Extruded pet food for fattening appeared on the market relatively recently. However, among livestock breeders they immediately gained recognition and began to enjoy wide popularity.
The fact is that during the extrusion of conventional feed, some non-digestible grain enzymes (for example, starch) are split into those that are fully digested both by animals and by birds (sugar and simple carbohydrates). Such food is not only more useful, but, due to the increase in taste, is much better eaten.
Almost all livestock breeders know about the advantages of extruded feed. But not everyone can afford to buy an extruder for grain because of its very high cost. To help those who "wants, but can not," we offer options for making your own extruder.
1 What is an extruder?
An extruder is a device that allows you to turn ordinary feed into extruded. In other words, the grain mixture is poured at the entrance to the unit, and the output is a sort of granulated feed.
Depending on the device of the unit, sausages with a diameter up to 3 cm leave it.
Any, even slightly spoiled grain can be processed in an extruder. This device processes feed under high pressure up to 60 atmospheres and at high temperatures up to 180 degrees.
With such a physical effect, splitting of enzymes occurs. Of these, sugar and carbohydrates are emitted. In addition, the finished food is not only sweet, but also acquires the aroma of freshly baked bread, which significantly improves both digestibility (from 60% to 90%) and eatability.
Extruded feed significantly reduces the energy consumption of animals for their use. Due to this, with less feed consumption, the farmer gets a much larger increase in muscle mass in the farm. In addition, such food completely protects poultry and animals from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and bacteria entering the intestine.
Grain extruder can be of different capacities. Everyone chooses what he needs, based on personal requirements and the size of the farm. For example, the grain cache extruder has a capacity of up to 20 kg of finished feed per hour, whereas the grain extruder EKZ 20 produces 1.5–2 times less product during the same time.
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1.1 Functions of the extruder
This unit is needed not only to transform simple grain into granular feed. His tasks include:
- Heat treatment and disinfection of raw materials.
- Grinding grain.
Extruder at work
1.2 What does the unit consist of?
This unit, despite the complexity of the process being performed, has a rather uncomplicated set:
- frame base, which is the base of the unit. On it are fixed all the other components,
- the drive driving the mechanism
- bunker. It is loaded with raw materials that will be processed (grain, fodder, meal, etc.),
- The dosing screw feeds at a certain speed and in certain quantities,
- screw auger
- cylinder - the body in which the processing of raw materials,
- receiving chamber
- cutting knife
- belt and cuff.
1.3 How does it work?
All manipulations on the transformation of grain into extruded feed occur in the pressing unit. I.e all the work is done by the injection augerclosed cylindrical housing. The delivery auger, in turn, consists of 3 parts (input, output and middle) and a heating washer.
Above the auger entrance part in the body there is an opening through which the raw material enters. On the body inside there are longitudinal ribs that help to mix the grain to create a homogeneous mass. Due to the constant rotation of the auger, a high pressure occurs in the housing, which breaks the grain. After high-temperature processing, the finished product in the form of sausage goes through the die plate.
The extruder is heated gradually. Grain loading can be made only after the mechanism is fully heated, otherwise it will not break. At start-up, flour or meal can be loaded into the bunker.
2 How to make an extruder with your own hands
Making a grain extruder with your own hands is not an easy task. But difficult - does not mean unreal.
In addition, many elements of the unit still have to buy. But, if you take into account the cost of the factory device, it will cost much less.
Homemade grain extruder
And so, in order to make the unit with your own hands, you will need:
- engine, with a capacity of at least 2.2 kW with a rotation speed of 3000 revolutions per minute and higher,
- spring or rod, with a diameter of 10-12 mm for the manufacture of sleeves,
- rod, for example, from a hydraulic cylinder with a diameter of at least 50mm,
- wire with a diameter of 8 mm or a conical spring,
- welding machine and lathe.
2.1 Making a granulator
Making sure that all the necessary elements are present, we proceed to the assembly of the unit.
