Proper care of the peach, regular inspection for the presence of diseases and pests, timely preventive measures will help to avoid many troubles in growing this valuable crop.
To prevent the appearance of pests and various diseases, as well as to combat them, fungicides and insecticides are used. Insecticides can directly affect the pests themselves, or penetrate into different parts of the plant and destroy sucking insects. Fungicides prevent the occurrence of the disease, or restrain it, therefore, are used mainly in order to prevent diseases, or in their initial stage.
The use of various poisons in the fight against pests and peach diseases requires special knowledge, since their inept use can cause poisoning of people working with them, the death of beneficial insects, and pollution of the soil and the environment with harmful substances.
The most common diseases of peach are leaf curl, moniliosis, fruit rot, blistering, scab, powdery mildew.
Pests include aphids, spider mites, the eastern moth, shield insects, plum moth.
To find out what pests and peach diseases look like, you can see the photos presented in our gallery:
Peach Tree Disease Curly
Leaf curl - a disease of peach, manifested in the form of reddish blistering on the leaf plates. Gradually the leaves swell, covered with white bloom caused by fungus, and then fall. If you do not fight against this disease, curliness will infect the whole tree, as a result the peach will lag behind in development and will die.
Prevention peach curl
For the prevention of curliness in early March, the plant is sprayed with 1% copper sulfate. After 4 to 5 days, the procedure is repeated. You can use the fungicide "Home", "Skor", "Raek", or a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquids. In the fall, pruning of infected trees and spraying of copper sulfate is carried out.
To reduce the chances of occurrence of this disease, for growing peach you need to choose dry, well-lit areas in the garden.
Peach Curl Treatment
In the fight against leaf curl it is necessary to remove and burn the affected parts of the plant, to loosen the soil between the trees. In autumn, the peach should be sprayed with a solution of sulfur and lime. In the spring this work is repeated.
As practice shows, peach culture is very susceptible to leaf curl, so for the timely detection of the disease during the growing season should carefully examine the plant. With prolonged wet weather, the risk of spreading this disease increases.
Peach Fruit Disease Moniliasis
Among the most dangerous diseases of the tree peach include moniliosis, when the fruits are covered with grayish rings of spores. This disease manifests itself during the growing season. Moniliasis outbreaks are usually observed if there was damp weather during flowering.
In the infected tree, the flowers and ovaries turn brown and die, the wood dries out. Developing, the fungus penetrates shoots and branches, causing them to die. Peach moniliosis is pretty easy to spot. On the affected areas, gray or light green pubescent pads are formed - spores of the fungus.
Prevention of peach moniliosis
For prevention during the swelling of the kidneys spend spraying 3% Bordeaux fluid. At the first signs of illness, all affected parts of the plant are removed and burned.
Experienced gardeners know that monilioz is also a disease of the fruits of the peach, since this fungus often leads to their rotting. The fallen fruits affected by moniliosis are collected and burned.
Disease peach disease and its treatment
Klesterosporiosis - a common disease of peach culture. Manifested in the form of brown spots on the sheet plates, instead they soon formed holes. With a strong lesion, several spots appear at once on the leaves, which merge into one large spot, and after it falls out, a large hole remains on the leaf plate.
This disease can develop on the kidneys and shoots, which will be indicated by small, bright red or orange spots, which subsequently crack and result in a thick mass. The affected parts of the tree darken and die.
Timely fertilization will help prevent the occurrence of klesterosporia. When detecting the first signs of illness, the plant must be sprayed with Bordeaux liquid. This work should be done before bud break and after flowering.
Autumn cut and burn the affected shoots. Place the slices treated with a thick solution of lime with the addition of 1% copper sulphate.
Peach scab disease and its treatment
Scab - peach disease that occurs when high humidity. Finding a scab is pretty simple. Affected fruits are deformed and cracked, and black, crust-like spots form on their surface. On the leaves appear light green spots, after which they fall. Gradually, the tree weakens, its yield decreases. On young shoots tubercles are formed, which later break the bark, as a result of which cracks and crusts appear on it.
To combat scab in the spring before the kidneys swell, use the drug "Delan", copper oxychloride and "Topsin M", according to the instructions.
