The most popular fruit in the garden is an apple tree. However, in small areas it is inconvenient to grow it, because the tree of traditional varieties takes up a lot of space, not allowing to plant something nearby. This is due to the popularity that colonized species of culture acquire among summer residents. The compact tree grows vertically upwards, while producing abundant yields of tasty, large fruits.
What is a columnar apple
Representatives of the variety appeared in Canada in the 20th century by natural mutation. The first vertically growing branch was discovered on the Macintosh apple, after which a new variety, Leader, was bred from it, which later became the ancestor of hybrids of a large number of fruit tree species in America, Britain, Russia. On the territory of our country, the columnar apple tree appeared in 1972 thanks to Professor Kichin. Later, the best varieties of this species were selected, and the study of the plant continued throughout almost the entire territory of the USSR.
Mutation of the fruit crop was caused by a lack of growth hormone, which determined the appearance of the plant. Such a violation caused an increase in the budding of flower buds (the desire to leave offspring), and, as a result, an early return of the crop (by 1-3 years). Biological features of culture are:
- complete absence of lateral branches,
- the formation of fruits on the trunk of a tree,
- dwarfism, compactness,
With a compact size, the plant bears fruit constantly, giving abundant yields. However, columnar varieties have weak points - the root system. The latter is poorly developed, it is not able to reliably hold the above-ground part of the tree and may break under gusts of wind. The surface root system does not have the ability to provide the plant with enough water and nutrients, therefore, columnar varieties need additional feedings and additional watering (it is extremely important not to overfeed them and not to flood them - this is ruining the apple trees).
Since the central shoot is involved in fruiting, most of the fruit formations die off (the process starts from the bottom and moves upwards). Having reached the top of the stem branch, fruiting stops and the tree ceases to yield, although it continues its activity until the age of 40-50 years. All columnar apple varieties are skoroplodny, some of them begin to bloom in the year of planting (Iksha, Barguzin, Malukha, etc.), but leaving the first harvest is impractical. If a tree gives all its power to produce fruits in the first year, it may not bring harvest for the next season.
The period of active fruiting in columnar plants does not exceed 6-8 years, most of them belong to medium-sized crops, giving a bountiful harvest by 3-4 years after planting. Late fruit trees bear fruit at 6 years of growth. When purchasing seedlings, it is necessary to ask the seller for an accompanying characteristic of the variety, where the main biological characteristics of the plant should be indicated, otherwise you can buy an unpredictable type of apple. The advantages of colonic types of fruit crops are:
- the ability to grow in a small area due to the small size of the root system and the aerial parts of the plant,
- easy care
- high decorativeness
- fast, intensive fruiting,
- excellent taste of apples,
- convenient, simplified harvesting.
The advantages of this fruit crop are much greater than the disadvantages, but even these few drawbacks serve for someone the reason to refuse to plant a columnar variety. Negative features of this type of crops are:
- short life span (most varieties lose yield over 15 years),
- expensive seedlings compared with the cost of spreading relatives kolonovidnyh apple.
Colony-shaped apple trees, depending on their height, are divided into hemidrose, dwarf and vigorous. For a long time, these types of fruit trees were grown exclusively in specialized gardens, but now more and more gardeners prefer them to traditional apples. Cone-like types of culture are divided into varieties, the latter are summer, winter, autumn. Consider them in more detail:
- Summer varieties. They bring the harvest early (by the middle of summer), fully ripening by the end of August. The most popular among them are Medoc, President, Dialogue, Ray.
- Autumn species. Fruits throughout the fall. Their representatives are Gin, Vasyugan, Titania, Ostankino, Iksha, Chervonets.
- Winter kolonovidnye varieties. The fruits ripen in late autumn and are beautifully stored during the winter. The most popular varieties among summer residents are Moscow Necklace, Currency, Amber Necklace, Arbat, Bolero, Maluha, Legend.
Different varieties of columnar apple trees differ not only in fruiting time, but also in the appearance of the crown, leaves, height, etc. In addition, each type is characterized by individual taste characteristics of apples. Description of the most popular colonic types:
- Medoc. Apples are white-yellow in color with a thick peel, ripen by the end of August. The average yield per tree is 5-8 kg. The fruits have a pronounced honey flavor. The plant perfectly withstands cold and severe frosts.
- The president. Compact plant that is suitable for growing even in small gardens. The variety produces sweet, very juicy, white and yellow fruits in late August - early September.
- Vasyugan. Fruits large, dense, sour-sweet apples of red and green striped colors. The variety perfectly withstands frost and gives 6-7 kg of crop from each tree.
- Gin. Small fruits of a beautiful bright red color have a sweet-sour taste. Gin easily endures frosts, giving annually 5-7 kg of apples from each tree. Fruits can be stored from autumn to January.
