Scientists attribute the bronze to the subfamily Cetoniinaewhich has about 4000 species of beetles that live in different parts of the globe. They are not found except in deserts and mountainous areas. All of them, as a rule, are brightly colored and have a rather large shiny body.
In European countries, the most famous bronze golden or ordinary (Cetonia aurata). On the warm summer days of these beetles, you can contemplate the garden flowers, where they drink sweet nectar and savor pollen.
Appearance and lifestyle of golden bronzovok
The length of the bronze is 1.5-2.3 cm. The color inside the species can be varied, but usually there are emerald-green with a metallic sheen on top and copper-red insects from below. Bronzovok legs are green, and the upper part of the legs purple.
Bronzovka active in the daytime. Often they can be observed in warm, sunny weather, and when it is overcast, the beetles sit motionless on the flowers. Beetles do not like cold and hide from it under the leaves of plants.
In the air, these insects look like heavy planes. And at first glance, the flyers of them are unimportant - like a bumblebee, the bronze seems too heavy. In fact, bronzkovki can fly quite quickly, and they fly with spread wings, but adherent sheaths - unlike other beetles, for example, ladybirds, whose elytra are raised during flight.
The fragile bronze wings are hidden under solid sheaths. Insects spend almost all their time in search of food among the thickets, and strong elytra reliably protect the flying wings of beetles. After the bronzovka lands, the wings hide under the covers. This is a rather complicated procedure: the wings must be folded very carefully. But since bronzovki spend most of their lives in the form of larvae, it would be more accurate to attribute them to earthly and not heavenly beings. And indeed, bugs fly for a fairly short period of their lives. When the elytra of the bronze is closed, its pronotum, a triangle between the elytra, forms a Latin letter V. The observant person can easily distinguish the golden bronze from the beetle very similar to it — the green speckled gnorimus. In Bronze, this triangle is isosceles; in Pestrius it is equilateral.
The bright coloring of the bronze is an illusion?
Bronzovka are famous for their bright colors, but, in truth, they do not have it at all. If you look at the beetle through a polarizing filter, it becomes clear that it is practically colorless. It turns out that the color of the beetle is bright green with a metallic tint due to its body's ability to diffuse light.
Plants owe their color to green pigment chlorophyll, which absorbs all light rays except green (it reflects them). And the metal ebb of the beetle is due to a unique optical effect - iridescence. This phenomenon occurs when light waves, reflected from the surface, overlap each other. This effect can still be seen on the wings of butterflies or on fish scales. In golden bronze, it arises because its rigid parts of the body consist of many thin layers. Light beams are reflected from each such layer, superimposed on each other and create a bright color play.
The amazing color range of beetles has evolved over millions of years — possibly so that the insect can attract individuals of the opposite sex. However, this feature has another advantage: the brilliance masks the outlines of the bronze, and predators do not see the appetizing beetle, but only a bright light.
The search for food for bronzovok is important, but perhaps more important for insects to have time to find a mate, i.e. continue the race And this helps them one amazing feature. On the tip of each antenna the bronzovka has a mace of three to seven plates, which unfold like a fan. This mace, making the antennae especially sensitive, helps the insect to find not only food, but also a female.
Beetles have rather intricate mating rituals, and bronze ones are no exception. Usually beetles give each other signals using light or use a special set of ritual movements. Bronzovka also uses its bright green outfit and the ability to excrete, as well as recognize special substances - pheromones, to attract a couple.
After mating, the female lays eggs in decaying organic matter, and after about 2 weeks white larvae hatch, which are unusually voracious. They take food on their backs, wielding powerful jaws. Larvae grow rapidly and molt regularly as they grow. With the arrival of winter, species living in colder climates hibernate. The next summer, the larvae form a pupa, inside of which they slowly grow.
Most beetles are born in spring. For several weeks they gorge themselves on feeding on pollen, and then begin to look for a mate for themselves. It is at this time that we most often see bronze flying in gardens and parks. Shortly after mating, the males die, and the females lay eggs after a few weeks, after which they also die. For all its short life, the female lays from several tens to several thousand eggs.