Autumn collect and destroy the foliage. During pruning, shoots that are cracked and covered with crusts are removed.
Knowing which peach diseases most often attack this crop, and in time for their treatment, the grower will grow a strong, healthy tree that will regularly delight with a rich harvest of fruits. Neglect of preventive measures can lead to neglect of disease and subsequently to the death of plants.
Above are the peach diseases with a photo in which you can see how the plant looks like with the defeat of a particular disease.
Peach tree pests
Despite the fact that this culture is rarely affected by pests, some insects sometimes still disturb its peace. Peach pest control can be done in different ways. An important role is played by the correct choice of planting site, the use of healthy planting material, the spatial isolation of plants with common pests, regular tillage, and fertilization.
The following are the most common peach pests.
Peach aphid pest
Most of the danger to this plant is carried by aphids, damaging its shoots and leaves, as a result of which the leaf plates are deformed and folded, and reddish spots are formed on their surface. The largest concentrations of aphids are observed in July - August. During this period, the colonies of these insects completely cover parts of the tree.
To prevent the appearance of this pest during the growing season, peach is sprayed with karbofos, or treated with a solution of soap (1 piece per bucket of water). In a soap solution, the tree is left for 3 - 4 days. During this time, the insect completely releases the plant. Aphid colonies can also be removed manually.
Peach pest shieldovka
Shchitovki harm peach bark. This insect can be recognized by solid shields up to 3 mm long. Shin guards serve as a shelter for scutes, which, having laid their eggs, die. In May, the larvae hatch and spread throughout the tree, intensively feeding and increasing in size. In late July, they are fully prepared for reproduction.
In order to combat insects in the early spring, before bud break, they are treated with emulsions of mineral oils, and during the growing season, karbofos.
To recognize the main pests of peach can be on the following photo:
Peach can damage a variety of insects. The most dangerous are the following representatives:
The pest infects the shoots and leaves, the leaf plates curl and become covered with red spots. Particularly active aphid shows in July and August. To reduce the risk of insects, it is necessary during the growing season to treat the trees with Karbofos. In addition, garden processing soap soap will also give a positive result.
The pest does damage to the bark of trees. Recognize the pest will be on the shields having a length of 3 mm. The pests contain eggs. In May, the larvae breed and can spread throughout the garden. To protect the trees, they need to be treated with Karbofos solution.
They cause enormous damage to peach trees. They destroy leaves, buds, buds, flowers. In addition, they are peddlers of many diseases, for example, gray fruit rot. This can even lead to loss of harvest.
Preventive measures can protect the garden from weevils. To do this, you need to carefully inspect the trees, check the seedlings, competently plan the planting of plants. If preventive measures did not help get rid of the pest, it is necessary to resort to biological and chemical methods of control. Trees should be treated with drugs such as Anthony, Nemabakt.
Another dangerous pest that feeds on plant sap. Ticks can not only destroy the crop, but also destroy peach trees. To notice an insect is very difficult, its size does not exceed 1 mm. Ticks live on leaves, fruits, shoots. The first sign of the appearance of mites is the presence of cobwebs between the leaves.
To protect the garden from pests, you can hold a set of preventive measures. These include the following types of work: whitewashing the trunk, cleaning the area from weeds. Such measures reduce the risk of pests, but do not give a 100% guarantee. Therefore, trees should be regularly inspected and treated with chemicals. The most effective means are: Fitoverm, Neoron, Karate.
Caterpillars damage fruits, shoots, are a peddler of diseases. The first signs of a pest are longitudinal cracks on the shoots, spots on the fruit. To destroy moth, you can use several ways.
Preventive measures include the timely destruction of fallen leaves, disinfection of the soil. In the fight against pest, you can use traps or chemicals. Such agents as Chlorofos, Rovikurt, Karbofos have proven themselves well.
Insect is a threat to the buds, leaves, shoots. Both the mole and its larvae are very dangerous. If the moth appeared in the garden, the leaves turn yellow and eventually fall off.
When fighting against insects, it is necessary to remove fallen leaves from the site, whiten tree trunks in time, dig up the soil. In addition, you can spray the plant tincture of red pepper. Such chemical preparations as Dimilin, Insegar, Match, Konfidor have recommended themselves well.
