Golden-yellow hazel earrings, which appear much earlier than leaves, are not only an early-spring garden decoration, but also a source of pollen for bees. In the summer, its dense foliage provides reliable protection from dust and noise, and in the autumn ripe nuts ripen — a treat for everyone.
Hazel - shrub description
Common Hazel (Corylus avellana) is very unpretentious, does not need special care and does not cause trouble to gardeners. It grows as a large multi-trunk bush with an umbrella-like crown with a height of 3-5 m.
The dense light green foliage of hazel is in autumn painted in golden yellow tones.
Fruits - brown nuts in a green sheet wrapper (plyusa), located 3-4 at the ends of the shoots. From pollination to fruit ripening takes about 5 months.
When ripe, the edges of the plyus dry up and the nut falls out of the wrapper. The root system is powerful, fibrous, superficial.
Hazel fruits irregularly. Adult hazel nuts produce up to 3 kg of nuts from a bush, varieties - 8 kg or more. The life span of the plant is about 60 years.
Hazel kernels are not only tasty, but also the most high-calorie among the nuts. They even have more calories than in fish and meat, and besides about 70% of non-drying fatty oil, 16-23% of proteins, up to 8% of sugars, 3.2% of fiber, a lot of vitamins and microelements. The leaves and bark contain essential oils.
Hazel-based drugs treat skin diseases. The leaves are harvested in May. Their infusions are useful in diseases of the liver and kidneys. Pounded with water, nuts are taken with bronchitis, fever, anemia, rheumatism, as antihelminthic.
Garden nuts - edible varieties
Cultural forms and varieties of hazel and the fruits themselves are called hazelnuts.
Large fruit varieties of hazelnuts are successfully grown in central Russia. The average yield of the kernel is 48-52% of the weight of dry nuts.
CATHERINE. Dessert variety, it can be grown with equal success in central Russia and in the south. Vigorous shrub with red leaves, color of the wrapper and nuts from pink to dark crimson. Walnut long, large, thin shell. Plyuska significantly less nut.
HYBRID No. 1 TSCA. Winter-hardy, green-leaved hazel-nut, good pollinator for red-leaved forms. Excellent for climatic conditions of the Central region of the Russian Federation. Bushes undersized.
Ivanteevsky RED. Winter-hardy variety of medium ripening with large red leaves. Productivity to 3 kg from a plant. Good pollinator for green leaf forms of hazelnuts. Bush height of about 4.5 m with a thick crown. Fruit weighing up to 2 g, wide ribbed, oblong. The shell is of medium thickness, smooth, with thin stripes, brown, to the top light brown.
MOSCOW EARLY. High resistance grade universal purpose. Productivity to 3 kg from a bush. Bush srednerosly (up to 3 m) with a compact, rounded crown. The leaves are red, oblong fruit, weighing up to 2 g. The shell is of medium thickness, the core of good taste.
As pollinators use green leaf forms (Tambov Early, Tambov Late, Firstborn).
MOSCOW RUBY. Winter hardy, productive variety. Already at the beginning of summer, the color of leaves, plyus and the nut itself is bright crimson, and by the end of summer it is almost purple.