- Let's start with the manufacture of auger. To do this, take a shaft with a diameter of 50 mm and wind a wire with a diameter of 8 mm on it, making a kind of spring. You can take a ready-made spring, if there is one. The step between the coils should gradually decrease. For example, we start from 2.4 and reach 1.8 mm.
- Next, you need to scald the spring on the shaft. After welding, carefully grind the seams. You should have something like a meat grinder auger.
- From a rod of 10 mm or strips of a spring it is necessary to weld a sleeve in which the auger will rotate. Making the liner from individual embossed elements will increase friction and heating of the raw material during extrusion.
- On the one side of the sleeve we weld the sleeve, which will include bearings.
- On both sides of the sleeve we weld the guides, on which the control flanges will be fixed.
- Insert the screw into the sleeve.
- We put the washer, install the ball bearing, and then the roller clamping bearing.
- Install the flange and wind the nuts on the rails.
2.2 We assemble an extruder
At this granulator itself is ready. Getting to build an extruder with your own hands in general.
- We make a frame from a corner (you can use a ready-made stable workbench, if you have one).
- Install the engine. The more powerful the engine, the greater will be the performance of our homemade extruder.
- We make a belt drive. Install the gearbox and tension the belt.
- On the drive gear we fix your granulator.
- At the hole for the supply of raw materials set the bunker. This may be an old bucket, barrel, or any other container.
2.3 We launch
Run an extruder, made by hand, you need gradually. After starting the engine, let it work for 2–3 minutes in vain. Then, we begin gradually to fill up small raw materials (flour, cakes, meal) so that the unit warms up, the matrix is filled and the necessary pressure is created.
When the finished feed begins to go through the die plate in granular form, you can fill the hopper with whole grain.
Making your own extruder is a long, costly and time consuming process, but worth it. Now you can cook a full balanced food at home.
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The extruder for feed works as follows. The initial raw material is subjected to heat treatment and high atmospheric pressure. As a result, processes that split the complex structure of raw materials into simpler components occur.
As a result, the output is high-quality and easily digestible food. It should be noted that with the help of such units are made absolutely all combined feed, which are commercially available.
What to do with feed extruder
The complexity of manufacturing a homemade design lies in the fact that most of the necessary parts still have to buy. The materials at hand here are unlikely to be limited.
In addition, you will need a welding machine and a lathe to machine parts and fit them to size. Before starting work, it is necessary to prepare drawings. This will help you to better understand the future design and greatly facilitate the assembly process. Drawings can be found on the Internet or made independently.
In addition, you will need:
- 2.2 kW electric motor with a speed of 3000 revolutions per minute. It is not necessary to purchase a new motor, for your purposes the used engine will fit perfectly,
- gears. You can use the contents of the gearbox from any tractor,
- wire diameter of 8 millimeters
- rod from hydraulic cylinder. Diameter - 50 mm,
- gearbox for load sharing,
Having prepared all the necessary parts, you can proceed to installation.
Assembly of the unit
A key node in the work of any extruder is a screw. With him we begin. For the manufacture of the case, you need to take the gears and weld them together. The body of the screw is made from the rod of the hydraulic cylinder on which the wire is wound. It should make a spiral with a different pitch of turns.
First, the distance between the turns should be approximately 25 mm, at the end - not more than 20 mm. If you manage to get a steel spring that goes to the cone and has the necessary diameter, you can use it. After that, all coils must be fixed with electric welding. The resulting irregularities and scale must be removed with a grinder and file processed.
After that, on the lathe, it is necessary to turn out two bushings that will interconnect the gearbox and the auger shaft. Between the sleeve and the shaft, a support bearing is installed, after which all components are welded into one design.
The auger retracts into a metal case, which can be made from scraps of water pipes. On one side of the auger, an extruder head is installed, supplemented with metal tubes - fillers. The diameter of the tubes depends on the size of the feed you want to receive. On the other hand, the gearbox is fixed, with the help of which the whole structure will be put into action.
