The genus Yucca belongs to the Agave family and is an evergreen flower. It happens that it is called a palm tree, but this is wrong, since these plants are not related at all. Among gardeners, this group is called false palm trees.
By origin Yucca Mexican, and if specifically, it is distributed throughout Central America. The genus includes about thirty plants that can be divided into two groups - stemless and tree. Wild yuccas grow up to twelve meters, and in gardening their growth is limited to two meters. Previously, yucca was called “denim tree” because it was made of jeans.
Types and varieties
Yucca Aloelis This is a perennial plant with a direct shoot, forming a rosette with xiphoid leaves on top. The leaves are olive-colored and grow to half a meter.
Yucca ivory has large xiphoid leaves that reach 70 cm long and 7 cm wide.
Yucca filamentous this species has almost no stem. It grows horizontally with root suckers. Withstands very low temperatures. The leaves are long, glaucous. There is variegated variegated variety.
Yucca Sizaya she also does not have a stem. The leaves are narrow and long - more than half a meter, the color is bluish.
Yucca nice other name spanish kinjalnik. It has a little branching escape. The leaves have a blue tint and spike at the end. The flowers are cream-colored with purple tint.
Yukka Whipple a very slow-growing species that has the shape of a bush.
Indoor yucca aloelis and ivory is grown in room conditions.
Yucca home care
Yucca is not a difficult plant to care for. She is very fond of light, it should be a lot, but remember that a direct hit of rays will burn the leaves and therefore you need to make ambient lighting.
In the summer, the flower can be carried out on the street, placing it in a place protected from direct sunlight. If you leave the plant in the room for the summer, then try to make good airing for it.
In spring and summer, it is impossible for the thermometer strip to rise above 25 ° C, but also to fall below 20 ° C. From autumn until the next spring, the temperature is lowered to 12 ° C.
If in the winter you cannot lower the temperature so low, then try to keep it outside as long as possible, and after the winter take it out early.
How to water a yucca at home
Watering this plant depends on how warm and damp it is. Good watering is needed in the summer, when the ground in the pot will dry a few centimeters. In the case of a hot summer, watering can be increased. In winter and autumn, it is significantly reduced, in order to avoid rotting of the flower.
To increase the humidity, it is necessary to spray the plant, but for this it is important to take the separated water at room temperature.
In spring and summer, yucca should be fertilized with mineral supplements every 15-20 days. You can not fertilize a flower if you have recently transplanted it or it is sick.
How to trim a yucca at home
Yucca has only one central sprout, but it can be branched by pruning.
To do this, your flower should be at least thirty centimeters. With the beginning of summer, the top of the shoot is cut off (cut off about 7 cm), but so that the plant still has a lot of foliage. The cut needs to be powdered with pounded coal.
Yucca at home
Yucca can be transplanted in spring and summer, but it is best to carry out this procedure in the spring.
For transplanting, drain and prepare soil of neutral acidity. During the procedure it is better to use the method of transshipment, because you need to leave a sufficient amount of substrate near the rhizome.
Yucca planting and care in the open field
Since yucca is a frost-resistant flower, it can be grown in the garden. Rules for the care of garden and room yucca are not particularly different.
To protect the plant for the winter, you need in dry weather to tie the leaves of yucca along their entire length. Place a part of the lower sheets on the ground to prevent excessive cooling.
Insulate the bottom of the plant with dry foliage, and the bush as a whole needs to be covered with plastic wrap. Yucca should be planted when the cold is over and the night temperature is not less than 10 degrees.
Yucca breeding at home
Yucca can be propagated in several ways. In order to grow a flower from seeds, it is necessary, soon after harvesting, to plant them in the sand mixed with leaf and sod land (each in one piece). You also need to cover the container with glass, and then from time to time to air and water.
It will take about a month and the first shoots will appear. When they get stronger, they need to dive into six-centimeter pots and look after as an adult yucca.