Golden bronze at home
To keep golden bronzovok at home is easy. A cage or an insectary — a tall aquarium of 20 or more liters with a mesh lid — is suitable as a dwelling. At the bottom of the aquarium pour the substrate (sand mixed with peat, turf soil and rotten leaves) with a layer of 15-20 cm. The substrate must be constantly wet, but not wet.
The temperature in the dwelling bronzovok should be room, they do not need excessive heat.
The aquarium can be decorated with snags, small stones. If desired, and the availability of space in the home bronzovok placed pots with hardy plants (ficus Benjamin, sanseviera).
Adult insects need lighting. To do this, fluorescent lamps, including terrarium, emitting about 2% of ultraviolet radiation are suitable.
In winter, wards feed on slices of apples laid in sweet water, other sweet and juicy fruits. In the summer, flowers of lilac, wild rose, rose, clover are added to the diet.
Golden bronze: description of the pest
The bronze beetle, or bronzovka, belongs to the order of beetles of the platyla family, genus cetonia, which means "metal beetle". Biologists distinguish at least five subspecies of this beetle, each of which has several deviations in appearance from the main subspecies. Therefore, the length of the oblong oval body of the beetle can range from 1.3 cm to 2.3 cm. All insects of this genus have front digging legs and antennae, which are hidden on the head under the chitinous shield. A characteristic feature of the golden bronze is the emerald green metallic chitin coating.Because of its size and anatomical features, the insect is often referred to as the green Maybot. They belong to the same family, but to different genera. Therefore, to call these two insects by one name is wrong. Especially since they have completely different behaviors.
So, bronzovki active only in sunny warm weather, although at this time can be slow. In the bright warm sun, they move from bush to bush or from flower to flower. But sometimes they do not have time to navigate and crash into a walking person or animal. They fall on their backs and turn back incredibly long.
The period of activity in the beetle begins from the end of spring and lasts no more than 4.5 months, depending on the region. If the day turned out to be bad weather, the bronze golden insect stays motionless all the day long on the flower, having fixed on it with its front paws and head. At night and during periods of cold snaps, it slides or falls down and buries itself in the ground near the stem and root of the plant. The beetle lives throughout Eurasia, except for deserts and mountain regions.
Features of the life cycle of golden bronzeDespite the anatomical features of the insect, The life cycle of this large green beetle is typical. Like any other insect, it hatches from the egg, then grows into a larva, turns into a pupa, from which the adult beetle (imago) soon leaves. The duration of this cycle is 2 years.
Yellowish-white eggs lay in the soil of the female in early summer. The nests are anthills, black soil, manure heaps. After egg-laying, the females die, and after a couple of weeks white larvae hatch from the eggs. They feed on plant remains and dead roots, they don’t like live plants. Bronze larvae grow very quickly, reaching 6 cm in length. Her legs are very short, so she uses her back muscles for movement, crawling like a worm. Then its transformation processes begin: it takes a C-shape, sheds two times and turns yellow.
In winter, the larvae descend into the ground below the freezing line and wrap themselves in a cocoon. It is made of dust, earth and a special adhesive mass, which they themselves emit. In the spring, the pupation process begins, and closer to the summer, adult beetles emerge from the cocoon. All summer and until the autumn they actively feed, then burrow into the ground and winter there. Only next year they are ready for mating and laying eggs.
What harm does the bronze garden and gardenIt is enough to know what a bronzka eats to understand the harm it can do to the garden and the garden. Her favorite treat is flowers and a soft ovary, and sometimes juicy soft fruits of fruit trees. Sometimes young shoots and leaves are used, but most of all the beetle likes to climb into the middle of a flower and gnaw its reproductive organs - pistils and stamen. It is clear that after this the flower will dry, and there is no reason to dream of any fruits or the beauty of the garden.