- Arbat. Differs in small fruits with a pronounced sweet-sour taste. Arbat refers to high-yielding crops that tolerate cold. Despite the fact that the plant belongs to winter species, it is better to eat apples fresh, because they are poorly stored.
- Moscow necklace. Fruits large, juicy, sweet apples. The weight of one fruit is about 250 grams.
- Currency. It ripens late, gives apples with excellent taste. At the same time, the fruits perfectly tolerate long storage or transportation. This variety has the highest yield.
It is better to plant the plant in early spring, before budding in the trees, but planting of columnar apple trees is allowed in the fall (late September or early October). It is better to buy saplings annuals, since they take root much easier than older ones, moreover, young trees begin to grow faster and produce crops. During the acquisition, make sure that the roots are not rotted and not over dried. It is better to give preference to the material in the container - you can plant it in the soil even in summer.
The place for planting colonous varieties is chosen to be open, with free access of heat and sunlight, while it should be protected from strong gusts of wind. The optimal soil for a tree is moisture-permeable, fertile, with groundwater up to 2 meters. When deciding to plant an apple orchard, seedlings should be positioned at a distance of half a meter from each other, leaving 1 meter between rows. The pits for seedlings should be no less than 90x90x90 cm, they should be prepared a couple of weeks before planting, otherwise the root neck of the plant may be underground, and this is unacceptable.
Digging pits, fertile soil discard in one direction, and the lower ground - in another, so that they do not mix. When planting a columnar apple in heavy soil, be sure to make a drainage layer of rubble and sand at the bottom of the recess. After that, 3-4 buckets of humus, litter or compost, 100 g of superphosphate and 50-100 g of potash fertilizer should be added to the fertile soil. If the land at the site is acidic, you need to add, in addition to the above, 100-200 g of dolomite flour and place the soil mixture in the pit, leaving it for 2 weeks, so that the soil is compacted and the donkey.
After a fortnight, the rest of the soil mixture should be poured into the hole by a slide, and a tree should be placed on it so that the root collar remains just above the surface of the plot. Spread the roots of the plant, fill the hole with infertile earth from the lower layer, apply the soil and form a round hole with a roller at least 10 cm around the seedling at a distance of 30 cm from the trunk. Pour 1-2 liters of water immediately after planting. When the liquid is absorbed, grumble the perennial circle with peat, mowed grass, sawdust.
To prevent a gust of wind from breaking the tree, tie it to a peg driven in nearby. If you plan to plant a columnar apple in the spring, it is better to prepare a hole for it in the fall — the soil will settle in the winter, and the fertilizers are evenly distributed, due to which all root processes will be located in fertile nutritious soil and the tree will quickly grow. The rest of the spring planting procedure of this type of apple does not differ from the autumn one.
Colonid Apple Trees
In the spring, before the formation of buds, pruning and prophylactic treatment of plants from diseases and pests is carried out. In addition, columnar cultures are fed with nitrogen fertilizers. During the formation of buds in newly planted trees, they are carefully removed, while on the plants of the second year of growth you can leave 10 flowers. For older trees, the load is gradually increased, leaving 2 flowers twice as many as the apples should ripen each year. On the fruit links leave 2 inflorescences, delaying the re-thinning for the summer period.
In addition to feeding, pruning and thinning, columnar apple trees need to loosen the soil in pristvolnom circle and watering. If you grow a crop on clone rootstocks, then loosening is prohibited, because there is a risk of damaging the roots. At the same time, it is better to conduct tinning on a wheel circle (in the radius of 25 cm from the trunks, plant the green manure and periodically mow them).
In the first half of June, a complex feeding of columnar trees with mineral fertilizers is carried out. When ovaries appear, the crop is re-thinned (only half of the ovaries are left on the branches). When the fruit reaches the size of a cherry, only 2 ovaries are left in each inflorescence, and when the apples reach the size of a walnut, every second ovary is removed: thus, 1 fruit will remain on each fruit bearing link.
In the summer it is necessary to take care of the columnar plant especially carefully, preventing pests from growing in the garden. It is important to monitor any changes in the appearance of apple trees in order to timely notice the onset of any disease. When diagnosing a problem, measures need to be urgently taken, otherwise the crop will be in jeopardy. Colon-shaped trees from diseases and parasites should be treated no later than a month before the fruits are collected.
Nitrogen and organic supplements stop making from August - at this stage the trees need more potassium, which helps to ripen the young shoots faster. To prevent frosting of tree branches in winter, 4 top leaves are shortened on each shoot (2/3 is cut off). After harvesting, in autumn, the columnar apple trees are fed up, the newly-cut branches are pruned, the crown and the soil around them are treated against the pests and fungi that have been hidden for wintering.