Yucca garden reproduction
When it grows enough, it can be propagated by pieces of escape. In the summer you need to saw off a couple of pieces of the stem - up to 20 cm. They are deepened into a raw mixture of sand with peat and placed on the street in the shade. You also need to cover the container with the material with plastic wrap and sometimes water the soil. The temperature required for rooting is not less than 22 degrees.
The formation of roots is a long process, which will be completed in a month or two. Sections on the stem of the parent are treated with garden pitch.
Yucca propagation by cuttings
Also known is the breeding method of yucca grafting. To do this, cut the apical stalk with a sharp object, and powder the area of the cut. For two hours, the material is left to dry, and then sown in wet sand.
When the roots are formed, the stalk is planted in the soil.
During the process of the appearance of the roots, the leaflets on the handle will gradually be turned off - remove them when this happens.
Diseases and pests
When growing yucca, various problems associated with diseases and pests can occur.
- If your yucca leaves turn yellow, then do not worry - this is quite normal. Green leaves are only at the top, and the bottom is gradually discarded.
- Also, the fall of the leaves of the plant after purchase meansthat the flower gets used to a new home.
- If leaves from around the plant begin to fall off, then, most likely, your yucca has frozen through or stood in a draft.
- The appearance of brown spots on the leaves meansthat the plant needs to increase watering.
- Twisting leaves is a consequence of low temperatures.
- Too bright sun leads to burns, which appear as spots.
- White bloom on yucca leaves usually occurs due to mealybug infestation. Also dangerous pests are spider mites, scales and whiteflies.
For the reproduction of the flower, the trunk is cut into several parts, the cut is processed by the bar. Parts of the trunk are planted in the prepared wet substrate of sand and peat, covered with a film on top, forming a mini greenhouse. After a month, remove the film. It is allowed to put parts of the trunk horizontally, slightly crushing them to the ground. After a certain time, buds will begin to appear on them. This method is better to produce in the summer, when the Yucca flower has an intensive growth.
Yucca can often be subject to fungal diseases with improper care:
- Spotting on the leaves. The fungal disease is formed as brown spots on the leaves. When it is necessary to reduce watering, irrigation, reduce the humidity of the air. All affected parts are removed from the plant.
- Rotting of the stem or roots. When identifying the first signs of the disease, it is important to remove all affected parts of the plant from the main bush. Arrange moderate watering and reduce the humidity in the room.
In addition to diseases, pests can appear on the flower. The most common and well-known are: scammer and spider mite. A spider mite appears on the underside of the leaves. After which the leaves become dull in color and die. In preventive measures it is necessary to treat the leaves with soapy water, and spray the plant with insecticides. Dummy shield affects not only the leaves, but also the stems. If you do not take measures to control pests, the flower may die.
The most basic mistakes when growing yucca in room conditions are:
- Due to the overmoistening of the soil, dark spots appear on the leaves, and the trunk also becomes soft. It is necessary to reduce watering and reduce humidity in the room.
- White dry spots on the leaves appear in a dry and well-lit room. It is necessary to change the place of the pot in partial shade.
- Foliage curls and brown spots appear due to the lack of temperature and poor light during the winter dormancy. It is necessary to provide the plant with additional lighting and increase the temperature.
- Fungal diseases occur due to an overabundance of moisture. It should stop watering, in a timely manner to fertilize.
- Root rotting is formed if moisture accumulates in the pan. When found, you need to transplant a flower, removing all the affected parts of the root system.
Yucca is an unpretentious plant, if you give it a minimum of time, it will perfectly decorate the interior.
In the warm season, the air temperature in the room with a yucca should not fall below 20 degrees. Optimum performance in spring and summer - 22-25C. If the plant has been hot for some time, it should be taken to a shaded place and spray the leaves.
In winter and autumn, yucca requires coolness. The air should not warm up more than 12C.
At home, it is difficult to provide such indicators. Therefore, as long as possible, the yucca is kept on the street or balcony until the first frost, is brought into the room, and in the spring is put out again.