Peaches attract special attention. Juicy fruits like both adults and children. However, it will be possible to get a good harvest only if you make every effort and carry out all the work in a timely manner.
Hazardous peach pests detected
It may seem that the enemies of this tree quite a bit. If they appear, they quickly disappear. In fact, this happens when experienced gardeners take care of the tree. To protect your favorite fruit from insatiable enemies, you should get to know them better. Peach pests attack various plant elements:
As a result, peach development slows down, the crop is lost and leads to death. The most reliable way to save the tree - the detection of pests and tireless struggle with them. But first it is important to know the enemy by sight.
Disguised roommate - shield
At first glance, the insect looks pretty cute. His body is covered with a thick shell, which is as if smeared with wax. From the side it resembles a shield (hence the name of the insect). In nature, there are a huge number of species. They differ from each other in color, shape, size and addiction to food. These peach pests settle on the bark of a tree. From it, they suck moisture, lay eggs and even hibernate. They grow to 7 mm. Some species of insect are viviparous. After the birth of the larvae are in active movement until they find a secluded place. They attach to the shoots, foliage and trunk of the proboscis, then emit wax, which later becomes a protective shield.
Shchitovki that cause irreparable harm to the peach, there are two types: Californian and mulberry.
When an insect attacks a tree, special signs of its presence appear:
- leaf plates start to wilt,
- young shoots twisted,
- bark becomes loose
- fruits are covered with red dots.
How to deal with the shield on the peach to protect the tree from damage and to gather a valuable crop? There are several ways:
- Manually. If the tree is small, insects can simply be collected from the places of "dislocation" and destroyed.
- Agrotechnology. Removal of damaged shoots, thinning tree crown.
- Popular method. Spraying peach tincture of tobacco leaves.
- The use of chemicals for processing plants in the middle of spring and, again, in August.
By adhering to these simple rules, you can permanently get rid of this peach pest.
You can prepare the tincture as follows: dilute 400 g of tobacco in 10 liters of water and leave for 24 hours. Then boil the liquid for 2 hours and add soap (about 50 g). Dilute the finished product with water (10 L).
Invisible sucker - malicious aphid
When people say: “I have already drunk all the sap from me, they have no idea how the trees feel in such cases. The appearance of peach aphids immediately reflected on the plant:
- young shoots start to wither,
- leaves dry out and fall prematurely
- dry branches appear,
- The plant is amenable to disease.
Often insects settle in the lower part of the leaf plate, on buds (during flowering), on the tops of young shoots. Their presence gives the appearance of a sticky liquid, which attracts the attention of an ant colony. As a result, the tree suffers from the attack of a whole army of peach pests and the fight against them is the surest way of salvation for the fruit. To do this, apply drastic measures:
- removal of basal processes,
- weeding the soil near the trunk,
- cleaning of aphid accumulation sites manually or with a hose with water,
- attraction to the case of "allies": wasps, ladybugs, hoverflies,
- growing frightening plants (nettle, herbs, onions),
- spraying tinctures of garlic, dandelions and onion peel,
- peach pretreatment in the spring against pests with chemicals.
If the time to apply these ways of dealing with aphids, in the summer the tree will bring a generous harvest.
Cute pest - pinwort moth
A small butterfly with a dark body and gray-brown wings appears in the garden during the flowering of peach trees. Especially the insect is active in the mornings and late evenings. It lays hundreds of eggs on the tops of young stems, buds and stalks. When the larvae of the eastern moth develop, they need the food they get from the peach. As a result, the tree starts to hurt. Immediately on the young shoots, gum and cracks appear, which can lead to the death of the plant.
To combat insect gardeners use such methods:
But to get the final victory with pests, it is necessary to apply drastic measures.
Pest control measures
A special place in the protection of plants from harmful insects is the use of a peach processing scheme. It consists in carefully performing the procedures provided for protecting the tree from pests. The treatment is carried out in such periods of plant life:
- before the kidneys swell,
- when a pink bud appears,
- during and after flowering,
- 14 days after flowering
- during the period of active growth of the fruit and an interval of 3 weeks,
- after full harvest of fruits,
- late autumn before wintering.
Of course, a healthy tree does not need to be processed so often. The scheme provided activities for plants damaged by pests. Therefore, each gardener applies a personal decision on how to protect his garden from pests.
