Blue spruce is one of the most beautiful conifers. You can use it to decorate a variety of areas. The peculiarity of spruce is that its needles have a blue color. Her homeland is North America. Reproduction of blue spruce can occur by seed or cuttings. Most often it is the second option that is used, since it increases the chances of growing a healthy and beautiful tree.
It is necessary to begin to reproduce the blue beauty with the help of cuttings from their harvesting. In the role of the maternal form, trees of blue, gray and silver species of Siberian Christmas trees are involved. Today they are present in a wide variety, as they actively decorate squares, botanical gardens and garden plots. The maximum age of a tree should be 40 years. If you remove the cuttings from younger plants, then they take root in 80%, but more old - only 50%.
Harvesting seedlings is performed by peeling off the branches from the side of the tree. On the resulting shoots should remain a layer of old wood. This allows the cutting to grow normally and not to rot. If you use this method, the resin will not stand out and the elements of the conducting system will not clog.
If a knife is used to trim the cuttings, the resin will actively flow out, which prevents the full supply of nutrients for normal growth and development of the seedling.
The most suitable time for harvesting is spring - this is the end of April – the beginning of May. It is during this period that buds covering the scales are moved apart and the green cone extends. If you follow these recommendations, the resulting cutting will have roots already on the 80th day. And after 5 months, the length of its roots reaches 20 cm.
On the video - reproduction of blue spruce cuttings:
Where to begin
Before you start planting blue spruce, you must choose a place to plant. You can not plant trees on the site where they grew vegetables, susceptible to fungal diseases. This can lead to infection of trees through the soil by pathogenic fungi belonging to the genus Fusarium. When planting should be added to the ground ground, which was taken from under the coniferous trees.
Gardeners often wonder: which planting method is better to choose and can spruce be propagated by cuttings? For planting it is customary to use three methods: cuttings, twigs and seeds. Let us consider in more detail each of these methods.
The best option for this type of tree would be the soil where lawn grass grew. It can be mixed with coniferous soil. To the already prepared soil should add fertilizer, which includes peat. Blue spruce seeds can be sown directly in open ground. And you can - in containers to first grow seedlings.
Planting material should be sown in a well-moistened soil. When sown in a container, the seeds are deepened 1.5 cm, then covered with glass or film.
In open ground planting technology is different. Tamper soil, planting material is laid on it, leaving the distance between the seeds of about 5 cm. Sprinkled with peat or sawdust on top. The first seedlings usually appear after two weeks.
How to propagate blue spruce branches
More often than other methods in the cultivation of spruce using cuttings. But if you want to try to grow a tree from a branch, you can easily cope with this task, you should follow only a few tricks. First of all, you need to find a healthy young spruce, whose age does not exceed 8 years. Please note that the branch must be cut from the top, always the same age. From the middle of the tree, the branch can also settle down, but it is highly likely that the tree will have a crooked curve. We offer you some subtleties of how to propagate a blue spruce with a branch:
- Most often, such a seedling takes root in the second year. To speed up the process, planting material is prepared in early spring.
- Lignified cuttings that were cut in the fall or winter should be kept all winter in a cool, dark place.
- The length of the branches can vary from 10 to 25 cm.
- After cutting, they should remove all the needles from below (3-6 cm) and let them go to the solution of potassium permanganate.
- In order for the sapling to take root well and quickly give roots, it is recommended to make a small greenhouse for it.
- When planting at the bottom of the fossa must be put drainage, this will help avoid stagnant moisture. It may consist of broken bricks, stones, large rubble. Ground is poured on top, then sand (preferably purified). Soil is recommended to dial in the spruce forest or buy in the store.
- We cover the top with a film so that the distance between the sand and covering material is no more than 30 cm.
- The first time you need to shade the landing, throwing a piece of burlap on the film.
- Plant a sprig exactly as deep as it is free from needles.
- At first, watering should be carried out abundantly and daily, if there are hot days, it is necessary to water up to 4 times a day. It is equally important to loosen the soil. After the appearance of the first roots, 4 times should not be watered.
- For the winter, we surely cover the saplings with foliage or sawdust.