The consequences of the visit are visible immediately: wilted and dried flowers that lack a core, adult flowers with brown spots and damaged petals, leaves with a green plate gnawed out. Some experts reassure, noting that Bronzovka cannot inflict serious harm to the garden or garden, as it appears on the site after the flowering of vegetable and fruit crops. The beetles themselves are not as voracious as the larvae, and the latter feed on what they find in the compost. But florists such statements do not calm at all. Every year they declare a golden battle to the bronze, sometimes they succeed.
Bronzovka: how to deal with a pestUnfortunately, today there are no proven and effective measures to combat the bronze. This pest has occupied gardens and orchards in our strip relatively recently, and some experts still do not see it as a threat. Therefore, no serious research on effective measures to combat it has been conducted. But gardeners and gardeners already have a notion of what a bronzovka is and how to deal with this pest.
First of all, it is recommended to give preference to the mechanical method of struggle, because it is safest for soil, plants and other insects. In addition, it is very easy to assemble this beetle by hand due to its particular behavior. With cool weather, it reduces its activity and is completely defenseless. It is enough just to know what a golden bronze looks like to assemble it manually.
It is recommended to do this early in the morning, when the beetle has already climbed out of the ground onto a flower, but is still in a daze. If the morning is hot and the insect has already begun the meal, the flowers can be sprayed with cold water. The beetle is removed from the flowers or shaken on a pre-prepared litter, if the invasion is massive. The showered insects are recommended to be folded in a can of kerosene.
Another way - in the late afternoon, when it gets dark, put the lamp on, and under it a can of kerosene. Beetles will fly to the light and fall into the bank, where they die.
Folk methodsIf the bronze-beetle has flown into the garden en masse, the control measures should be more serious. Folk methods recommend spraying the plants to scare away onions, horseradish, garlic, wormwood, tansy, dandelion and other plants with infusions or flocks.
For example, they take about 300 g of roots and grass of horse celandine, which were collected during flowering, and poured with a liter of hot water. Insist the day - two and sprayed the flowers with the addition of infusion of grated soap or a teaspoon of bath foam. You can make an infusion of horse sorrel at the rate of 30 g of roots per liter of hot water (insist three hours). Such treatments should be carried out regularly every five days.
Effective is the infusion of wood ash, whom even the Colorado potato beetle is afraid of. To do this, in five liters of water insist a tablespoon of ash for about two days. After adding the soap sprayed favorite places of bronze. For flowers sometimes use liquid smoke, three tablespoons of which is dissolved in 10 liters of water with the addition of soap.
The most extraordinary popular methods of struggle - breeding the enemy insect, wasps scoli. Her female finds a bronze larva, immobilizes her, and lays eggs on her. The food for the larvae of the wasp is the bronze larva. True, it is quite difficult to help the osam to find places for laying eggs.
Chemical methodsIf the bronze beetle does serious damage to the garden or the garden, control measures may be extreme. It is recommended to use insecticides, for example, those used in the fight against the Colorado potato beetle. But it is recommended not to spray the plants themselves, but the soil under them and strictly before sunset. After all, bronzovka, as we remember, hides in the ground at night. Spraying the same plant from above, you can harm the bees that fly on your flowers. You can also use pesticides, bringing them into the ground at night to a depth of 5 cm.
Bronzovka golden: preventive measures
Preventive measures are to plow the soil immediately after winter, since the beetle larvae hibernate in the ground, and by spring they make their way closer to the surface. In this cold for them are destructive. Also, the larvae love heaps of humus, fallen and rotted leaves, rotten wood, so make sure that there is nothing superfluous on your site.Many still do not know the name of the green beetle, which pleases the eye with its iridescent emerald back, but causes irreparable damage to the flowers in the garden. Sadly, there are still no effective measures to combat the golden bronze. But if you leave her boss on the site, you can lose the harvest of fruit crops and get a completely unsightly flower garden. Insect feeds on the heart of delicate flowers, gnawing ovaries. However, Some control measures can help reduce the number of pests on the site.