Before the start of sap flow, in early spring, and in the autumn, after the completion of leaf fall, preventive treatment of trees from diseases and parasites is carried out. For this, as a rule, a solution of Bordeaux liquid or Nitrafen is used. Some gardeners for spring spraying use a 7% solution of urea, which serves not only as a fungicide and insecticide, but also as a timely nitrogen fertilizer for colonic plants.
Due to the fact that the columnar varieties are deprived of a taproot extending deep into the earth, and their roots are located superficially, it will be necessary to water young plants in normal summer weather every 3 days. With increased aridity and heat, it is necessary to moisten the soil every second day or every day. Mature columnar apple can be watered a couple of times a week. From mid-July, trees are watered less frequently, and in August, water supply to the ground is stopped altogether, so that the plant has time to form flower buds, complete growth and prepare for the winter period.
To preserve moisture in the soil and the formation of a crust on its surface, the tree trunk is mulched with straw / grass or sown with green manure. The best way to water a columnar plant is to drop it with a dosed flow of liquid to the roots, but once a month you need to carry out abundant water in the soil. Every 2 weeks after sunset you should generously water the crowns with a hose.
Adding an article to a new collection
Compact, prolific and decorative columnar (columnar) apple tree. What could be better for a small garden on the classic six hundred squares? How to choose a suitable variety and how to care for seedlings, read our material.
The appearance of the columnar apple is due to a successful gene mutation and human curiosity. About half a century ago, a Canadian noticed an unusual branch on an old Macintosh apple tree. This branch had practically no side shoots, but at the same time a lot of ripe fruits crowded along its entire length. Fortunately, this Canadian was a gardener. He took a few cuttings and planted them on apple trees. The mutation was stable. Due to this, in just a few decades, columnar apple trees have spread throughout the world.
Pros and cons of columnar apple trees
The main advantage of the columnar apple trees is their compactness (the height of an adult tree is about 2.5 m, and the width is no more than half a meter). There is no longer need to allocate huge areas under apple orchards. Only on one weave can accommodate a variety of fruit trees, fruit in different months. Breeders are so interested in this successful mutation that in a rather short period of time they have developed a significant number of varieties, including frost-resistant, early ripening, and also varieties of late ripening period, the fruits of which can be stored all winter. It turned out that the unique characteristics of these apple trees are quite easily transmitted by seed multiplication.
Column-shaped apple trees are very decorative, so they are successfully used as an element of landscape design, and some of their varieties with a modest root system feel great not only in the open field, but also in tubs. At the same time, trees create a slight shading, so that many other plants can be easily grown between their slender rows.
Column-shaped apple trees bring a good harvest (up to 12 kg from one tree) only on condition that they are provided with appropriate care. In this case, they quickly take root in the new place and quickly begin to bear fruit. The first harvest of ripe apples can be removed in the second year after planting. Some gardeners, subject to spring planting, young trees bloom in the first year.
But, unfortunately, the life in the garden of these trees is short. Some varieties produce much less fruit after 7 years, and most lose yield after 15 years. Therefore, they often have to be replaced by young trees. And this is a rather expensive pleasure, since the cost of seedlings of columnar apple trees usually significantly exceeds the cost of their spreading relatives.
How to deal with pests and diseases of the columnar apple
For the destruction of pests in the cultivation of columnar apple trees use insecticides, which destroy not only the harmful insects themselves, but also their eggs and larvae. To prevent fungal diseases, fungicides are used. Spraying is carried out in the spring before flowering. In this case, the composition must be periodically shaken, otherwise, as a result of stratification, its effectiveness may decrease. At first it is worth carrying out test spraying of one tree. If burns appear on young leaves, it is necessary to reduce the concentration or replace the drug.
For spraying, you can use both complex and monopreparations, for example:
- copper sulphate - prevents rotting and development of fungal diseases, also contributes to wound healing, destroys some insects (100 g of 1% copper sulphate per 10 liters of water),
- Colloidal sulfur is an effective remedy against powdery mildew, scab, anthracnose, ascochytosis and plant mites, it acts for 12 days after spraying (80 g of the preparation per 10 liters of water).
In May, after the end of flowering, they are re-sprayed to destroy caterpillars, moths, aphids, ticks, etc. For this purpose, you can use a solution of chlorophos (70 g per 10 l of water), Lepidocide (70 ml per 6 l of water) or any drug of similar action.
In addition, trapping belts made of corrugated paper can help pest control, which prevent insects from moving up the trunk.
For some varieties of columnar apple trees, pruning is not a mandatory procedure. As a rule, only the main shoot develops in such trees. Длинные боковые побеги образуются лишь при повреждении верхушечной почки. В этом случае оставляют самый сильный из них (он не должен быть короче 20 см), остальные – срезают, а места удаления смазывают садовым варом или масляной краской.