During the flowering of peach trees should not use insecticides. When processing neighboring crops, it is advisable to cover the peaches with plastic wrap.
MothsThe moths pose a serious threat to the young shoots and to the harvest (if the fight against these pests of the peach is late, then all the fruits may die). Most often, peaches fall prey to the eastern and plum moths.
Harm from the eastern moth is reduced not only to damage to the fruit. Caterpillars devour young shoots, carry fungi (including ascomycete, causing moniliosis). The first signs of pests are:
- gum on young shoots, longitudinal cracks, their lethargy and dying,
- wormhole on the surface of peaches.
In the fight against the eastern coddle moth, agrotechnical, natural and chemical means are used:
- agrotechnical представляют из себя профилактико-оздоровительные меры – в вечернее время счищается отмершая кора, убираются отмершие листья, падалка, обрезаются поврежденные побеги, осенью вскапывается (весной-летом – рыхлится) земля вокруг дерева. Используют также ловушки – клеевые с феромонами для самцов (эффективность этого приема небольшая), пояса на ствол из материи с пропиткой (однопроцентный хлорофос),
- естественные (biological) - with the use of Hymenoptera Trichogrammes (egg-eating riders who parasitize on Codworm eggs) - during the laying of eggs by Codling Moths,
- chemicals applied against each generation (including after harvest). Benzophosphate is a powerful agent against the eastern pinwort (10 liters - 60 g) - sprayed three times (the interval between treatments - 15 days) after flowering. They also use "Chlorofos" (10 l - 20 g), 25% "Rovikurt" (10 l - 10 g), 10% "Karbofos" (10 l - 60 g) and others. Normal consumption is up to 10 l mixes on an adult tree and 2 l on young.
Plum moth larvae infect peach fruits: the pulp and the core of the bone are eaten away, the vessels from the stem are broken (the inflow of juices stops), the fetus begins to wither, sing prematurely and falls.
The first sign of the presence of a plum moth - the massive fall of green peaches with wormholes, as well as the appearance on the fruits and leaves of lumps of cobwebs.
Peach protection from these pests by agrotechnical and natural means is similar to that applied to the eastern moth. With a small number of pests, it is advisable to use the Bitoxibacillin biopreparation against each generation (40-80 g per 10 l).
The use of chemicals has its own specifics:
- processing is carried out until the appearance of caterpillars (with the appearance of clumps of web) - "Intavir" (one tablet per 10 liters),
- against second generation caterpillars - Fufanon, Sumition, Novaktion (but not less than 30 days before harvest).
The garden moth and its larvae (especially the miner moth and the fruit striped moth) pose a serious threat to the buds, young shoots and peach leaves.
Mining MothMining mole reduces the viability of peach, inhibits growth, reduces the yield of the plant. Signs of defeat moth - premature yellowing and fall of the leaves damaged by the larvae. On the leaves - the characteristic spots, mines (in the form of tunnels, spots, etc.).
Mining mole has dimensions of about 4 mm. The female moth lays up to 90 eggs from the back of the leaves, from which the larvae gnaw out mines in the leaf plates (the skin is not damaged). Miners overwinter in bark injuries, under fallen leaves.
In the fight against the mining moth, an important role is played by the cleaning and destruction of fallen leaves, autumn whitewashing of the trunk, digging, washing away with a stream of water during the summer of butterflies.
As a natural insecticide used tincture of red pepper (boil an hour, for 10 parts of water - 5 parts of pepper, then insist for a day). 10 l - 125 ml tincture, add 40 g of soap. Spraying is carried out twice, with a gap per week.
The use of these funds does not guarantee complete release from the pest; therefore, chemical preparations are used against peach pests (for spraying the leaves, entering into the soil, and injecting into the stem).
These are drugs that affect the development of insects ("Dimilin", "Insegar", "Match", etc.) and organophosphate and organic insecticides ("Bi-58 new", "Zolon", "Konfidor Maxi", etc.) of double use .
Fruit Striped MothCaterpillars of fruit moths are distinguished by gluttony (one caterpillar is capable of destroying 5-6 shoots), devouring the buds, leaves, eating the seeds of young peaches. Caterpillars winter, climbing under the bark of a tree, in its folds, crawl out during the budding period.
