The flora of our planet is extremely diverse and beautiful. A huge number of different life forms of plants gives not only aesthetic pleasure, but also brings a very tangible practical benefit: it is a source of food, decor elements, a supplier of medical products, a source of clean and fresh air filled with oxygen and so on.
Among all the life forms of plants, a large place is given to herbs, both cultivated and wild. They occupy almost 50% of the total mass of the flora of the planet, so we consider them.
Herbs: General Characteristics
Most often, herbs are plants that have a slightly modified shoot. That is, in the classical sense, the shoot must include a stem, leaves and a flower. So, not all structural parts can be observed in grasses. Often, the stem is modified, the leaves take on a shape and size that helps to adapt as much as possible to environmental conditions.
The flower, as a reproductive organ, is, of course, in all herbs. However, they are also quite different in size, shape and color. This factor will depend on the method of pollination of a particular plant species.
Wild grasses are a very numerous group, including representatives of almost all known angiosperm families. Herbal names are very diverse. There are both historically established “names” and scientific data on binary nomenclature (in Latin, the first name is a genus, the second is a species). For example, Leonurus heterophyllus, or Motherwort variegated.
The root system, the branching of the shoot, the structure of the flower and the leaves - all these botanical characteristics will be repelled by a particular plant species and species, therefore it is impossible to isolate some common morphological features for all wild grasses.
Different characteristics can be used as a basis, but the separation of herbs into:
- Annuals - buttercups, cornflowers, ageratums, lapchatniki, dopey, poppies, chamomiles - the names of the herbs of this group can be listed for a very long time, as they are numerous.
- Biennial - mallow, euphorbia, tributary, lupine, forget-me-not, bell, viola and others.
- Perennial - begonia, anemone, alissum, St. John's wort, reed, iris, oxalis, oregano, elecampane and others. Names of herbs in this category reflect their purpose. Obviously, this includes many medicinal well-known species.
In addition to this classification, you can bring another. The basis to put the area of human use.
- Medicinal herbs - celandine, series, thyme, chamomile, sage, calendula, burnet, lily of the valley and others.
- Cultivated agricultural plants - vegetables, fruits, grains (cereals).
- Spicy herbs - ginger, fennel, horseradish, anise, parsley, basil, lemon balm, vanilla, brown cinnamon, cardamom, nutmeg, saffron, laurel and so on.
- Ornamental grasses - ornamental cabbage, euphorbia bordered, Lunosemyannik Dauri, young, Badan, kohia, rogers and many others.
According to the place of growth, all grasses can be divided into mountain, forest, meadow, marsh, desert, steppe, and garden (weeds and cultivated plants).
Wild grasses of Russia
There are a lot of such representatives. Almost all wild herbs, names and photos of their representatives can be seen in any relevant encyclopedia. Let us try and consider in more detail the diversity of Russian wild herbs.
Only medicinal is known more than 900 species, and in fact there are also many others. In climatic zones, their distribution is uneven. It is known that most of the plants, including herbs, are located in the more southern, southeastern and eastern regions of our country. The northern, northwestern and western regions are densely populated, but not as diverse in species composition.
So, we can cite as an example the region of Siberia (Western and Eastern Siberia, the Far East, all the surrounding areas, up to Chukotka). Here are the most common wild herbs, whose names are as follows:
- shepherd's bag
- different sedges,
- feather grass,
- celandine and many others.
Among these, you can find both medicinal and ordinary types. One thing unites them - they are representatives of the flora living in the wild. Herbs - plants that embrace one article is simply impossible. Too many of them. The European part of Russia is represented by a variety of beautiful flowering herbs that form whole colored carpets, making wildlife unimaginably beautiful. Among them are the names of herbs such as lingonberries, Common Loosestrife, Veronica Dubravnaya, Crow's Eye, Common Heath, Fisher's Carnation, Forest Geranium, Hardleaf Starlet.
Due to good climatic conditions, the central zone of Russia is famous for a variety of medicinal types of herbs, which also create beautiful summer, spring and autumn landscapes with their flowers. These are such as fragrant kupena, May lily of the valley, young shooter, maroon dope, chamomile, nightshade, blueberry, yasnotka, hawk and others.
On the mountainous areas and their herbs we will dwell more later.
A beautiful perennial plant with a bright pink color of the flower halo and a beautiful honey aroma that attracts pollinating insects from June to September autumn days. Many pasture animals choose this wild-growing beauty for food, as there are a lot of proteins and carbohydrates in the roots, stalks and leaves. Belongs to the moth family (legumes). The main economic importance is as a perennial, it carries out annual soil drainage, participates in soil-forming processes, goes well for animal feed. Medicinal does not matter.
Very widespread plant belonging to the category of poisonous. It occurs in almost all bands of Russia, and is highly adaptable to environmental conditions. Includes several types of grass, the names and photos of which can be seen below.
- acrid ("night blindness" in the common people),
- Chistyak spring,
- garden and others.
It is not suitable for grazing animals, as the plant's escape is poisonous. After drying to a state of hay becomes safe. In medicine, the usual does not apply, but in the alternative is very common as a remedy for rheumatism, open wounds, boils, tuberculosis and burns.