At the same time, a number of varieties of columnar apple requires formative pruning. In the first year - in early spring, almost all lateral branches are pruned, leaving only two buds on each, from which strong annual shoots grow. The following year, the horizontal branch is left to form fruits, and the vertical branch is again cut at the level of two buds, which will give new shoots. A year later, the fruiting branch is cut to the ring. When forming fruit links, it is desirable to remove the excess side shoots while still green, in this case the cutting sites heal faster. Formative pruning can not be carried out after the start of sap flow.
Formative pruning of columnar apple trees is usually carried out in early spring before the start of sap flow.
Crusta apple varieties
Breeders from the heart tried with the development of new varieties and showed an original approach in inventing the names:
Medoc - late variety with yellow fruits ripening at the end of summer - beginning of autumn. Thanks to a strong skin suitable for preservation,
The president - supercompact even for columnar apple trees with large juicy fruits,
Ostankino - high-yielding variety, one tree brings from 6 to 9 kg of fruit,
Vasyugan - the fruits of this variety are interesting for their sweet and sour taste,
Maluha - dwarf trees with small fruits,
Currency - late ripe grade. The fruits ripen only in October, but they are beautifully stored until February,
Coral - Cylindrical fruit, if properly stored, will also delight you in the winter.
Whatever variety you choose, columnar apple trees will certainly adorn your site, and their fragrant fruits will be an excellent treat. About what can be cooked from apples, read in our articles:
Features of the Apple Crusts
To highlight for themselves the distinctive features of the columnar apple, you need to read their description and highlight the main points.Most varieties of columnar apple trees begin to bear fruit in the second year. After the appearance of the first fruits, the tree will increase the number of apples every 5-6 years. When the first period ends, the second comes, which lasts 7-8 years. The second period is characterized by the fact that the amount of the crop becomes stable, it does not increase and does not decrease. However, the quality and quantity of the crop, regardless of the initial planting conditions, may be affected by the quality of care, weather conditions and wintering. Colon-shaped apple trees are distinguished by strong wood that can withstand a weight of up to 12 kg. The maximum height of the tree is 2.5 meters, and the width is from 30 to 50 cm.
A negative feature of these apples is poor winter hardiness. Even in relatively warm winters, the top of the tree freezes. In such cases, the tree gives a lot of short lateral shoots.
Kolonovidnye apple live for about 15 years, after which the collar begin to dry out and the tree ceases to bear fruit. This problem is solved either by recycling the tree, or by using anti-aging pruning (not suitable for all varieties).
The main feature of the columnar apple is small branching, which makes the tree look like a tall "column".
Advantages and disadvantages of a columnar apple
Now it is necessary to highlight the main pros and cons of all varieties of columnar apple trees. Let's start with advantages:
- no need for complex pruning,
- miniature, take up little space.
- strong dependence on dressings,
- poor winter hardiness
- dependence on irrigation and soil moisture,
- short "life".
How to choose a seedling when buying
We proceed to one of the most important stages - the choice of a seedling of a columnar apple. The problem of choice is that sellers very often speak beautifully, but in practice they can sell a sick or half-dead tree. That is why you need to know the criteria for evaluating a good sapling.
The ideal place to buy a seedling is a nursery or garden center. There you can choose from several varieties, chat with a specialist and see the conditions of detention. The main advantage is that the desired seedling is dug out and packed with you. During this process, you can see the quality of the wood, the color of the leaves, the branching and the integrity of the roots.The disadvantage of such a place is the high price of seedlings. However, it should be understood that you buy planting material in a safe place.
If there is no nursery nearby, then try to buy a seedling with a closed root system. That is, the roots should not be wrapped with a rag / cellophane or be in the water. Such a seedling will take longer to settle down and can dry out in the first year after planting. If there are no variants with closed roots, then follow the following instructions:
- Do not buy a seedling with leaves.
- You can not buy a sapling, if its roots are damaged or stained.
- The bark on the seedling should not be dried, otherwise you can buy a dry tree.
- Buying is worth one-year planting material.
Timing and site selection
Apple trees, like many fruit trees, should be planted either in spring or in autumn. It should be understood that if you bought a sapling in late autumn, then you can not plant - in front of the cold.
Experienced gardeners recommend planting trees in the spring. So much more likely that the apple tree will take root and immediately go into growth. Planting is carried out in early spring, before bud break. Here it is worth highlighting the fact that in frost, strong wind or rainy weather it is impossible to plant, since the sapling is weak and can not tolerate such "charms" of weather.
If the landing can not be transferred to the spring, then it should be carried out at the end of September, in warm weather.There is a little trick for those who bought a sapling in the fall. The tree should be prikopat in a quiet, more or less warm place, where water will not stagnate and the soil will not freeze. In addition, the tree can be planted for the winter in a large pot and left in the cellar. From time to time, the seedling is checked and monitored for the soil moisture in the pot.