The power plant (engine) is recommended to be installed on a reliable support. You can weld the frame of metal corners, which are attached to the floor with anchor bolts.
The interaction of the power plant and gearbox is carried out at the expense of a belt drive. On the screw the bunker for supply of raw materials is installed. For these purposes, the usual bucket or metal tank with a hole made in the bottom will do.
You should have a three-tier system for processing raw materials: the loading part, mixing, pressing. At the exit of the pressing there are tubes - fillers, through which the supply of finished feed will be carried out. By and large, the grain extruder resembles a large electric meat grinder that you made with your own hands.
Before operating the grain extruder at full capacity, it is recommended to perform a test run.. Before turning on the engine, it is necessary to check all the connections for their reliability.
The self-made unit should work only on a flat surface, a slight tilt can lead to device breakage. For the first sample performance, it is recommended to use soft and plastic raw materials, such as cake or flour. This will warm up the system and test its performance.
If everything is in order, you can fill up the grain in the receiving bin. Ensure that raw materials are fed continuously, but do not overload the auger.. After completion of the work, a small amount of oil cake must be passed through the extruder again. It will help to clean the auger from the inside, collecting all the residues from the grain processing.
A hand-made feed extruder is capable of producing about 40 kilograms of feed per hour. Of course, this figure may vary depending on the power of the power plant.
Making a feedstrike with your own hands will cost you about 25 to 30,000 rubles. Plus, the time spent and the risk that the design may not work the first time. In addition, no one can guarantee the safety of an improvised device.
Factory models are more expensive and their average performance is approximately equal to the homemade unit. If you are not sure that you can collect the feed extruder with your own hands, it is better to save money and purchase a factory model. As practice shows, the costs will be justified in the second season of operation.
Technical features of extruders
The device consists of several parts, and is divided into three sections:
- The first is responsible for the acceptance of raw materials,
- In the second, plasticization and compression occur,
- In the third - pressing.
Grain processing in industrial extruders occurs at high temperatures: from 110 to 180 ° C, and pressures above 40 atmospheres. Such conditions are necessary for the breakdown of fiber, proteins and starch contained in whole grains. The whole process takes only a few minutes, which means that the split protein does not have time to coagulate.
Another advantage of extrusion is to obtain a clean and safe feed: almost all types of bacteria and fungi die during heat treatment.
The grain extruder is equipped with a special chamber in which the products are pressed. It is also located shaft with screw pressing, intermediate and feed elements. The power of the apparatus depends on the engine and the rotor, which is responsible for the operation of the cutting unit.
Types of improvised extruders
Industrial models of the device in price start from 45 000 rubles, which is not always acceptable for small farms and private farmsteads. To prepare livestock and poultry a complete and healthy food, many farmers have learned how to assemble the device on their own. There are several ways to do your own extruder:
- For large volumes of raw materials,
- From spare parts for agricultural machinery,
- From the vacuum cleaner.
Before proceeding to manufacture, it is necessary to find diagrams and drawings. They will help to understand the subtleties and nuances of fastening and the location of the main working units.
DIY clay extruder
Such equipment is intended for modeling. With the help of such manual extruders, you can work with clay and clay. Main construction For this extruder, a transparent plastic bottle is considered. Before work it needs to be washed and dried. From the cover you need to pull the plate with a needle or pin.
Next, you need to create a hole from which the material will be extruded. The diameter must match the lines. Trim the edges of the hole and take the metal disk to which you attach the handle. Done, now you have a clay extruder. Everything is very easy and does not even need a drawing.
An extruder is considered very useful, because thanks to this tool you can create a lot of materials that used in vital areas. A 3D printer device makes the highest quality parts, and it’s very profitable to make it yourself, you can make a decent deal of it. When creating such a tool for a 3D printer, do not forget to familiarize yourself with the scheme.