The most famous among these are, of course, the Altai herbs. A huge amount of cosmetics, medicines, tinctures, balms, ointments are created on the basis of extracts of these miraculous plants.
After all, the very air of this mountainous area seems to heal. Almost all plants grown on the stony surfaces of the Altai are medicinal. Animals eating these herbs are the strongest and healthiest. People applying fees from these sites for treatment have fewer chronic diseases than residents of other areas.
Some Altai herbs that have received national recognition and are most commonly used by humans:
- red brush (Rhodiola chetyrehlepestnaya),
- milk thistle
- golden rod,
- boron uterus (orthilia one-sided),
- Veronica is black,
- White bloodroot,
- small basil,
- rank squat,
- ordinary calendula,
- sweet clover,
- Hawk umbrella,
- marsh mallow,
- chokeberry Aronia,
- immortelle sandy and many others.
Balsams are very common, which combine several herbal ingredients at once. They help with a variety of problems: cleanse, soothe, tone up, normalize blood pressure, restore sleep, relieve headaches and chronic fatigue and so on. Such wild mountain herbs, whose names have been given above, are very valuable objects of medicine.
Another name for this Altai grass is milk thistle. This plant since ancient times was revered as a very good medicinal assistant. Infusions from different parts of the grass help from liver diseases, clean the intestines and eliminate inflammation, relieve puffiness and treat jaundice and many other ailments.
The plant itself sometimes reaches 1.5 m in height. The leaves are very beautiful, with a white border and a dissected edge. The flowers look like cones of a round shape, dark pink or purple. A very valuable property of milk thistle, allowing it to be used in folk and traditional medicine, is the complete absence of side effects.
Beautiful appearance allows you to use it not only as a medicinal plant, but also as an ornamental plant in many gardens and kitchen gardens.
In common - red brush. Endemic plant of the Altai Territory. One of the most popular among these mountain herbs. Used in medicine, both folk and traditional for the treatment of female diseases of the pelvic organs, infertility, male prostatitis, inflammation. Helps to stop bleeding, normalizes the cardiovascular system, helps in the treatment of various kinds of viral and bacterial diseases.
Outwardly very interesting, unusual herbs. The description is as follows: low plants growing on rocky surfaces, with narrow, closely spaced leaves. The flowers are slightly visible, pale, but the fruits in the form of leaflets are very bright, red. The shape of the leaves resembles a brush, for which this plant got its name.
The most common medicinal herbs
This group includes a lot of representatives around the world. In Russia, they are also a great variety. Indeed, almost all plants (with the exception of highly poisonous) contain useful alkaloids, essential oils, resins, tannins, minerals and other components that allow you to use them as medicinal herbs. The names of the most common and well-known representatives of this group, growing on the territory of our country, are as follows:
- pharmaceutical camomile,
- ochanka medicinal,
- White bloodroot,
- lemon balm,
- winterizer umbrella,
- boron womb,
- raspberry ordinary
- plantain large,
- motherwort five-lobed,
- common air,
- Golden root,
- fragrant conflict,
- Red viburnum,
- Schizandra Chinese,
- wild rose,
- Eleutherococcus spiny,
- a succession
- celandine and many others.
It is obvious that it is simply impossible to list all the plants, since their species diversity is too great.
Of home potted plants, agave or aloe is often used as a medicine. It is a succulent plant with thick, fleshy leaves topped with thorns. Aloe juice contains a lot (up to 200) of various useful substances. They help to heal open wounds, inflammations, bacterial and viral diseases.
The most common spice plants
Since ancient times, they are used as medicinal, but most often as food additives that make the dishes exquisite, original and very fragrant. Some names of Russian herbs are given in the conclusion of the article: horseradish, dill, parsley, celery, parsnip, black pepper, cardamom, peppermint, lemon balm, mustard and some others.
Adding an article to a new collection
To save your crop from the "invasion" of weeds, you need to understand what kind of plants and how to fight them. We have compiled a visual table with photos, descriptions and the most effective measures to control common weeds.
Not all weeds are equally harmful. Part of the weeds can be used for feed to livestock and poultry, some of them are medicinal plants. But there are among the "weed" family and poisonous specimens. Our table will help you to understand the types of weeds and correctly choose the measures to combat "illegal immigrants" on your site.
- mulching beds and pristvolny circles
- treatment in phase 2-4 of these leaflets to tillering post-emergence herbicides (Hurricane Forte, Tornado, Lazurit, Dianat),
Names of wild plants
It is impossible not to take into account the possibility of using wild plants in extreme conditions. From the history of travel it is known that wild food and edible plants were saved from starvation by people without food. And now many tourists, hunters, fishermen, lovers of outdoor recreation, who know wild herbs, skillfully enrich their diet.