Golden Bronzovka: classification and habitat
Bronzovka belong to the family of Plastinous (Scarab-like) and the order Cetonea ("metal" beetles). Their closest relatives are crunches, scarabs, copra, rhinoceros beetles and deer beetles. The largest member of the family is the goliath beetle, whose weight is about 100 g. Bronzovka vulgaris, along with copper, is one of the most numerous species. It is found in all regions of Europe (except for certain regions of Portugal and Spain), in the Crimea, Eastern Siberia, the Transcaucasus, and some countries of Central Asia. Bronzovka feels comfortable only in a relatively humid climate, so these beetles do not live in deserts. Some species of these insects (in particular, beautiful and smooth) are listed in the Red Book, but the golden bronze is not threatened with extinction.
Even in regions with an unfavorable environmental situation, the population of the common bronze is not declining.
Her exotic relatives prefer a tropical climate. Especially a lot of them in India and Africa.
What does a golden bronze look like?
The length of the body of this beetle - from one and a half to two centimeters, width - up to 1.4 cm. From the bottom it has a golden-bronze, brownish color. For elytra, numerous variants are possible - from the most common emerald green to reddish, purple, bright blue, or even black. The main distinguishing feature of golden bronze is a bright metallic (mainly copper) luster. The elytra are decorated with several light transverse stripes. Bronzka looks smoother and less “woolly” compared to the May beetle. Another interesting feature is manifested in its movement: this beetle does not lift the elytra. To take off, it spreads its wings folded in half through special side slots. This trick improves the aerodynamic characteristics of an insect, making its flight more maneuverable. As you can see for yourself, the picture below shows a characteristic painted bronze golden (photo in flight).
Stages of development
Bronzovka, like all insects, undergoes several metamorphoses during life: a larva develops from an egg, a pupa develops from a larva, and an imago develops from it. The whole cycle takes about two to three years, and the beetle lives no more than a year. Bronze females lay eggs in the summer, at the end of June or in July, and die after some time. After a few weeks the larvae hatch. Они толстые, белого или серого цвета, достигают 6 см в длину. Личинки активно питаются целлюлозой и органикой (корнями сорняков, гниющими растительными останками, корой, сеном, навозом, грибами), а переваренной пищей обогащают почву. За счет прожорливости личинок этот процесс идет очень быстро. Живые культурные растения золотистая бронзовка (пребывая в стадии личинки) не трогает.
Личинки зимуют, зарывшись в грунт. Next summer they turn into pupae. For this, the larvae form a cocoon around themselves of the sticky secretion they release using short legs. In late summer, an adult beetle emerges from the cocoon. Males differ from females only in size: they are larger; on the whole, the Bronzok sexual dimorphism is not developed. The activity of the beetle lasts from late spring to mid-summer.
Insect bronzovka lives in forests, gardens, parks, meadows and gardens. Females lay eggs in compost and dung heaps, rotten stumps, in hollows of dead trees. Both larvae and adults overwinter in approximately the same places. It is important to note that bronze woods prefer hardwood, rotten spruces and pines do not attract them.
It is believed that the natural enemies of the bronzovok not so much. The larvae are parasitic wasps of Scolia and Typhus, as well as the Tahini fly. Adult beetles become prey of birds. Bronze animals, as a rule, do not eat animals, as these insects produce a special toxin, which can be fatal for a small predator.
Beetles are active during the daytime, especially if the weather is dry and sunny.
Bronze larvae benefit: by utilizing rotting wood, weed roots and organic remains, they contribute to the formation of a fertile soil layer, which has a positive effect on the state of the latter.
But the mouth apparatus of adult beetles is not adapted for the absorption of coarse food. Golden bronze, the photo of which is located below, feeds on flowers of plants (stamens, pistils and ovaries).
Also young leaves and fruits suffer from bronzovok. Do not disdain beetles and woody sap. Unfortunately, bronze flowers love ornamental plants: roses (because of this, they are even called “pink bugs”), peonies, raspberries, grapes, strawberries, and flowers of fruit trees (cherries, apples). For them are of interest any field, meadow or ornamental plants with sweet juice.