The place for the seedling must be chosen good. It should be sunny, not blown cold wind. You should not choose lowlands, otherwise there will always be water under your tree (this will lead to rot of the roots). The best place for the house or any building.
Preparatory work before landing
Before planting a seedling, you need to perform several actions that will affect the future yield of the tree and its growth rate. Therefore, pay attention to the preparatory stage, so that your seedling caught on.
First, take care of the pit in which the seedling will be placed. If the landing will be held in the spring, then dig it in the fall. The hole should be spacious so that the roots of the plant are not bent. In the pit you need to close up phosphate-potash fertilizers in the fall and cover with foil.Next, just before planting, inspect the bark and roots of the plant. If they have dried up, place the entire seedling in water for 8-10 hours (the water should not be ice cold!).
Roots need to be trimmed before planting. This action will help the apple tree to settle down faster and grow. During planting, make sure that the vaccination site is not buried in the ground, but above it.
How to plant young seedlings
Now let's talk about how to plant a columnar apple.
Planting varieties of this apple is different from planting ordinary, not kolonovidnoy Apple. It’s worth starting with the fact that these apple trees are very tiny, which means that you can place several trees in a small area.Colon-shaped apple trees are not planted one by one. Planting is carried out thickened, leaving between trees no more than 40 cm in a row and 2.5 m between the rows. Thus, in a small area there will be several seedlings at once, and this leads to the fact that a large amount of fertilizer must be embedded in the ground to maintain soil fertility. Before planting under deep digging (per 1 sq. M), 15 kg of compost or humus, 70 g of nitrogenous fertilizers and, if the soil has a high acidity, are buried up to 200 g of dolomite flour.
Before planting, you need to remove the roof from the pit, remove the mixture of soil and fertilizer. The seedling is placed in the hole and straighten the roots. The diameter of the hole must match the diameter of the roots. If it is smaller, we make it wider than the pit, and do not prune the roots!
After placing the seedling in the pit, fill the hole with a mixture of soil and fertilizer. Bury it in such a way that the root collar is 5 cm higher than the ground level. After planting, each tree should be watered with a pair of buckets of water and, ideally, mulch the soil.
If seasonal winds are raging in your region, seedlings can be tied to a support that will come in handy in the first two years when the root system has not yet become firmly established in the ground.
Seasonal Colonid Apple Trees Features
Kolonovidnye apple trees require not only proper planting, but also good care, so this section is no less important. Since apple-clones differ in avoiding “ordinary” apple trees, even owners who know a lot about gardening will not be able to apply their experience. Carefully read the section to achieve good crop yields.
Prevention and treatment of apples from pests and diseases
It is better to start pest control with prevention, as most gardeners will say, and they will be right. Therefore, we now consider the main pests and the most common diseases of the columnar apple, tell you how to deal with them and how to carry out effective prevention.
The main pests of the columnar apple do not differ from the usual, they are aphid moth and mite. The main diseases of culture - scab, powdery mildew and leaf rust.
As a preventive measure, trees should be sprayed in the spring with insecticides and fungicides, since most of the pests are insects, and almost all diseases are caused by fungi.The most popular fungicides include the following: "Horus", "Planriz", "Fitolavin". In this case, each fungicide is used to kill a particular type of fungus that causes diseases. The most effective tool that allows you to destroy several fungi at a time - Bordeaux mixture. Insecticides: "Admiral", "Aktara", "Aktellik", "Karbofos" and "Phosphamide". You can find out the possibility of using them for the preventive treatment of apples by reading the instructions.
Aphid.Insect, which is familiar to every gardener and gardener. A large colony can destroy even the strongest tree. In the spring, before bud break, the apple tree is treated with a 3% solution of Karbofos. If you are slow and the buds have dissolved - use a 2% solution of the same drug. In addition to the specified insecticide, you can apply analogues: "Fitoverm", "Phosphamide", "Aktara".
Small moth.The butterfly, the caterpillars of which are very fast and “qualitatively” destroy the fruits and spoil the shoots, eating the passages in them. The moth is like a mole, has the same color and size. To get complete fruits, after flowering the apple is sprayed with "Chlorophos" or "Metaphos". After 15 days, the treatment must be repeated.Red tick.A parasite that feeds on young leaves of an apple tree, leaving behind a trail of barely noticeable cobwebs. If treatment from parasites is carried out before the disclosure of the kidneys, then it is necessary to use the preparations "Nitrafen" or "Olikupurit". For processing during budding, Karbofos and Phosphamide are used. In extreme cases, it is possible to carry out a third treatment with an analogue agent.
Now let's remember the main diseases of the columnar apple and tell how to treat them.