Wild edible plants for many are almost unknown. Not everyone knows that from the plantain, which grows under our feet, you can prepare a salad or cabbage soup. Cook any soup - meat, vegetable or lean, and throw into it a couple of handfuls of hogweed, sleep or nettle - the taste and aroma of the dish will change! Stems, flowers and roots of wild food plants can be served to the table in stewed, fried and even candied in syrup. The advantages of the additive in pickles, pickles and marinades of mint leaves, tarragon, horseradish, currants, oak are well known, the newly acquired savory taste and delicate flavor speak for themselves. The addition of leaves of Hypericum, oregano, raspberry, currant, mint petals, lime blossom improves the aroma of tea and various drinks, gives them healing properties. There are many such examples.
Many wild plants are harvested for future use. They can be dried so that in winter they can be used as seasoning for soups and sauces, meat, fish and cereal dishes. You can pickle, ferment and then add to culinary dishes instead of cabbage and other vegetable greens. From the organs of plants rich in starch, insulin and sugars, you can make sweet pastries.
There is one more hidden aspect of the advantages of wild plants over cultural ones: they are not threatened with chemicalization of fields, glut with nitrates, pesticides and other toxic chemicals. Wild plant chooses such a soil, such a place of the natural landscape, which is genetically selected by its progenitors. Wild medicinal plants do not threaten us with poisoning, which in recent years has been the case with the consumption of vegetables grown in the fields and in greenhouses using high doses of mineral fertilizers.
A special conversation will be about the medicinal properties of wild plants. Even in ancient times, Scythia was famous for wild medicinal herbs. Hippocrates, having been on the Black Sea coast at one time, wrote about wonderful medicines from the “Scythian root” - rhubarb, Pontic wormwood. In the medical books of the 17th century Horseradish is referred to as the main remedy for cancer, grated horseradish and its juice were recommended as a means of "excellent benefits" in scurvy, dropsy, stone disease, cough, horseradish diuretic, blood-regulating and anthelmintic properties were attributed. Tsar Peter 1 gave special attention to the collection of medicinal herbs, and according to his decree, state-owned pharmacies and bases for them were created, the so-called pharmacy gardens — the prototype of the St. Petersburg Botanical Garden.
Folk healers and herbalists who have come down to our days are studied and mastered by official medicine.
In the plant world you can find almost everything you need to maintain human life and health. Many wild plants are a storehouse of biologically active substances and are widely used for the preparation of drugs.
Consideration of herbal raw materials is not part of the task of our site, but when covering the nutritional benefits of many wild plants, we consider it necessary to give a brief description of their medicinal properties. Only immediately we want to draw the reader’s attention to the fact that the knowledge gained should not be a starting point for self-treatment. Mandatory consultation of the attending physician is a guarantee of health, because the use of drugs is strictly individual. Dry herbs can be purchased at pharmacies, procure themselves, but the preparation and use of medicinal plants should be carried out under the supervision of a physician.
Recommendations on the use of medicinal plants are taken from modern reference books on phytotherapy and other sources that summarize the experience of traditional and scientific medicine.
By life expectancy
According to the life span, wild grasses are divided into annual, biennial and perennial.
Here are examples of some of them:
- annuals - buttercup, cornflower, ageratum, palmweed, dope, poppy, chamomile, and many others,
- biennials - mallow, euphorbia, tributaries, lupines, forget-me-nots, bells and others
- perennials - nettle, St. John's wort, cowberry, oregano, field mint, celandine, burdock, chicory, dandelion and so on.
Photos, names, benefits of wild herbs
There are a huge variety of wild plants, and almost every one of them can be found in the corresponding catalog or encyclopedia, with descriptions and photos. We will also tell you about some herbs that are common in our territory, presenting their photos, a brief description and a positive impact on human health.
Medicinal Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale in Latin) has unique healing properties. Он богат на витамины А и С, также в нем есть железо и кальций, он является хорошим детоксикантом. Корни и листья богаты на горькие гликозиды, кислоты, масла, холин, аспарагин. Одуванчик признан растением, способным оказывать такое воздействие:
- легкое снотворное.
Экспериментальные химико-фармакологические исследования доказали, что сырье из одуванчика имеет противотуберкулезное, антивирусное, фунгицидное, антигельминтное, антиканцерогенное и антидиабетическое свойства.
В кулинарии одуванчик тоже имеет заслуженное распространение: из него варят щи, готовят котлеты, варят варенье, а также готовят витаминизированные весенние салаты. Одуванчики — отличные медоносы: мед, собранный с них, получается золотистым и ароматным, с резковатым привкусом.
Видео: полезные свойства одуванчика
Hypericum perforatum (in Latin - Hypéricum perforátum) has beneficial ingredients that help a person maintain health. These are vitamin C, nicotinic acid, quercetin, rutin, carotene, sugars, saponins, hyperoside, tocopherol, phytoncides, essential oils, as well as bitter, tannic and resinous substances.
In pharmacology, St. John's wort is used to prepare a variety of drugs from it:
- wound healing
Recently, medical scientists conducted additional studies, during which it was found that St. John's wort has an antidepressant effect, which has no side effects. Also, this herb is valuable because it is recommended by cosmetologists as an anti-aging, tonic, anti-seboric remedy.
It has long been healers with the help of Hypericum healed:
- gynecological inflammations
- diseases of the liver and urinary system.