Gardeners do not like bronze for ugly eaten flowers and "skeletal" leaves.
Bronzovka in the garden
However, the golden bronze is not recognized as a harmful insect. Its larvae are uniquely useful, the pupae are harmless, and the damage from adult beetles is insignificant. Experts say that bronzovki do not affect the yield of fruit trees. In addition, unlike the larvae, adult beetles are not voracious and can not cause much harm. Therefore, the fight against bronzkovki (method of manual collection or using chemicals) in most cases does not make sense.
Golden bronze belongs to the order of Coleoptera of the genus "metal" beetles. His closest relatives are crunches, copra, scarabs, rhinoceros beetles. Its body is 2.3 cm in length, and the trunk is 1.4 cm wide. It is oblong-oval and slightly convex in shape. In some representatives, the body narrows in the back.
In most insects, the upper body is covered with hairsbut sometimes it is naked. The upper body of a bronzovik beetle is bright green or golden-green in color with a characteristic tint of copper-red hue with a pearly luster. This feature is a characteristic feature of golden bronze and makes it very noticeable. This unusual color is called optical pigmentation.
In the larva stage, the individuals have a curved body of yellow-white color with short legs. It is thick, large and hairy, and its back is more thickened. In this state, bronzovka feed on fallen leaves, dead roots of trees and plants, rotted wood. During its life, the larva molts twice and grows up to 6 cm.
After this, the pupation stage begins. The pupa is in the whole position on the backentwined with a strong oval cocoon. For its construction, it uses its own feces, pieces of soil and woody components. It glues all parts together with a special substance that is released from the back of the body. In this form, it looks as close as an adult beetle. This phase of development is short and takes only 2 weeks.
Bronze wreckingOutwardly very attractive and cute bugs are actually great pests. They are permanent inhabitants of gardens and orchards. Bronze beetles suck out all the nutrients and juices from the vegetation, destroy fruit crops. Individuals gnaw on the deciduous mass and then leave the yellowed parts of the plants. They can harm the indoor flowers, if they fall into the house, because they will eat their juicy leaves.
Mostly gold bronze selectively damages vegetation. This ovary carrots, corn, cabbage. She prefers parts of plants with seeds. He loves the insect to eat the flowers of fruit trees, eating stamens and pistils, which is why later trees and shrubs cannot bear fruit. They also love beet leaves and ornamental flowers. Great interest among them is vegetation, the juice of which has a sweet taste.
Methods of struggle
Adult plants cause great harm to plants, but it is better to begin the fight from the larvae. Since they settle in rotten stumps, humus, it is worthwhile to timely remove their land from fallen leaves on the ground and rotten wood. Such measures will help reduce the number of adults in the future.
However, beetles, in addition to harm, and bring benefits. Their larvae contribute to the formation of fertile soil in the soil. They process the remains of vegetation, which is very useful for the composition of the soil. The pupae of this beetle are absolutely harmless, but the beetles eat part of the crop.
Since adults fly well, it is difficult to treat them with chemicals. They are unlikely to affect beetles, but the plants will suffer from this. A good method is to collect the bugs by hand, as well as shake them off. It is most secure for plantations. Before such a procedure, you can spray the vegetation with cold water, and insects will almost immediately fall to the ground. However, after this, the bugs fly again quickly, so the method is ineffective.
A good method is to collect insects with a light trap. For this it is used at night. The device can be made independently with the help of a glass container and a small lamp. Near place a jar of kerosene. At the sight of light, the beetle will fly on it and, after being struck, fall into a jar of liquid.
What kind of beetle - bronze
Biologists identify 7 insect subspecies that differ in their habitat, color variations and number of hairs in some areas of the body. In general, golden bronzovka looks like this:
- The beetle is quite large. In length reaches 22 mm, width 11 mm.
The chitinous shell of the body is colored green with a pronounced copper shimmer and metallic luster.