Scab.A fungal disease that affects leaves, flowers, fruits and tree shoots. Favorable conditions for the development of fungus - high humidity. A sign of the appearance of scab - lettuce oily spots on the leaves, which are then covered with brownish bloom. After the leaves are covered with fruit. In order not to destroy the fungus or to prevent it, it is necessary to treat the tree and the adjacent soil with 4% Bordeaux liquid (200 g per 5 l of water) before bud break. If you do not have time to process at the right time, you need to spray the tree during the budding period with 1% Bordeaux liquid. Repeated spraying is carried out immediately after flowering with any fungicide of directional action. The third treatment is carried out three weeks after the second. We recommend using different fungicides each time to achieve the best effect.Mealy dew.The disease affects the leaves, bark, shoots and buds of the apple tree. Mycelium may grow and infect the whole tree, leading to inhibition of growth and poor fruiting. The fight against the disease begins when the leaves bloom on the apple tree. The tree is sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid or Topaz (2 ml per bucket). the second treatment is carried out after flowering - the tree is sprayed with copper oxychloride (40 g per 5 l of water).
Leaf RustThe leaves form rusty spots, which gradually spread, covering the entire sheet plate. The leaves fall early, reducing the hardiness of the apple tree. You can get rid of the disease by using any available fungicides, in the description of which there is a rust treatment.
Watering the Apple Apple
Caring for columnar apple trees is not only about preventing pests and diseases. Important is the correct watering, which determines the growth rate of the tree and the quality of the fruit.
The best option is the constant drip irrigation of apple trees. In addition to irrigation, apple trees are satisfied 2-3 times a month to shower, washing the entire above-ground part. If it is impossible to provide drip irrigation (or too expensive), then each tree should be watered 2-3 times a week, using mulch to preserve moisture in the soil.
Thus, you will have to choose: either you use drip irrigation without mulching, or you mulch the soil and water it with buckets or a hose.
It is impossible to do without the feeding of columnar apple trees. In addition to the preplant fertilizer wells, trees need to be fertilized almost quarterly, especially at the time of violent growth, flowering and fruit formation.Fertilizers begin to make in early spring, as soon as the soil thaws. Saltpeter, urea, or slurry are embedded in the soil. After the first feeding wait 10 days and re-apply nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Then, until the middle of July, another 3-4 supplements are given with organic matter paired with potash-phosphate fertilizers.
In the second half of the growing season, apple trees are fed only with phosphorus and potassium. Nitrogen fertilizers cannot be used during this period, as they will adversely affect the growth and development of fruits.
Why do I need a tin
At this point, even experienced gardeners are beginning to scratch their heads. The fact is that tinning is not used when growing ordinary (non-dwarf) apple trees, as they have strong taproot roots and an extensive root system. With columnar apple trees it's different.Deposition - sowing around a circle of grass grasses that will help preserve moisture in the soil and protect the roots of apple trees from mechanical damage.
Above, we wrote that in order to preserve moisture in the soil (or in the absence of drip irrigation), the soil around the apple trees should be mulched. So, the tinning performs almost the same role as the mulch. Therefore, if you grind the soil around crops with sawdust, straw or other materials, then the need for zaluzheniye disappears.
How and when to prune the columnar apple trees
Pruning apple trees affects not only the formation of the crown and the appearance of the tree, but also the yield, so you need to properly trim the dwarf trees in order to grow the maximum amount of fruit on them.
Immediately it is necessary to dispel the myth that the columnar apple trees do not give side shoots. They are, and they can be very much. If the side shoots are not cut off, the tree will resemble a poplar in a few years.
The fact is that the side branches will not only spoil the "picture", but also absorb some of the nutrients. However, cutting or not is a matter of principle.
In the first years after planting, the apical shoots must be tied to a support. From other branches form fruit links.
One-year sapling must be properly cut to get the desired shape. Before the tree launches sap, branches are shortened by 2 buds. In the second year, only one young horizontal shoot is left. The second is shortened by 2 buds, as in the first year. In the third year, a fruiting branch is cut out, other shoots are shortened by 2 buds. In fact, pinching and pruning does not greatly affect the yield of trees, but takes a lot of time and effort. Therefore, if you have a large garden, and getting the maximum yield is not so important - you can refuse to trim.
Kolonovidnye apple can not tolerate frost, so a lot depends on a good wintering. Trees for the winter need to be protected from rodents and hypothermia. Take this as seriously as possible, as trees will not suffer severe frostbite.Для защиты от грызунов нижнюю часть дерева нужно прикрыть опилками или лапником. Вы можете использовать любые натуральные материалы, которые не накапливают влагу (кроме соломы). Каждое дерево нужно снизу присыпать так, чтобы вредителям было сложно добраться до ствола.