Chicory (in Latin - Cichórium) has a rich chemical composition, thereby normalizing the functioning of many body systems.
This plant can:
- stimulate increased immunity
- heal wounds and eczema,
- have an antitumor effect,
- tone up the body
- relieve fatigue
- clean the vessels.
Chicory also has detoxic properties: it is able to normalize metabolic processes and eliminate toxins. Using chicory, you can clear the kidneys and improve the composition of the blood, accelerate peristalsis, eliminate heartburn, increase appetite. Drinks from it can replace coffee. Also chicory is used as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antibacterial agent for colds. Diabetics, using this healing herb, can also alleviate their condition.
Nettle stinging (in Latin - Urtica urens) and Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are two types of medicinal herbs that are used in official and in traditional medicine.
Nettle has won its popularity due to such properties:
Traditional medicine uses nettles for:
- diseases of the liver and bronchopulmonary system,
- acne and lichen-free skin lesions.
Burdock (in Latin - Аrctium) is widely used in both medicine, mainly its root is used. Burdock root system is the richest in polysaccharide inulin (about 45%), it contains tannic and essential oils, mucus, fatty substances, bitterness, resins, mineral salts, ascorbic acid, protein.
Burdock root is used as a diuretic, diaphoretic, analgesic and choleretic agent, it helps in the formation of pancreatic enzymes.
Hogweed (in Latin - Heracléum) has long been known for its healing properties. It has furocoumarins, which have a bactericidal effect, therefore, anthelmintic preparations for animals are produced from it.
For a person, Hogweed products are effective for psoriasis. Sap plants treat ulcers and purulent wounds, asthma and epilepsy. An anesthetic medicine is prepared from the roots for hepatic inflammation, as well as for jaundice.
Hogweed is used in cooking, as well as it is a complete fodder crop, which is combined with others and produced from them silage for livestock.
Hogweed has trace elements, carbohydrates, proteins and vitamins, as well as tannins, chlorophyll, carotene, and essential oils. The flowers contain a lot of nectar, which the bees transform into excellent honey.
Oregano, or oregano (in Latin - Oríganum vulgáre) contains flavonoids, phytoncides, bitters, tannins, essential oil, thanks to which preparations based on it serve as anti-inflammatory and choleretic agents. Oregano treat whooping cough and bronchitis, it is taken as a sedative and painkiller.
Medicines from this herb:
- increase appetite
- improve intestinal peristalsis,
- produce a diuretic effect,
- facilitate epileptic seizures,
- relieve cramps
- normalize the menstrual cycle.
Mint field or meadow (in Latin - Mentha arvēnsis) contains menthol, which has light anesthetic properties. It is also an ingredient in medicines for vessels and the heart: Validol, Valocordin, Zelenin drops and others.
The beneficial properties of mint are very versatile:
- mint can increase intestinal motility, promoting its timely emptying, limit putrefaction and fermentation,
- from the dried leaves prepare infusions that are used for disorders of the nervous system and insomnia,
- peppermint helps relieve nausea, produces a choleretic effect, eliminates diarrhea,
Common tansy (in Latin - Tanacetum vulgare) is known for having a powerful anthelmintic effect. Also, it is used to prepare a powder in the form of an insecticide against insect pests. Tansy contains alkaloids, essential oils, flavonoids, tannins.
This plant is used in hepatitis to reduce the production of mucus that accumulates in the bile. The herb has a positive effect on the muscle tone of the stomach and intestines, enhancing the secretion.
Infusion of basket inflorescences can:
- increase the amplitude of contractions of the heart,
- eliminate hypotension
- heal stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers.
Traditional medicine uses tansy in the treatment of:
- hypoacid gastritis,
- hepatitis A,
Video: beneficial properties of tansy
Plantain (in Latin - Plantаgo). In medicine, plantain of two types is used: flea and Indian. The composition of these herbs contains a lot of ascorbic acid, phytoncids and carotene.
Alcoholic and aqueous foliage extracts of plantain treat severe forms of gastric and duodenal ulcers. Sokom treat gastritis and enteritis, it is drunk for better digestion of food. Special studies of phytochemists have shown that plantain leaves contain elements that affect cholesterol metabolism.
Infusion of the leaves is used for sputum discharge in the case of:
- pulmonary tuberculosis,
- bronchial asthma,
- catarrh of the upper respiratory tract,
- whooping cough.
Plantain is known as an antiseptic, because it can:
- reduce inflammation
- tighten wounds
- to numb
- purify the blood.
Bitter wormwood (in Latin - Artemísia absínthium) is used in gastroenterology. Its benefit is due to active ingredients such as absinthine, anabsintin, flavonoids, thujone, pinene, cadinene, bisabolone, hamazulenogen, selenen.
The leaves of wormwood are rich in phytoncides, alkaloids, capillin, ascorbic acid, provitamin A, malic and succinic acids, carotene and saponins.
- The presence of galenic substances stimulates the reflex function of the pancreas, improves the functioning of the gallbladder.
- Terpenes relieve inflammation and are pacemakers.
- The essential oil released from the plant has a stimulating effect on the central nervous system.