Attention! In fact, the bronze is black, but the chitinous plates of its shell refract the light so much that the human eye perceives it as green with different shades.
There is a golden bronze throughout Eurasia where trees and shrubs grow. In mountainous areas and deserts you will not find it. Bronzovka appears at the end of spring. Over the next 4 months, you can often see her in the garden. The beetle is active only on clear days. In cloudy and rainy his activity disappears. With the onset of cooling, the insect digs into the soil next to the plants.
Mechanical methods of dealing with bronzovka and preventive measures
To prevent the mass appearance of bronzovka at the site should be taken preventive measures.
- In early spring, it is desirable to deep-plow the soil in the garden. The beetle climbs into the depths for the winter and when it gets up in the cool time quickly dies.
- Rotten stumps, as well as heaps of vegetable garbage should be removed from the site away. This is a good shelter for the larvae.
- It is very desirable to attract birds to the garden. They are well destroy both adults and larvae. To this end, it is necessary to hang up birdhouses in the trees and feed the birds in winter.
It is rather difficult to fight gold bronzovka, but it is possible. Experienced gardeners recommend first of all using safe for the surrounding space mechanical methods of insect extermination.
Beetles are harvested by hand in cloudy weather or early in the morning. In cool times, they sit almost motionless on plants, which makes them defenseless. The collected insects are placed in a container with an insecticide solution or kerosene. If there are a lot of pests, instead of hand-picking, they are shaken off on a bedspread and destroyed.
Council In hot weather, when the bronze is very active, you can spray the plant with cold water before collecting the insect.
Folk and chemical means of fighting the beetle
The proposed folk remedies are not a method of destruction, but a deterrent maneuver. The garden is treated with infusions of plants with a strong odor: onions, garlic, tansy, and wormwood. Prepare the tool as follows:
For the effectiveness of the method to process garden plants need every 2 weeks. In the same way, an infusion of ash is used. Her take 1 tbsp. on 5 l. water. In the case of a fight with a bronzer, the use of liquid smoke will do. This substance needs 3 tbsp. l 10 liters of water. After adding the soap solution sprayed flowers and green parts of plants.
As an extreme method used chemicals. They should process the basal zone of plants, where the bronzovka goes down for the night, and not the flowers themselves. Otherwise, you can cause a massive death of bees.
Fully defeat the bronze in their own garden is unlikely. But, with proper diligence, you can achieve a significant reduction in the number of the pest.
Description of the golden bronze
Bronzovka gold (Cetonia aurata) - a representative of the Coleoptera (Beetle) order, of the family of Plastinous x. It belongs to the genus Cetonia ("metal beetle"). Entomologists distinguish between five basic subtypes of golden bronze and a number of aberrations (variants with additional features, deviations from a typical sample). The body length of the golden bronze is up to 22.5 mm. Coloring - emerald green "metallic".
In fact, the beetle is black, but the thin and complex microstructures of its covers, which refract and decompose light, create a play of rays, and the beetle appears to be metallic green, blue, and even copper-red. Such color, in contrast to ordinary pigmentation, is called structural, or optical (VS Grebennikov, Secrets of the World of Insects).
Golden bronzovka feed on flowers (wild-growing and cultivated grassy plants, trees and shrubs). Gnawing leaves, young shoots and petals. A treat for these beetles are the hearts of the flowers. They do not disdain the juice and juicy flesh of ripe fruit.
Golden bronze, perhaps not elegant enough, but beautifully painted and casts gold. Who has not seen this beetle, like a large emerald, when it sits on a branch of wild rose, standing out for its brilliant color on the delicate background of petals! He sits still, day and night, enjoying the scent of a flower, and at the same time dining. Only too burning sun takes the beetle out of stupor, and it flies away. One type of this lazy can be said that the bronze is a glutton (Jean-Henri Fabre "The Life of Insects. Entomologist Stories").