After solving the problem with rodents, it is necessary to warm the upper part of the tree. For this fit burlap or thick paper. When using paper, it should be laid in several layers so that it does not get wet. From above, all layers are wrapped with a rope.
After the snow falls, it is recommended to podgresti it under the tree, forming an additional protective layer.
By following our instructions, you will be able to create a beautiful garden that will produce a good harvest and please the eye. Although the columnar apple trees require more attention from the gardener, the yield of products corresponds to the forces spent.
Colonoid and dwarf apple trees - planting and care
In many countries of the world that are actively engaged in fruit growing, vigorous trees (pears and apple trees) have long been abandoned due to the fact that they are much more difficult to care for, fruiting begins late and yields increase for a long time. And trees with large crown sizes require large areas of land.
Differences of dwarf apple trees from vigorous
The vertical columnar apple tree looks a bit unusual in the gardens compared to traditional sprawling apple trees, however, it is definitely worth planting it in your garden.
Like dwarf apple trees, varieties of which have long been widespread in domestic gardens, columnar trees take up very little space, and yield even more than some popular apple varieties.
For example, if you can place 4 strong-growing apple trees on one weave of a plot, then already 16 dwarf trees can fit, and up to 200 seedlings of colonic trees! Is there any doubt that the profitability of such an apple orchard will be several times higher under more comfortable working conditions?
Although any gardener can grow dwarf or columnar apple trees, planting and caring for them still have their own characteristics that need to be taken into account.
Video about fruit trees, apple trees are kolonovidnye
If a strong-growing apple tree is obtained by grafting a varietal cutting on a “wild” - a seed stock, then to get a dwarf apple tree, a cutting is grafted onto a clone stock.
Clone rootstocks have absolutely all the properties of the parent plant, they can be medium-sized and super-dwarf, but most often there are semi-dwarf and dwarf.
On semi-dwarf rootstocks, apple trees grow up to four meters in height, beginning to bear fruit from the fourth year, and on dwarf rootstocks, trees reach two to three meters and bring harvest from the third year.
When buying, dwarf saplings can be easily identified by the presence of large buds at the ends of the branches and by the fibrous root system with small roots (root plants have a root system). Typically, the cost of seedlings of dwarf apple trees is higher than vigorous, this is due to the complexity of growing clonal rootstocks.
Dwarf apple trees have many advantages:
- early begin to bear fruit
- quickly increase the harvest
- due to the compact size of the tree, most of the nutrients go to form fruits, not to build wood,
- apples can be easily picked from the branches without using additional devices, due to which the presentation of fruits is better preserved,
- due to the location of the roots at the surface, dwarf trees can be planted in areas with groundwater, rather close to the surface.
Due to early fruiting, dwarf apple trees age faster, but this has its advantages - you can often replace the varieties in the garden with more modern ones.
Due to early fruiting, dwarf apple trees age faster
Planting dwarf apple trees and further care
Since the dwarf apple trees take up little space in the garden, it is better to plant several varieties with different fruiting periods right away.
The following varieties of dwarf apple trees are distinguished by good winter hardiness and high yields: Late-summer variety Wonderful with apples of dessert taste, autumn varieties of Carpet (dessert fruit taste) and Landing (with sour-sweet apples), winter varieties with sour-sweet fruits Snowdrop and Sokolovskoye.
A dwarf apple tree is planted on windless slopes or elevated areas, well lit by sunlight, although darkening is acceptable. The soil is preferably fertile, the occurrence of groundwater is allowed no closer than one and a half meters from the surface.
Dwarf saplings can be placed on the site at a distance of two or three meters from each other. A landing pit is dug half a meter deep, about 70 cm in diameter.
The upper layer is temporarily laid aside, and then poured it on the bottom of the pit, mixing with a humus bucket and a bucket of water. In the resulting wet mass set dwarf sapling to place the vaccination was a couple of centimeters above the level of the pit.
Sapling fall asleep with the remaining earth, compacting it, and then forming a cushion with a height of 10 cm along the diameter of the stem.
Prepare a pit in which they will plant a tree, in advance - from the autumn. It is made spacious and deep so that the roots of the apple tree in it are comfortable. They will need to be straightened so that they do not bend anywhere, much less break. The pit is shaped like a square with a side of 90 cm and the same depth.
Celled apple trees prefer fertile soil, therefore fertilizers containing a large percentage of phosphorus and potassium are poured into the well. Suitable for them mineral compositions recommended for common varieties of culture.
But you need to make them in a different amount - the drug is spent 10 times less. Approximately 2 tbsp. Is poured into each pit. l fertilizers, exact dosage recommended by the manufacturer.
The poor soil is additionally enriched with peat or humus.