- Saturated hydrocarbons in the grass have a bactericidal and fungicidal effect.
- Bitterness, which is also present, can whet the appetite and normalize digestion.
Traditional medicine considers wormwood an excellent remedy for:
- diseases of the kidneys and liver.
In combination with other herbs wormwood is successfully used for:
- pulmonary tuberculosis,
Horsetail (Equisetum arvénse in Latin) is rich in flavonoids derived from apigenin, quercetin, luteolin, silicic acid, and tannins.
There are also oxalic, aconitic, linoleic, malic and ascorbic acids, fatty oils, alkaloids, calcium, carotene, iron, potassium, magnesium, copper and other substances. Thanks to the listed components, horsetail has the following properties:
In medicine and cosmetology, horsetail is used as an infusion, lotion and decoction. It is used in compliance with fasting diets in the process of losing weight. Cooks use young horsetail shoots, boiling or roasting them and adding to omelets and casseroles, as well as filling for pancakes and pies.
Video: useful properties of horsetail
Quinoa (Latin - Atriplex) is useful in the treatment of rheumatism, allows you to relieve emotional stress. Due to the large amount of rutin and potassium, it is used in cardiology and in atherosclerotic changes in the vessels.
Treatments from it are treated:
- chronic and acute diseases of the lower respiratory tract,
- stomach diseases,
- skin diseases
- sore wounds.
The plant also serves as:
- wound healing
Vegetarians have estimated the quinoa according to their merits, because there is a lot of protein in it: soup from it, as well as cutlets, soups, mashed potatoes and bread make it possible to remain full for a long time.
Video: the beneficial properties of quinoa
Celandine (in Latin - Chelidonium) has many useful components: it contains up to twenty poisonous substances that destroy pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa.
Useful action celandine:
- helps with cramps
- relieves inflammation,
- can numb and soothe
- has antitumor and bactericidal effect,
- serves as a diuretic
- heals wounds
- increases lactation in lactating women
- drugs from celandine carry out cleaning of the lymph from infections.
- reduced blood pressure
- heart activity slows down
- Neuroses, convulsions, paralysis, epilepsy,
- the pancreas is working.
When using celandine in the treatment it is important to remember that you can not independently exceed the dose of the prescribed amount of the drug, otherwise it will lead to dangerous side effects.
Forest and meadow medicinal herbs
Hypericum (Hypericum). The family of mammals.
Speaking of what there are medicinal herbs, St. John's wort comes to mind one of the first. It is a rhizomatous grass, but more often a dwarf shrub and shrub. Another name for this medicinal herb is “Ivanovo Herb”. It is due to the fact that St. John's wort begins to bloom on Ivanov's day.
The leaves of this herbaceous medicinal plant are whole, rigid, in some species - wintering, single flowers or in corymbose inflorescence, golden. Flower growers are more likely to use herbs or shrubs.
St. John's Wort(H. ascyron) - forest medicinal herb of Siberia and the Far East, up to 100 cm high, leaves lanceolate up to 10 cm long.
Hypericum calypus(H. calycinum) - a plant 25 cm high, from the Eastern Mediterranean, leaves oval, large.
Hyeler's wort(H. gebleri) - Medicinal plant of wet meadows of the Far East, the flowers are bright orange, resistant.
St. John's Wort(H. olympicum) - dry forests of Southern Europe, height 50 cm, in central Russia is not stable, leaves narrow-lanceolate, gray-gray, height 25 cm.
Hypericum perforatum(N. perforatum).
Growing conditions. The genus is very diverse in terms of the ecological needs of the species, and includes typical plants of Central Russian meadows - h. perforated, and drought-resistant, thermophilic dwarf shrubs of Southern Europe (c. Cupchikous, Z. Olympic).
They are grown in sunny, windproof places with well-drained alkaline soils. Drought resistant.
Reproduction. The division of the bush (spring and late summer) and cuttings. Planting density - 9 pcs. on 1 m2.
Melissa (MELISSA). Family of yasnotkovyh (labiaceae).
Melissa officinalis(M. officinalis) - perennial Southern Europe, forms a dense shrub 40-60 cm tall from dense branchy stems covered with ovate leaves, serrated along the edges. The whole plant is soft-pubescent. The flowers are small, white, in whorls. And if the description of this medicinal plant is not remarkable, then the scent deserves the highest praise. The plant exudes a very pleasant lemon scent, which is why it is sometimes called lemon mint. At a grade of "Aurea" - leaves with yellow spots.
Growing conditions. Sunny and semi-dark places with rich loose soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in spring) or dividing the bush (spring and late summer). Planting density - 9 pcs. on 1 m2.
Mint (MENTHA). Family of yasnotkovyh (labiaceae).
Peppermint(M. piperita) - perennial from southern European countries with a branchy hairy stem 60-80 cm tall. The leaves are ovoid, dark green, the shoot ends with a spike inflorescence with whorls of purple flowers. It grows quickly due to elevated stolons.
Growing conditions. Light and semi-dark places with loose fertile soils.
Reproduction. Segments of rooted stolons. Planting density - 12 pcs. on 1 m2.