On a warm sunny day, bronzes are especially active. They fly from place to place, sometimes during the flight they do not have time to go around the person and crash into it. As a result of such a collision, the beetle plops to the ground. Usually on the back. After much effort, he manages to roll over and get back to his normal position. Bronzovka golden arranged incredibly interesting. The mechanism of its functioning has been worked out in detail. Here is just one example:
... nature has patented something interesting in the aircraft of a handsome bronze bird. The wings of the bronze during flight are almost not raised, they lie tightly in place, on the back. And strong voiced wings are set on the side; for this, there is a special neckline on the sheath, which is characteristic only of bronze. And these fast, agile in flight beetles, possessing good maneuverability, can argue with such first-class flyers as bumblebees (VS Grebennikov, “Secrets of the world of insects”).
In a pile of humus, you can see large white larvae. He is fat and plump. They are often mistaken for larvae of the May beetle.
The bronze larva eats continuously and turns into powder the dead leaves and stalks already destroyed by rotting. The veins would long remain whole in rotting leaves. The larva eats these slowly rotting remnants: it splits them into fibers and then nibbles with strong jaws. In her intestines, they turn into dough, quite suitable for fertilizing the soil. One of the most active manufacturers of chernozem is the bronze larva (Jean-Henri Fabre "The Life of Insects. Entomologist Stories").
Interestingly, the larvae planted in a jar with rotting plant residues continue to exist perfectly in captivity. They become the object of observation:
And the larvae lived for a long time in a jar of dust and showed, and sometimes to my guests, an original attraction: they drove around the table ... on the back. Do not be surprised: riding on your back is the only possible way of moving these creatures, heavy, thick, very similar to the larvae of the May Khrushchev, but “offended by God” in relation to the legs, thin, short and weak. Poor people who find themselves outside the underground monastery, in open space, have no choice but to move through energetic body contractions, it turned out that it is more convenient to do this, lying upside down, until you manage to crawl to the shelter and return to your dungeon (V.S. Grebennikov "Secrets of the world of insects").
It is curious that the bronze larvae feel great not only in the pile of humus, but also in the anthill. Many wild animals, such as badgers and foxes, know this. In search of food, they tear apart forest anthills, and then devour the delicious fatty larvae of the bronze beetle hibernating in it.
Bronzovka as a pest
Bronzovok flower growers do not like, because for them these beetles are deservedly pest. I find it annoying when a blooming white lilac loses its luxurious inflorescences in just a couple of days. It attracts the attention of large green bugs. They suck all the juices from the flowers, leaving behind brown spots on the inflorescences. I got the impression that the white color is especially attractive for the bronze one. Such a conclusion can be made if you look at the lilac bushes growing next to other colors, compare wild rose (white and pink-raspberry) and peonies (the most different). Of course, charming voracious bugs are not limited to white or very light flowers, but they are happy to savor them in the first place.
Bronzovka did not appear on our site immediately. They had nothing to do in the village, which has not yet grown flowering gardens. From a certain moment these emerald beetles became very much. They have become a pest. I know in the Moscow region a lot of places where there are practically no golden bronzovok. Whether it is a coincidence or not, they know the May beetle well there, which is not found here.
Bronzovka golden flies beautifully, so it does not make sense to destroy it with the help of "chemistry". Ways to destroy bronzovok everyone is different. Some owners of the land of beetles crush their feet, others collect them and drown them in jars of water. Bronze gold flies into the open windows and doors of terraces and balconies, with a crash flop on the windowsill or on the floor. Beetles quickly come to life and try the taste of indoor plants. The other day I took a bronzka from an orchid flower (phalaenopsis). Even here the gourmet beetle did not change its taste preferences. He chose phalaenopsis with white flowers! In recent years, more and more disturbing information appears in the media that the Bronzers willingly switch to ripe fruit, which, of course, does not please gardeners.
