astringent pulp.
Features of growth and development
A few words about the "Asian mandarin"! This evergreen, shtambovy tree in terms of nature grows into a height of 5 m. In the home flower garden it falls short of a meter. Calamondin citrus is a fast-growing shrub with a lush crown. Due to his elegant appearance, abundant flowering and fruiting, he earned the title of guest of honor in many greenhouses, winter gardens, offices and home flower beds.
Interesting! The newly ripened fruits of calamondin contain a huge amount of nutrients. But here it is important to exercise caution. The glut of the body with vitamin C threatens with strong allergic reactions. Therefore, it is advisable to add pieces of this hybrid to tea, make jam or candied fruit from it.
In the wild, Calamondin lives for an incredibly long time and 50–100 years is not the limit for him. In a normal home environment, it also develops rapidly, however, it is important to observe the rules and regulations of qualified care. This citrus room feels great on the balcony, loggia and easily tolerates dry air.
For the first time, Calamondin blooms in May – June with small flowers similar to asterisks. At home, this process lasts continuously. This bloom does not weaken the plant. The appeared fruits are firmly attached to the branches, long pleasing with brightness and beauty. Over-grown tangerines acquire friability and lose their flavor, although their decorative properties remain.
Comfortable conditions for the growth of calamondin in the home flower garden
Caring for calamondin at home does not imply any special permutations and hassle. It is enough just to show a little attention (to provide sufficient humidity, air temperature, drainage, pruning), and the plant will respond with lush greens and year-round fruiting.
Calamondin is shade-loving, so an overabundance of sunlight is fatal for him. Installed on the southern windowsill leaves lose their brightness, elasticity and gradually die off. The best place for a hybrid is west or east in the warm season and north in the winter. In the summer, calamondin are darkened and taken to fresh air. However, it is important to respect the measure. Constantly and smoothly turning the crown towards the sun, you can achieve at home uniform growth of the tangerine tree.
Important! Calamondin is prone to disease, so any drafts and sudden changes in temperature eliminate completely. Do not even open the window near him. A sharp whiff of wind and the movement of cold masses will cause stress in a growing hybrid.
Kalamondin is a thermophilic perennial that easily adapts to heat, cold and any home conditions. Despite this, the place for the pot is chosen very carefully and take into account the following parameters. Suitable temperature at home is 18–25 ° C in summer and 13–18 ° C in winter. Note that even a slight decrease in these values by several divisions increases the flowering and fruiting rates. In this way, calamondin growth conditions are as close as possible to the natural microclimate.
Kalamondin - moisture-loving green handsome, requiring periodic spraying with soft, well-settled water. Excessively dry air affects the state of its foliage: shoots begin to wither and dry. You can fix the situation by installing water tanks, aquariums, and fountains next to the plant.
Features care and cultivation Calamondin
At room content, the plant forms a compact shrub or an elegant stem tree, although in the open air the culture sometimes reaches five meters in height. With simple care at home citrus Calamondin:
- grows well
- bears fruit
- it can be propagated by cuttings or seeds.
Today, indoor plant lovers are offered plants not only with monotonous foliage, but also variegated forms, in which even the fruits have an unusual striped color.
In the second half of spring, citrus blooms, and then the crown is covered with very fragrant, star-shaped flowers of white color. The plant requires manual pollination, after which numerous ovaries form on it.
Even a small copy with proper fertilizing and watering will not discard them and may bloom when immature fruits still remain on its branches. On discomfort or violations of growing conditions, calamondin signals loss of foliage.
If you do not take the right measures, the plant will die. How to care for calamondin? What are the requirements for maintenance and care of this culture?
Caring for citrus calamondin at home
For the first time, a grower may encounter a few weeks after acquiring a bright plant, with wilting and falling foliage. The fact is that the exotic perennial is not easy to adapt, and when moving from the store to the apartment changes:
In addition, the causes of illness and lack of success in the care of citrus calamondin can be found in the depletion of a fruiting tree from a long stay in the store or insufficient care. Therefore, it is better to transplant the plant, after examining and cleaning the root system of dead or rotten fragments. The crown can be covered with a package in order to artificially increase the humidity of the air and create a semblance of a greenhouse.
Since exotic cultures are not indifferent to the sun, then the place for them should be found on the light side. True, the shelter from direct scorching rays still need to take care.
A calamondin bought in winter is protected from possible drafts and immediately placed under fitolamps to extend the daylight. And in subsequent winters, highlighting is required.