In warm weather, the yucca needs plenty of watering. But by the time of the next watering, the top layer of soil should dry at least 5 cm.
The frequency depends on the external conditions - temperature, humidity, soil composition, pot material, etc. From mid-autumn, watering is reduced to avoid rotting of the roots and plant disease.
In addition to watering the soil, yucca needs spraying leaves. This can be done from a spray with water at room temperature.
It is important to ensure that the sun leaves do not fall on the wet leaves. Otherwise, burns will form in place of the droplets.
In the absence of the possibility of watering for several days, yucca can be put in a tray with stones to prevent a lack of moisture. Yucca from time to time is useful to rinse under the shower.
From April to September, yucca is fed biweekly with mineral fertilizers. You can use horse or cow dung, grass humus and leaves.
You can not feed the yucca immediately after transplantation. Fertilize with watering diluted fertilizer or spraying the leaves on the back side.
Yucca, in which several rosettes grow from one trunk, is very popular at home. Even if at the time of the acquisition was one barrel, it is easy to get a few.
A yucca with a height of more than 30 cm is suitable. At the end of May, the upper part is cut off with a well-sharpened knife by 5-10 cm.
The cut must be treated with charcoal for disinfection. After some time, you will see new side sockets.
When the pot becomes small, the yucca is transplanted into a new container several centimeters more. Transplanting is also necessary when the roots decay from excess moisture.
At the bottom of the pot must put a drainage layer. The soil should have a neutral level of acidity, about 6-6.5. It is mixed with sand in a ratio of 2: 1, where 2 parts of the soil, 1 part of the sand.
It is better to replant it by the method of transshipment, that is, retaining most of the old earthy coma. If the inspection of the roots showed rotten, they are carefully removed.
There are three ways of breeding yucca:
Seeds. They are planted immediately after ripening the fruit in a mixture of sand, leafy soil and sod in equal shares. On top of the container covered with glass.
If you regularly moisturize and air, after about a month shoots will appear. When the sprouts get a little stronger, they are transplanted into small pots and gradually transferred to the mode of care, as for adult plants.
Barrel. Yucca in the room reaches a large size. Therefore, the upper parts of the trunk can be cut and rooted. The process is best done in the summer. Sawn pieces should be more than 20 cm tall.
Sections are placed in a container with a mixture of sand and peat and put in a shaded place in the air. After planting, the cuttings are coated to prevent the substrate from drying out.
After 1-2 months yucca will give roots. The cut on an adult plant is treated with garden pitch.
Cuttings. With this method, cut the tops. The handle is kept for several hours in air, then placed in a container of boiled water or planted in sand.
When grown in a jar, a piece of charcoal is thrown to the bottom. If some leaves come into contact with water, they can start to rot. They need to be removed and pour fresh water. After the roots appear, the stalk is planted in the ground.
What does yucca look like and how does it bloom: photos and description of the plant
The homeland is North and Central America, India. The yucca house plant strongly resembles a miniature palm tree in its appearance. Description of the plant Yucca: a tree with a thickened stem. The leaves are hard, sword-shaped, gray-blue, green or variegated, similar to the leaves of Cordilina or dracaena, up to 50-100 cm long, gathered in a bundle on the branches of the trunk or on the top. There are also stemless species. The crown consists of several or one rosette of leaves.If you do not know what a yucca looks like, look at the photo below:
Depending on the species, the plant height is up to 1 m. In natural habitat, it reaches a height of up to 1, 8 m. The flowers are predominantly white, bell-shaped, up to 8 cm long, gathered in an inflorescence-panicle. In nature, there are other variants of the color of this representative flora - creamy-greenish or yellowish tones. The plant is characterized by numerous flowers, there can be about 300 flowers on one yucca. In room conditions, Yucca blooms extremely rarely. Notice how the yucca blooms in these photos:
Fetus - a dry box or a juicy fruit, besides, in some varieties it is even edible. In culture, unpretentious, breeds easily. The plant blooms in summer.