How to propagate blue spruce cuttings
At home, one of the ways to independently propagate spruce is grafting. We immediately say that this method is considered more convenient, because it allows you to fully preserve all the best maternal signs of blue spruce. They start the process in the first days of May, it is at this time that active sap flow begins. Cuttings should be prepared from young lateral shoots. The age limit of spruce should be 40 years. If cuttings are taken from young plants, then in 80% of cases they will take roots, from old ones - in 50%. Planting material is prepared as follows: it is only necessary to pick it off with your hands so that a piece of wood, the so-called heel, remains on them. Thanks to her, coniferous resin will not be able to clog the cells of the young seedling and will not restrict the flow of the required amount of moisture. The size of the workpiece should be at least 10 cm. The best time for harvesting cuttings is early morning. After collecting the planting material should be placed for several hours in a solution of growth stimulator, and then immediately planted in the ground.
How to propagate blue spruce from cuttings that do not have “heels”, i.e., accidentally broken off shoots? Such planting material must first be kept for about 2 weeks in the refrigerator. This happens as follows: broken billets are soaked for one hour in water and then placed in a plastic bag with wet sand so that a part of the branch is buried 2 cm in sand. After this procedure, the bag must be tightly tied. After 14 days, seedlings can be planted in the ground.
How to breed blue spruce? Prepared cuttings should be planted in a greenhouse using sand. The thickness of this layer should not be less than 1.5 cm, it should be moistened before planting. In order for the cuttings to better root, you can use special growth stimulants, gardeners very often use "Heteroauxin". Prepare the solution as follows: take 1 liter of water and 100 g of the drug. Planting material is placed in the solution for 3-6 hours, then rinsed with running water and planted in the prepared substrate. During the first two or three weeks, the cuttings should be shaded, and the air should be moistened. Before that, the walls and floors of the greenhouse should be sprayed with water and the soil loosened.
After planting the cuttings, they need to provide proper care. Only in this case, you can get a healthy beautiful plant. Blue spruce can grow well in the shade, but in order to get a more fluffy tree, you should choose a sunny warm place. The following points should be taken into account: the soil should be damp, strong winds should be absent.
Blue spruce trees are very sensitive to moisture, therefore drought should not be allowed, but at the same time, water stagnation should be avoided. Otherwise, it may happen that the roots start to rot and the tree dies. After watering, the soil must be loosened: this will ensure access of air and water to the roots of the plant. It should be noted that an adult plant requires no more than 10 liters of water per week, it does not need frequent watering.
If for any reason the place for planting was chosen unsuccessfully, then the tree can be transplanted again. Such an event brings the blue spruce well enough, but still it should not be done often. After choosing a place, you should prepare a planting hole, put drainage into it, pour in soil suitable for a coniferous plant, and pour sand on top. Root neck when planting blue spruce should be located above the ground.
These evergreen beauties have always been considered one of the best garden decorations. Decorative forms of blue spruce trees are considered ideal for creating garden compositions and landscaping. Increasingly, in the gardens you can see Canadian spruce, or rather, its short form called conic. This spruce feels great in the open field, and when grown in pots.
Since the most popular and effective way of reproduction is cuttings, we offer you information on how to propagate the conic spruce by cuttings. With this method of breeding young spruce retains all the maternal signs. However, it is worth noting that this process is quite long. Experts advise to carry out reproduction and cultivation in the open air, this will allow you to create the most natural conditions. The cuttings are started in June so that in a few months the cut place on the cuttings has time to grow, and the tree becomes more actively rooted.
For cuttings should take only the lower leaves. The optimal size of the cuttings is 10-12 cm. It is necessary to properly break off the cutting from the mother tree, it must be necessarily with a “heel” (part of the bark of the tree). If these conditions are not met, most often the stalk dies.
Seedlings should be placed for a couple of hours in a growth stimulator, for example, “Kornevin”; later this solution can be diluted with water and used for watering. We prepare a nutrient substrate: we combine peat, turf soil, leaf soil and sand. Cuttings should be buried 2.5 cm in the ground. Further care is to maintain the necessary moisture. At the permanent place spruce can be planted after 4-5 years.
Blue spruce in nature and in breeding
Homeland beauties spruce - North America. There it is common in the mountainous regions of the west, southwest, and is a symbol of two states: Utah and Idaho. Under natural conditions it grows up to 40 m tall and can reach an age of several centuries. The crown of young trees is in the shape of a narrow cone, and in older ones it is cylindrical. The needles are green with a blue-gray dusting. Cones are light brown in the open state with a diameter of about 4 cm. In the north of Russia there are also forms of spruce with blue needles. The wax coating protects the branches from excessive evaporation and harmful atmospheric substances.