Bronzovka in the Red Book of Moscow Region
The Fibera Bronzka or Brilliant (Protaetia fieberi), which differs from bronze in golden “smooth, shiny, raised elytral hem section and wide process of mesothorax between the middle pair of legs”. It is clear that only the entomologist can determine the difference between these species. Golden-green (copper-red or light-bronze) beetle often lives in deciduous forests. Especially in oak. It feeds on the sap of trees and flowers. Its larvae live (and winter) in the rotten wood of oak, poplar, willow and other deciduous trees. In the Moscow Region, Bronzovka Fiber became a very rare species: “The highest numbers are near the village. Boloomut, where you can observe 3 - 4 individuals for the field season. In similar biotopes in Ozersky and Serebryanno-Prudsky districts, it has not yet been found. ” Brilliant bronze can be found in one of the reserves of the Serpukhov region and in the south-east of the region.
In addition to the golden bronze in the Red Book of the Moscow region, bronze smooth was added (Protaetia aeruginosa) and marble bronze (Protaetia marmorata).
It becomes uncomfortable at the thought that the population of a pretty golden golden, the worst enemy of gardeners, also has a clear tendency to decrease. «Несознательны е» садоводы (в их числе и я) уверенно приближают тот день, когда и этот жук будет занесен в Красную книгу.
Золотистая бронзовка относится к отряду жесткокрылых, роду Cetonia (это название с древнегреческого языка переводится как «металлический жук»). Длина тела насекомого составляет 1,3−2,3 см, ширина — 0,8−1,2 см, его хитиновое покрытие покрыто мелкими волосками, окраска изменяется в зависимости от того, под каким углом на тело падает солнечный свет. Mostly the color of chitin is bright green, at a certain angle copper, violet, mother-of-pearl or golden tint appears.Often you can hear how the bronze is called the May green beetle. The name is wrong, as insects belong to different genera. In addition to different colors, they have a different nature of behavior, a different device of aircraft.
Within the bronzovka beetle species, seven subspecies were found, each of which has its own habitat and color. But all beetles have a common feature - a shiny metallic casting of the body.
Golden Bronze is common in Eurasia, it feels great in the forest and forest-steppe zones, in well-lit areas. This species of beetles does not settle in the highlands, in the steppe zone.
Bronzovka - slow insects, they are active only in warm sunny weather. The rest of the time, the beetles sit motionless on bushes and trees, when they fall to the ground they become numb, then for a long time they cannot roll over and take off. During cold weather, insects fall to the ground and burrow into it.
Bronzovka reproduces and develops as follows:
- The female beetle lays eggs in rotten stumps or tree trunks, anthills, compost pits. After laying eggs, she dies.
- The eggs appear yellow-white larvae with a curved body covered with hairs. The larva feeds heavily on organic remains, reaches the size of 6 cm by the end of its development.
- The larva pupates in the same substrate in which it lived and ate. The pupa resembles an adult beetle with short wings; it is in this condition for 2 weeks.
- The beetles emerge from the pupae in autumn or summer, the time of their release depends on the time of laying eggs by the female. If bronzovki come out of the state of the pupa in the fall, then they appear in the gardens and kitchen gardens in early spring, wintering in the underground shelter.
Harm of a bronzovka for a garden
Large emerald beetles can cause significant damage: they feed on flowers and ovaries of fruit trees and shrubs. Insects gnaw out the reproductive organs of plants - pistils and stamens of flowers. Experienced gardeners immediately determine that the plants have been bronzovka: individual flowers wither, when they are examined, there is a lack of centers.
Also, bronze can attack young shoots of peonies, corn, grapes, roses, damage the fruits of cherries, raspberries, grapes and mulberries. They feed on beetles and wild plants: plantain, elder, clover, yarrow, tansy are in their “menu”.
Scientists do not consider green beetles to be too dangerous to the garden and vegetable garden, justifying their opinion by the fact that most of the beetles emerge from the pupae by the middle of summer, when fruit trees and shrubs have already faded. Therefore, there are no developed insect control measures that would be approved by specialists.
But gardeners do not agree with the opinion of scientists and annually come up with new methods of dealing with a handsome pest.