Care for Yucca palm tree when grown at home
It needs a bright, sunny room. The choice of a pot for growing and caring for a yucca palm tree at home should be taken seriously, the growth, development and appearance of the flower will depend on it. Experienced growers recommend putting the plant pot in a sunny, well-lit place throughout the daylight hours. The most optimal place for yucca in the house are window sills or special floor stands in the east or west side of the house.
If it is not possible to position the yucca in the east or west of the room, you can put it in the southern part of the room, but then in the summer period you must shade the windows to protect the flower from direct sunlight. Only diffused sunlight should fall on the plant, otherwise sunburn will form.
In the summer it is advisable to take out to the garden, to the balcony or terrace. In winter, Yucca may lack natural light. To compensate for the lack of light, fluorescent lamps should be placed close to the plants at a distance of approximately 50-60 cm.
In winter, you can keep in cool rooms, the optimum air temperature in the autumn-winter period is 10-14 ° C. Sometimes with the onset of the heating period, problems may arise with the plant. Quite often flower growers notice that the leaves of yucca are stretched out, they become very thin, and the turgor weakens. To avoid such problems, if possible, use an air conditioner to reduce the temperature of the air in the room or open windows. It is desirable that the temperature regime does not exceed 18-22 ° C, only so the plant will develop well and have a healthy appearance.
For good growing conditions of yucca high humidity is not required, the best option is moderate humidity - 40-50%. If the air humidity is lower, the plant will feel comfortable even in such growing conditions, but at the same time it is necessary to regularly spray the leaves with boiled and well-settled water.
How to care for room yucca: how to water and feed the plant
When taking care of room yucca at home, it is important to ensure proper watering. Water in the summer this room flower should be plentiful, but after the top layer of soil - 4-5 cm, completely dry. It is important to prevent stagnation of water at the level of the earthy coma, all excess liquid after each watering should be poured out of the pan.
How to water the yucca at home in the summer? In summer, yucca can be periodically watered from the shower, but it is important during this procedure to prevent water from entering the substrate. To do this, you can wrap the pot with polyethylene.
When growing yucca at home in the autumn-winter period, the frequency of irrigation should be reduced to once in 10-14 days. Растение гораздо лучше переносит засуху, а вот перелив может вызвать гниение корневой системы. Слишком высокая влажность грунта также часто становится причиной развития многих болезней и поражения растения вредителями.
Among the recommendations on how to care for yucca at home, specialists in the field of floriculture play a special role in the good development and growth of this species. You can feed a flower with universal mineral fertilizers, which are sold in flower shops, or you can cook them yourself. As a fertilizer for garden yucca, you can use a mixture of horse or cow manure, together with leaf humus.
In spring and summer, you need to feed the plants once every few weeks. It is not recommended to apply top dressing in winter and autumn.
How to transplant yucca at home
Follow the following guidelines for homemade yucca if you are doing this for the first time.
At the bottom of each pot should put a drainage layer, which consists of gravel or rubble. For planting young plants prepare the soil from this mixture:
- sod land
- leaf earth
- coarse sand,
All these components are taken in a ratio of 2: 2: 2. Prepared containers fill this soil mixture. Immediately after planting, young yuccas are well watered, so that they quickly take root.
How to care for yucca in the garden: planting and care in the open field
Caring for a yucca flower in the open field should begin with choosing a place to plant a plant. An excellent choice would be a sunny, dry place, you should not plant this garden flower in areas where moisture is stagnant.
It is important to pay attention to the fact that a number of growing shrubs and trees do not shade the yucca, because with a lack of sunlight, it is drawn out, its leaves turn pale and thinner. Novice flower growers often do not know how to properly transplant a yucca so that it will take root well. When planting several plants in the same area, the distance between them along the top of the soil should be 50 × 50 cm. When transplanting adult plants, the distance between them should be at least 70-100 cm on all sides. It is not necessary to carry out planting and caring for yucca in the open field at a time when there is a likelihood of morning frosts, otherwise they will die. You can replant them only in the warm season.