Attention! The definition of "blue spruce", says only about color, and not about belonging to the species. Kind of "blue spruce" does not exist, blue color is found in spruce ordinary, spruce barbed, Canadian, Siberian.
Decorative varieties with blue needles:
- Montgomery (bright blue flattened crown, height 2 m).
- Blue Pearl (dwarf tree with bright green-blue needles).
- Blue fog (dwarf variety, rich blue needles).
- Glauka Globoza (dwarf variety with silver-blue needles).
- Canadian gray (dwarf variety with rapid growth, needles of a bluish tint).
Alternative rooting methods for spruce blue
For branches, broken in the winter, use this option landing. The lower part of the cuttings treated with root, is covered with moist moss. Instead of moss, you can use a soaked peat tablet. Top tightly wrapped with a paper towel and fixed with a rubber band. In such a roll several shanks are wrapped at once with a distance of 5 cm from each other. The convolutions are placed entirely in plastic bags and suspended in a cool room. If successful, the roots will spill in 2.5–3 months. In May, they are planted in a greenhouse under the film.
Some advise before rooting to hold the cuttings of spruce in wet sand at low temperatures. The branches are placed in a plastic container with large river sand, deepening them by 1 cm. The container is closed and placed in a cold place with t + 1 ... + 3 ° C. After a three-week content, the twigs are transferred to a greenhouse, where they initially maintain conditions from +15 to +18 С °. Then increase to + 20 ... + 23 С °.
The cuttings are planted obliquely at an angle of 30 ° and to a depth of no more than 1.5 cm, since the ephedra poorly tolerate a deep landing. Greenhouse pritenuyut from bright sunlight, protecting from overheating, aired. The optimum temperature for rooting is +20 ° C. In cases of reduced modes, the walls are insulated with special mats. A high level of humidity (not less than 85%) in a greenhouse can be maintained by a fogging installation.
Council In a greenhouse for conifers, a drainage layer 5 cm thick is required.
In the first year, a callus is formed, a kind of growth from which the roots will develop. In the second year, young seedlings can be determined for permanent residence in the open ground. The first winter of the Christmas tree is carried out under shelter.
Choosing a place and care for blue spruce
All conifers prefer areas protected from wind and direct sun. The soil is preferably slightly acidic or acidic in terms of ph. Heavy clay soil with constant moisture stagnation will not work.
Soil should be light with good air exchange. Consider how much an adult tree will be in height, so that you do not have to disturb it with a transplant once again. The distance between trees of dwarf varieties is about one meter, for averages about three, for large ones not less than five meters. When planting, drainage is put on the bottom of the hole, the root neck of the plant is oriented at the level of the top of the soil. The width of the pit is selected taking into account the root system of the seedling.
In the drought, Christmas trees watered. At least one adult plant needs at least 10 liters of water. In feeding a blue spruce almost does not need. In the spring you can pour a liquid solution of fertilizers for conifers.
Blue spruce can affect: spruce sawfly, bark beetles, scale insects, spruce (hermes) and root aphids. To control insects, diseased trees are treated with insecticidal agents. As a prevention, carefully inspect the trees, do not allow the site to become clogged.
Blue spruce can also be obtained from seeds. This method is longer and does not always give a full transfer of varietal characteristics. Cutting is considered a faster and more efficient method. Experiment, and you will be pleased with the result of your own work.
How to propagate the blue spruce?
Like any plant, blue spruce can multiply in two ways: planting seeds or germinating cuttings. Nowadays, you can use both methods, but for confidence and without losing a lot of time, we recommend growing blue spruce cuttings, which is guaranteed to ensure germination and the formation of a tree.
Proper preparation of cuttings
Spontaneous markets or special complexes offer to buy ready-made cuttings, which not only grew, but also formed the first root system. There is a budget option - to prepare the petiole with one's own hands, and to create conditions for its germination and prosperous development. To do this, choose a tree that is best suited as a "parent". Opinions experienced gardeners differ, because some believe that the tree should be chosen fairly young, others on the contrary confidently say that only a fully mature tree that grows at least 35-40 years old can “share” good cuttings. The age of the root and the degree of development of the future spruce depend on the age of the “mother”.