Lovage medicinal(L. officinaie) - decorative leafy perennial with thick rhizome. The leaves are shiny, slightly bluish, pinnately dissected, large in the rosette and on the stem. The stem is branched, up to 150 cm high, carries a large umbrella of yellowish flowers. The whole plant with a specific pleasant aroma, and therefore used as a flavoring.
Growing conditions. Sunny and semi-dark places with clay, rich, wet soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing for the winter), dividing the bush (spring and late summer). Planting density -3 pcs. on 1 m2.
Mylnyanka (SAPONARIA). Family of cloves.
Perennials with creeping rhizome, grow mainly in the Mediterranean. The flowers are fragrant, gathered in a shield.
Mylnyanka medicinal(S. officinalis) - height is 100 cm.
Mylnyanka basilicolist(S. ocymoides) - height 10 cm.
Growing conditions. Sunny areas with well drained light, lime-rich soil. Landing density - 16 pcs. on 1 m2.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in the spring), summer cuttings.
Briefly about medicinal plants of the forest and meadows
Below you can find a description of medicinal herbs: comfrey, yarrow, echinacea and valerian.
Comfrey (SYMPHYTUM). Burachnikov family.
Perennials with a thick rhizome, 30-100 cm tall, from light forests of Europe, the Caucasus. Stems winged, thick, straight. Leaves on scapes, lanceolate. Plants covered with stiff hairs. Flowers in drooping inflorescences - curl.
Comfrey Caucasian(S. caucasicum) - 80-100 cm high, forms thickets, flowers are blue.
Comfrey medicinal(S. officinale) - 50-60 cm high, forms bushes.
Large-flowed comfrey(S. grandiflorum) - low (30-40 cm) compact bushes.
Growing conditions. Shady and semi-shady places with wet peaty soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in the spring), dividing the bush (spring and late summer). Planting density - 12 pcs. on 1 m2.
Yarrow (ACHILLEA). Aster family (Asteraceae).
The genus includes about 100 species found on the meadows of the temperate zone. It draws attention with its undemanding in culture, the ability to grow quickly and beautiful gray-green, usually pinnate leaves. Small baskets are collected in corymbose inflorescence (10-20 cm in diameter).
Yarrow(A. millefolium) - with a long branching rhizome, therefore forms a thicket of 70-80 cm.
Yarrow Ptarmika, sneezing grass(A. ptarmica), has a variety with white double flowers - pearl oyster, height - 60 cm.
Have "Perry" s White "and" The Pearl " - white balls of baskets are assembled in a loose brush.
Yarrow Tavolgovy(A. filipendulina) - bush dense, 60-100 cm tall, leaves are dark green, pinnate, flowers are bright yellow in dense large scutes (diameter up to 9 cm).
Yarrow felt(A. tomentosa) - 15-20 cm high, the leaves are finely dissected, grayish, pressed to the ground, a shield of yellow flowers 6-8 cm in diameter.
Growing conditions. Sunny places with any garden soil grow well on the sands.
Breeding. Seeds (sowing under the winter or spring), dividing the bush (spring and autumn). Planting density -5-9 pcs. on 1 m2.
Echinacea (ECHINACEA). Aster family (Asteraceae).
Perennial tall (up to 150 cm) grass with taproot and dense leafy stems, on top in July-August with a large basket of pinkish color. The leaves are oval, pubescent, sharp-toothed along the edge. Three species grow in the meadows and prairies of southeastern North America.
More than others grow Echinacea purpurea(E. purpurea) with a dark pink basket.
Echinacea angustifolia(E. angustifolia) has a smaller and lighter basket.
And y Echinacea pale(E. pallida) - reed flowers narrow, pale pink. The latter two species are more dry-livers.
Growing conditions. Sunny places with rich soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in spring), seedlings bloom in the 2nd year. The division of the bush is carried out in spring. In one place without division, Echinacea can grow up to 15 years. Planting density - 9 pcs. on 1 m2.
Эхинацея пурпурная украсит любой цветник, миксбордер, может выращиваться и отдельными кустами на газоне. Часто используется как лекарственное растение.
Валериана (VALERIANA). Семейство валериановых.
Многолетние корневищные травы лугов и светлых лесов умеренной зоны Евразии. Растут как отдельными кустами, так и зарослями (виды с подземными столонами). Цветки мелкие, в красивом ажурном соцветии-кисти, листья обычно перистые.
Валериана горная(V. montana) — куст высотой 40 см, цветки розовые в пучках.
Валериана лекарственная(V. officinalis) -высота до 100 см, цветки белые, листья перистые.
Валериана Фори(V. fauriei) — образует заросли высотой 40 см.
Валериана липолистная(V. tiliifolia) — высотой до 150 см, листья крупные, простые, сердцевидные, цветки белые, в щитковидном соцветии.
Growing conditions. Sunny and semi-shaded areas with moderately moist rich soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in the spring and winter), dividing the bush (spring), often weed. Planting density -5 pcs. on 1 m2.
If we talk about this medicinal plant briefly, we can define its healing properties as soothing. And in landscape design it is used to create a dense, evergreen ground cover on tree trunks, spots on shady rockeries.