Care for garden yucca in winter
For many gardeners, especially beginners, the question of caring for garden yucca in the winter is relevant. With the arrival of cold weather, garden plants should be covered from frost. This can be done in the following ways:
- In late autumn, with the arrival of the first frosts, the garden bush was covered with a wooden box. From above it is covered with insulating materials, for example, old roofing felt or non-woven cloth. A layer of soil is poured over these materials.
- The lower leaves of the plant are bent to the ground, and the upper ones are collected in a bundle and tightly tied together. In this state, an adult copy is filled with fallen leaves, and boards are neatly placed on top, which are covered with plastic wrap.
If you follow these rules and recommendations, how to care for a yucca in a garden in winter, the plant will easily tolerate even severe frosts.
How to propagate yucca at home by cuttings and pieces of the trunk
There are several ways to multiply yucca at home. This type of ornamental plants is propagated by cuttings and offspring that form at the base of the trunk or on its top.
Having a room flower Yucca in their home, during the care at home, many growers propagate it by cutting. This method of reproduction is usually carried out in the period of trimming the plant in order to increase its aesthetic properties.
Having chosen this method of reproduction, it is necessary to cut off the top with a sharp knife, and sprinkle the place of the cut with pounded activated carbon. Such actions, in addition to allowing an increase in the number of yucca in the garden or in the house, contribute to the formation of more lush bushes.
A few hours after processing the cutting with activated carbon, it can be planted in clean and well-moistened sand. After 2-3 weeks, the roots will have roots, after which it can be transplanted into the prepared substrate.
Propagation by trunk segments
In the summer, on the side of the trunk, it is necessary to cut or saw off several pieces of 20-30 cm in size. Cut areas on the mother plant and segments should be treated with ash or activated carbon.
Small containers filled with a mixture of peat and river sand, it is moistened and planted segments, deepening the place of the cut in the soil. The container on top is covered with plastic wrap or glass, creating a greenhouse effect. The air temperature inside the container should not fall below 20-25 ° C. To make the segments rooted faster, the soil should be aired every day, lifting film or glass. The substrate must be watered regularly, and a month later the roots will appear on the segments. After the formation of the root system, they can be planted in a permanent place.
How the yucca palm tree breeds at home with seeds
How does yucca breed at home with seeds? Yucca seeds are sown in a soil mixture prepared from leafy soil, soddy soil and sand, taken in equal parts. From above, a container with seeds is covered with glass, which is lifted daily for a while to ventilate the substrate.
About a month later with this care, the first shoots will appear. After the emergence of sprouts from under the ground, the glass is removed, and a month later the plants dive into pots with the prepared soil mixture.
Yucca pests and methods of dealing with them
During growing and caring for yucco many florists face the defeat of the plant by some diseases and pests. The main problem that disrupts the normal development of a garden flower is parasites.
There are such basic parasites that yucca owners face:
Dummy. This parasite feeds on the sap of the plant, so when the parasites multiply in large numbers, the yucca can die. You can make sure that the plant was hit by a false guard, you can by education on the leaves of hillocks and waxy drops. Leaf patches discolor. Treatment with alcohol, water-oil emulsions will help to get rid of the parasite by replacing the top layer of soil in the pot.
Spider mite With the defeat of the plant by this parasite on the lower leaves of yucca you can find small white grains, and soon the web itself. If the treatment is not carried out in time, the leaves soon lose their former color and become covered with yellow spots. Spider mite appears only on plants that are already weakened by other diseases. If a parasite is found, the leaves should be washed with cold water to get rid of the pest.
Mealybug. This is another common pest that can be found on garden yuccas. Leaves affected by the parasite are covered with a sticky coating. The mealybug has a wax coating like a false guard, so the methods of dealing with these pests are the same.