In no case can not cut the branches from the tree with a knife, because the resin flows and violates all stages of the development of the cuttings. The most optimal way is to break a branch, which necessarily has a small part of the “mother” bark on the shoot, this will provide protection from leakage and confidence in future development and germination.
The optimal period of harvesting cuttings
It turns out that cuttings can grow and grow into roots only if you pick them in time and create the most favorable conditions for growth. To prepare the cuttings for cultivation, the middle of spring is suitable, since April is the most favorable period for reproduction. There is a statement that if you start to grow cuttings in the summer or autumn, all efforts are useless and the plant will remain in the initial state and no growth or development will take place.
Soil and drop capacity
It is believed that the cutting should be planted as soon as possible after the breakdown, therefore the soil and capacity should be prepared in advance. Для первого формирования корня подходит любая глубокая емкость, от стандартного пол литрового одноразового стаканчика, до цветочного горшка. Обязательно оборудуйте дренажную систему на дне посудины, так как это условие – не обсуждается.As a soil, it is best to use a purchased substrate intended for growing conifers, because it is enriched with all the necessary vitamins and minerals that will speed up the process of germination and strengthening. You can also use universal standard substrates that are sold even in the supermarket, but there is no guarantee of a positive result. In any case, the upper ball is 2-4 cm, depending on the capacity, it is necessary to fill it with sand. The presence of sand is a must!
The process of preparing stalks and planting
There are two ways of planting cuttings: direct and prepared. In the first case, you just need to immerse the cutting in the prepared soil, sprinkle with water and slightly loosen the soil. The probability of germination is high, but long enough and can take from 80 to 90 days. The second method, accelerates the formation of the root, therefore, is more effective and common. The use of means to accelerate germination is the main secret of the method. You need to purchase a special solution that stimulates growth and, according to the instructions, process the cutting and leave for a few hours. If it is not possible to use a ready-made solution, then try to treat the cuttings with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, which also has a beneficial effect on the formation of the root, but not as pronounced as growth stimulants. The main thing to remember is that before planting, the solution must be rinsed with running water and immersed in the prepared soil, and then sprinkled. It is necessary to wait for the formation of the root for a long time and it may take from a month and a half or more.
Organization of proper care
Cuttings, like children, need care and care. For this, it is necessary to create a shadow at first, which will ease the hardest period - getting used to the new soil and habitat. Ate very much like humid air, so it is best to use special humidifiers, but in the absence of such, you can safely spray everything around in order to create conditions of high humidity. Soil periodically you need to loosen, so that fresh air without problems enriches both the soil and the plant with oxygen.
How to water the cuttings?
Proper watering is an integral component of the full development of the plant. Blue spruces do not tolerate drought, but at the same time die when watering too much. The golden mean is the best option for full development. It is necessary to moisten the soil as it dries, but to control the stagnation of water, they must be avoided, because root rot can form very quickly. If you notice that the needles begin to crumble - this is the first sign that there is not enough moisture for the plant, pay attention to the regularity of watering and everything is normalized.
Care and Loosening
Blue spruce does not like dense clogged land, so loosening is the main criterion for quality plant care, both at the initial stage and during growth in open ground. A dense crust from the ground does not allow air, limiting the flow of necessary elements for the full development and growth, therefore, without loosening, development slows down and the cutting can die.
Do I need to cut the spruce?
There are several opinions about this issue, as some people are sure that it is not worth touching the plant, because under usual conditions no one ever cuts it off, and therefore it is not worth it in “captivity” either. But opponents, argue their position by the fact that only by cutting off the excess part, you help the plant to acquire the correct form and "push" to full growth and proportional development.
Correct transfer conditions
Once your cuttings are well rooted and sprouted, you need to transplant them to a “permanent place”. Naturally, it is necessary to choose a place depending on the free territory, because the height of the spruce will not be 25 meters, but it will quite reach 4-5 meters. Consider these points when choosing a place.
Dig a hole that you must fill with a drainage made from stones or bricks, even place mineral fertilizers for coniferous plants and compost, which will ensure quick addiction to a new place and confidence in full growth. Remember that it is necessary to immerse the plant in the ground to the neck, thus, natural development and growth will not interfere.
Growing blue spruce in the area of cuttings is difficult, but possible, with great desire and compliance with minimal features.