In order to harvest faster from the columnar apple trees, their seedlings are placed in the ground in early spring, when the soil is free of snow, and the buds on the tree are not yet dissolved. Possible and autumn planting. It is carried out in September, in the second half of the month. It is necessary to have time to plant young apple trees to the cold so that they take root well in the new place. Then the trees will easily carry the winter frost.
If there are several seedlings, it is better to arrange them in a row. Between adjacent columnar apple trees leave 0.5 m of free space. The aisle is wide - not less than 1 m. Professionals advise planting annual trees.
The process of rooting in a new place is easier and faster. In older adults, apple trees form strong taproot roots that go deep into the ground.
When digging up a tree, they are often injured, after which it is ill for a long time and may die without having taken root on the site.
Landing takes place in 4 stages:
- placing the seedling in the pit, it is given a strictly upright position,
- gently straighten the roots of a young apple tree,
- gradually pour the soil into the pit until it is filled to the top,
- carefully compacted soil around a tree trunk, pressing it with your hands.
It is important to ensure that the root neck of the columnar apple is not buried. Violation of the rules of planting can lead to an unexpected result - the development of rootstock roots. As a result, not a low and slender tree will grow, but a tall and spreading tree. After placing on a permanent plot, the seedling requires abundant watering.
Pruning and rationing harvest
Celled apple trees need careful care. Their crown needs spring pruning. A feature of these trees is the abundant planting of flower buds. They cover the central trunk and side shoots.
If the first cannot be touched, then the last must be disposed of, otherwise one cannot wait for a good harvest. Already in the first year of apple life, side shoots are shortened by length. They are developing rapidly, and by the end of the season they will appear on 2 young and strong branches.
With the arrival of spring, such care is repeated, cutting off the shoots growing up in the apple trees.
Trees begin to bear fruit after the first year in a new place, when they finally take root. If they bloom earlier, not yet strong, the buds should be cut off. With the right care, the columnar apple trees planted in Siberia can produce crops for 6-12 years.
Their weak branches are not able to withstand the weight of abundantly covering fruits, so the harvest is rationed. While the “Currency” is quite young, almost all ovaries are removed from it, leaving only 3-5 to develop.
The following year, this number is increased, giving the tree to gradually get used to the load.
When plucking the ovary, one must be careful not to injure the tender young leaves. An adult columnar apple is subjected to this procedure twice. For the first time - at the stage of buds.
Their number on the tree is calculated by the formula: the number of apples, which is planned to be removed from it, multiplied by 2. The second time leaving in the form of plucking is carried out at the stage of ovaries.
If they began to resemble a nut in size, only one of the 2 future fruits is left.
Due to the peculiarities of the root system, the columnar apple need to be tinned by the soil near the trunk. Under them it is worth planting any cereal crops or spicy herbs: dill, mint, lemon balm.
They will retain moisture in the soil and protect their weak and weak roots from mechanical injury. Another option is to mulch the surface of the planting pit after placing a columnar apple into it.
A layer of straw, dry leaves or humus is updated from time to time.
Watering and feeding
Both “Currency” and other varieties of dwarf apple trees love abundant watering. It is better to hold it in a drip way. Every 2 weeks plantings make a kind of “shower”, irrigating their crown well.
In the absence of the possibility of such irrigation, the soil under the trees is moistened every 2-3 days, and then mulched with straw. But to leave her for the winter is dangerous.
Straw can lure to the site of rodents, so this protective layer is removed in the fall.
Needed colloid apple trees and care in the form of dressings. Organic fertilizers for them, you can use the slurry and fermented chicken droppings. From mineral - saltpeter and urea.
Begin to feed the trees in spring and repeat the procedure until mid-June once a month.
Urea is recommended to be applied three times per season: when leaves are blooming on the trees and every 2 weeks after the first feeding.
For the winter landing harbor. It is especially important not to forget to perform this procedure if the site is in Siberia. Lapnik or shavings will protect the apple from freezing and damage by rodents - mice and hares.
To get the desired result, you will need to try. Shelter should be reliable, not pass moisture and have no cracks through which pests can penetrate to the trunk.
Trees are easier to endure frosts if spudding them with snow.
A columnar apple tree will be an exquisite decoration of any site. The advantages of growing it are obvious. Occupying a smaller area compared to conventional apples, columnar varieties yield more yield.
And if you place several trees on a plot, the fruits of which ripen at different times, you can enjoy fresh fragrant fruits from summer to late autumn.
Suitable for this variety are "President" and "Medoc", "Titania" and "Gin", "Currency" and "Arbat".
Deciding on their breeding, you need to understand that time and effort in caring for these apple trees takes a lot. By themselves, they will not grow and will not be pleased with spectacular beauty or abundant harvest. If there is no possibility or desire, then it is better to leave the idea to diversify the dacha landscape by planting columnar apple trees.