Description of the best herbs
Sage (SALVIA). Family of yasnotkovyh (labiaceae).
A large genus (almost 700 species), which includes plants of different life forms, growing throughout the world. They all contain essential oils, grow in warm habitats. The leaves are ovate, branched stems, the final inflorescence is a brush of medium-sized helmets.
Sage Gummy(S. glutinosa) - semi-shrubs up to 100 cm in height, from the forests of Southern Europe, pale yellow flowers.
Sage meadow(S. pratensis) - height 70-80 cm, blue flowers.
Sage rejected(S. patens) - height 70 cm, blue flowers.
Salvia oakwood(S. nemorosa) - height 60 cm, purple flowers.
Salvia officinalis(S. officinalis) - 50 cm high
Growing conditions. This is one of the best medicinal plants, which prefers sunny areas (except sage sticky) with fertile, well-drained soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (spring), dividing the bush (spring and late summer). Planting density - 9 pcs. on 1 m2.
Zubyanka (DENTARIA). Cabbage (cruciferous) family.
Perennial grasses with a height of 15-20 cm with a long beech-shaped rhizome and dark green leaves, large pink and crimson flowers. Typical early spring forest ephemeroids, ending the growing season in June. Attractive because spring form a bright pink blooming carpet. Fruit. Form self-seeding.
Klubnyaznaya Zubyanka(D. bulbifera) - Caucasian plant with flowers of fawn color.
Ferric zubyanka(D. glandulosa) - from the Carpathians, with large crimson flowers.
Zubyanka five leaves(D. quinquefolia) - from the forests of Europe, pink flowers.
Growing conditions. Shaded areas under the canopy of trees with forest soils, moderate moisture.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing freshly harvested) and segments of rhizomes (after the end of flowering). Planting density - 25 pcs. on 1 m2.
Initial letter (BETONICA). Family of yasnotkovyh (labiaceae).
About 15 species growing on the meadows of the temperate zone. Short rhizomatous herbs, forming a decorative dense bushes of rosettes ovate, crenate along the edge of the leaves.
Graduate-letter - Chistow(B. macrantha = B. grandiflora = Stachys macranthus) 50-60 cm tall, beautiful leaves and dark pink large flowers.
Initial letter medicinal(B. officinalis) - a higher plant (80-90 cm), flowers are smaller.
Growing conditions. Sunny places with fertile soils and moderate moisture.
Reproduction. The division of the bush (spring and end of summer) and seeds (sowing before winter). Seedlings bloom in the third year. Planting density -12 pcs. on 1 m2.
Burnet (SANGUISORBA). Rosaceae family.
Short root perennials from wet meadows of the temperate zone of Eurasia.
Burnet drug(S. officinaiis) - 80-100 cm high, the flowers are dark red.
Burnet gorgeous(S. magnifica) - height of 80-90 cm, large pink-crimson flowers.
Burnet small(S. minor) - height 40 cm, elegant inflorescences, red flowers, openwork plant.
Growing conditions. Sunny and semi-shaded areas with fertile wet soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in the fall), dividing the bush (spring and late summer). Planting density - 5 pcs. on 1 m2.
Perennial medicinal herbs with photos and descriptions
Below are the photos and descriptions of medicinal herbs Nine, Zopnik and Cuff:
Elecco (INULA). Aster family (Asteraceae).
Perennial herbaceous species (about 200) are widespread in meadows and light forests in the temperate zone of Eurasia. Rhizomes are thick, powerful, the root system is deep. The basal leaves are large heart-shaped, oval, the stems are straight, weakly branched (except for the magnificent elephant), the flowers are large yellow "daisies".
Elecampane gorgeous(I. magnifica = I. orientalis) - up to 150 cm high, branchy stalk, basket 15 cm in diameter in rare scutes, spreading bush.
Elecampus tall(I. helenium) - stems of little branching, 150-200 cm tall, elliptical leaves, baskets 6 cm in diameter, bush of cylindrical shape.
Elecampus(I. ensifolia) - 30 cm high, the leaves are narrow, a basket of 4 cm, the variety “Compacta” - 20 cm high.
Growing conditions. Sunny places with any garden soils and moderate moisture. Sustainable perennials.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in spring), dividing the bush (spring). Elecampane is a perennial medicinal herb that lives without transplants and divisions for 8-10 years. Planting density of large plants - 3 pcs. per 1 m2, mechatallus elecampane - 12 pcs.
Zopnik (PHLOMIS). Family yasnotkovyh.
Perennial herbs (about 100 species) with a thick rhizome or taproot, rough leaves, flowers are collected in false whorls, forming a spikelike inflorescence.
Zopnik Roussel(P. russeliana) - 90 cm high, the flowers are yellowish-pink.
Zopnik tuberiferous(P. tuberosa) - 50-70 cm tall, purple flowers.
Zopnik meadow(P. pratensis) - 50-70 cm tall, pink flowers.
Cuff (ALCHEMILLA). Rosaceae family.