The first butterflies appear in June, laying eggs at dusk. Maturation period is two weeks. In late August, butterflies of the second generation appear.
Among the ways to combat pests occupy a large place agrotechnical (pruning of affected branches and shoots, cleaning fallen leaves).
During the bud formation, the peach crown can be sprayed with emulsion with industrial oil 1-20A, "Karbofos" (10 l - 30 g) or "Chlorophos" (10 l - 20 g). During egg laying, foliage can be treated with phenoxycarb-based chemicals, and the task of how to get rid of moths on peach temporarily recedes into the background.
Aphid is a sucking type insect. With the defeat of aphids young shoots wither, dry, lose leaves, the tree begins to hurt. Signs of aphid presence:
- clusters of aphids (buds, bottom of leaves, young shoots),
- sticky liquid (pad), covering the leaves,
- twisting the tips of the shoots
- the formation of buds and fruits ceases,
- a large number of ants (they are attracted by the pad).
For peaches, green, black and striped peach aphids are particularly threatened.
Green Peach AphidInsects of light green color, small size (1.5 mm), form colonies. Especially great damage is caused by green planting to young saplings: it pierces the leaf with a proboscis and sucks the juices (the leaves fade, twist, fall, the flowers crumble, the seedlings can dry out).
Damaged shoots freeze out in winter, mushrooms settle on the paddy, tree beetle beetles appear on weakened trees.
You need to start to destroy aphids with methods softer for a peach tree:
- agrotechnical: cutting of radical growth, weeding or mowing of vegetation, stripping of bark, removal of aphids by hand or with a strong stream of water,
- biological: use of natural enemies aphids (ladybugs, wasps, hoverflies, etc.). Planting nettle, onions, herbs, etc. In addition, effective (in the initial stages) use decoctions and dandelion infusions (400 g leaves insist 2 hours in 10 liters of warm water), garlic (300 g minced garlic in 10 l of water to insist 20 minutes), onion peel (150 g husks per 10 liters of water, insist 5 days, add 50 g of soap) and etc.,
- chemical: spraying with pesticides. In the fall - Bordeaux liquid (2%), in spring, before or after flowering, - Bordeaux liquid (1%), a mixture of thiazole and fostyol, "Dipterex". With the advent of the fruits - "Bi-58 New", "Actofit" (8 ml per liter of water), etc. In the spring, you can kill aphids after winter with DNOC (once in two years).
Striped Peach AphidStriped aphid on peach sucks the juice from the bark and shoots (the bark becomes sticky), the leaves on the top shoots wrap, turn red and fall.
The name aphid received because of the 7-8 dark stripes on the yellow-green body. For winter, the eggs remain in the cracks of the bark, the larvae appear in early spring (first generation).
First they feed on the kidneys, then on the leaves. The mass appearance of striped aphids - in the second and third generation. In autumn, females lay two or three eggs and die.
Ways to combat striped peach aphids are similar to how to deal with green aphids.Shchitovka - an insect pest living on a peach. A sinus feeder sucks juices from the bark, lays eggs in it, winters also in the bark. Of the different types of flaps, mulberry and Californian shchitokis are particularly dangerous for peach.
Signs - wilting and twisting of the tips of the shoots, loose and porous bark in the habitats of the shields, shoots no longer bear fruit. A sign of Californian shchitovki serve red dots on the fruits of peaches.
The control of the shield can be done manually: by detecting the scutes, it is possible to destroy the pest (if the tree is still small).
Agrotechnical measures — thinning of crowns, destruction of infected shoots, and destruction of root shoots — are effective in fighting the shield.
Reliable proven agent is plant treatment. tincture of tobacco (400 g of tobacco insist in 10 liters of water for a day, 2 hours to boil, add 50 g of soap and pour another 10 liters of water).
At the end of April, it is possible to combine spraying against weevils and scale insects (the same preparations).From mid-June to mid-August, there is a massive hatching of strollers. This is the best time to use one of the insecticides (DNOC 40%, Iskra-M, Aliot, Inta-VIR, Kinmiks, Fufanon). After a week, you can repeat the procedure, but with a different drug.