At home, the cultivation of calamondin does not require the grower to maintain a special temperature. Plants, if all the rules of care for citrus Calamondin are observed, easily tolerate the hot season, and the temperature is considered optimal for them:
- 18–24 ° C in the summer,
- 12–16 ° C in winter.
Plants are moisture-loving and respond well to spraying, which helps them survive the heat. In the cold season, such frequent soil moistening is not required.
Top dressing can be traditional, combined with irrigation, and foliar. Kalamandins need additional nutrition all year round, especially with frequent and abundant fruiting.
If, when caring for Calamondin, foliar dressings are practiced at home, irrigation is best done on the back of the leaves. So it will not be possible to spoil the appearance of glossy sheet plates. Conducting such procedures is prescribed for the evening, so that sun rays burn the places where the drops hit.
Care of the calamondin at home
Due to its exoticism, flavor and the presence of fruit, homemade mandarin can be a very nice gift. If someone suddenly decided to please you with such an unusual gift, or you just never wound up like plants, then you should not worry about having to watch him 24 hours a day. It is quite unpretentious, and, perhaps, it will be difficult to call it capricious.
As soon as you get this plant in your hands, you should immediately pay attention to the soil in the pot. It must be constantly hydrated. Within 14 days after the purchase of citrofortunella, it is necessary to spray it daily from a spray bottle and provide the greatest coverage. Also at this time it is not necessary to replant it - it is not required. After two weeks, you can already transplant it, but in a large pot.
Также имеется несколько нюансов по поводу содержания цитрофортунеллы. Во-первых, при пересадке старайтесь не задеть нежные корни молодого растения, иначе оно может погибнуть, так и не дав плодов. Во-вторых, корни могут перегреться. To avoid this, you can rearrange the pot in a white pots and cover with a sheet of paper on the sunny side. It is worth noting that changing the soil during transplantation is not necessary.
Moving from the store to your apartment, Calamondin may face new conditions and a new atmosphere. An addiction to a new setting — adaptation — can manifest itself in the form of falling leaves in the first days of being in a new place. If this has been noticed, it is necessary to create additional air humidity by putting an ordinary plastic bag on the tree. After that it will need to be aired daily.
In flower shops, imported plants are popular, and home tangerine is no exception. Such exoticism is grown in conditions specially created for them. It happens that plants are given capsules with hormones that are incompatible with the conditions in the apartment. For this reason, the plant may begin to wither in front of his eyes, and this means that it is worth taking measures quickly: transplant it into another soil and pot and pay special attention to the roots. In case they are rotten, you need to trim these areas.
When planting citrofortunella, you need to remember that she loves moderate heat and moisture, as described above. Therefore support of constant temperature and humidity is necessary. In summer, the mandarin can live in a room where the temperature does not exceed +25 degrees Celsius, and in winter - up to +18 degrees. A lower temperature in winter time corresponds to the actual temperature in natural conditions; moreover, this decrease provokes a greater number of flowers and, as a result, fruits.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
Calamondin, like any other flowering plant, needs additional minerals and nutrients during flowering, so from March to September you need to fertilize the soil once a week and a half. At any other time, this should not be done so often, once a month is enough.
Special gardening shops provide their customers with mixtures for feeding your tree. It is also available on the Internet for free access. The most effective and popular means for fertilizing Calamondin can be called "humus for citrus". It contains many beneficial trace elements, humic substances in high dosage. On the other hand, you can simply purchase formulations for flowering houseplants.
To transplant a tangerine tree, you need a large pot, because it can have a very developed large root system. In addition, citrofortunella from a small tree can grow into a tree large enough for its type. It is necessary to pay attention to the position of the root collar relative to the ground in the old pot and ensure exactly the same, only in the new one. During transplanting, do not touch the clod of the earth with roots, so as not to damage anything. Drainage must be of exceptional quality.
Within one and a half months the mandarin does not need to be fertilized, since for you it will make a new fresh soil enriched with useful substances and minerals.
Putting soil in the pot should start with drainage. Lay it on the bottom perimeter with a layer of up to three centimeters. Next - a mixture of different soils. For citrofortunella, turfy ground, manure and sand are well suited, their proportion being approximately 2: 1: 1.
If the plant is still young, then you need to replant it quite often: every spring. An adult tree does not require such frequent transplants; you need only once in 2-3 years.
All plants require timely pruning. To form a beautiful spherical foliage, you need a quarter-meter tall. Upstairs are the skeletal branches, followed by the formation of branches an order of magnitude higher. It is necessary to reach the branches of the 4th order, then the crown can be considered complete. It is time for pruning begins in February, until the summer level, and in the summer they cut off the extra sticking branches.