Pay attention to the photo of this medicinal herb - the cuff has a short rhizome and a rosette of rounded, often fluffy, bright green leaves forming a spherical bush. In the midst of summer, loose openwork inflorescences of small yellow flowers rise above them. Blossoming plentiful and long.
Alpine cuff(A. aipina) - with trifoliate dense leaves and small inflorescences.
Red-cuff cuff(A. erythropoda) - with gray-green dense leaves, 30 cm high.
Cuff soft(A. moiiis) - the most beautiful, stable, undemanding cuff. Its leaves are rounded, fluffy, pale green with a wavy edge, up to 6 cm in diameter. Peduncles numerous, up to 60-70 cm.
Growing conditions. Sunny and semi-shaded areas with loose fertile neutral soils and moderate moisture. Does not tolerate stagnant moisture.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in spring) and dividing the bush (spring and late summer). Easily transfers division and transplant. Planting density - 5 bushes per 1 m2.
One of the most colorful, consistently decorative and interesting plants in mixed flower beds. The cuff looks good in flower gardens of the “natural garden” style and in mixborders along with nyvanyk, geykher, cornflowers, coriopsis, etc. It is used to decorate bouquets, giving them lightness and delicate.
Medicinal herbs and their cultivation
Thyme, thyme, Bogorodskaya grass (THYMUS). Family of yasnotkovyh (labiaceae).
Large genus (about 400 species) of herbaceous perennials and dwarf shrubs with lying or rising woody stems and straight upward peduncles. Growing up on rocks in the southern regions of Eurasia. The leaves are small, oval, opposite, leathery, usually overwintering. Due to the lying, rooting shoots of the plants grow rapidly, forming a low, dense "mats" and "pillows" (height 10-30 cm), emit a pleasant aroma. In the middle of summer, numerous heads of inflorescences of small flowers appear.
Lemon Smelling Thyme(Th. Citriodorus).
Common Thyme(T. vulgaris) - height is 5-15 cm, leaves are downy on the underside.
Creeping thyme(T. serpyllum) - leaves are larger than in other species.
Growing conditions. Sunny locations with light, well-drained soil, neutral or alkaline. It grows in the sands.
Reproduction. By dividing the bush (in spring and at the end of summer), by seeds (sowing before winter), by cuttings (in spring). Planting density - 25 pcs. on 1 m2.
Used as a carpet plant in mixed flower beds, rockeries and paths among the tiles. Looks good in containers.
Chemeritsa (VERATRUM). Family of Melanthia (Lily).
High (100-150 cm) herbaceous perennials growing on meadows and in the steppes of the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere. Powerful short rhizome and deep-reaching roots. Stems, straight, thick, bear rigid, folded along the veins, elliptical beautiful leaves. The flowers are small, open, in large paniculate inflorescence. All types are similar in appearance.
Chemeritsa white(V. album) -white-green flowers.
Chemeritsa Californian(V. californicum) - white flowers with green veins.
Chemeritsa black(V. nigrum) - flowers are blackish brown.
Growing conditions. Sunny areas with rich soils, moisture-loving, but tolerate drought well.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in spring), seedlings bloom in the 5-6th year. By dividing the bush (in spring), delenki slowly grow, often die. Planting density - 5 pcs. on 1 m2.
Blackhead (PRUNELLA). Family of yasnotkovyh (labiaceae).
Perennials with a creeping rhizome, upright low (25-40 cm) stem, whole leaves with uneven edges, flowers in false verticils in the capitate inflorescence.
Large-flowered Chernogolovka(P. grandiflora) - 25 cm high.
Black Webb(P. x webbiana) - purple flowers.
Chernogolovka ordinary(P. vulgaris) - reddish flowers.
Growing conditions. Sunny and slightly shaded areas with garden, moderately moist soils.
Reproduction. The division of the bush (spring and late summer). Landing density - 16 pcs. on 1 m2. Able to form thickets, weed.
Euphorbia (EUPHORBIA). Euphorbia family.
A large genus - about 2000 species, mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe, but there are species in the temperate zone. Their height, the shape of the leaves and the type of the root system are different, but they are distinguished by the original flowers.
Look at the photo of this medicinal plant: small flowers are gathered into an inflorescence surrounded by a common bastard in the form of a glass (which seems to be a flower), and the “small glasses” are assembled into complex umbrella-shaped inflorescences with wrappers. In general, all this gives the impression of "flying", openwork yellowish inflorescence.
Kinds. In central Russia, it is recommended to grow the following types:
On sunny dry places - Euphorbia cypress(E. cyparissias) - low-growing (15-20 cm) steppe plant with narrow bluish leaves, densely located on the lying stalks.
In sunny places with rich soils - spurge multicolor(E. poiychroma)forming a tall bush (50-60 cm) from densely leafy woody shoots.
In the shadow - spurge long-horned(E. macroceras) with a high stem (up to 100 cm) and euphorbia scaly (E. squamosa) with a height of 20-30 cm with a spherical piercing bush.
Growing conditions. Euphorbia can grow in a wide variety of conditions, depending on the ecological features of the species, but it must be done on well-drained soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in spring) or dividing the bush (spring and late summer).
Easily form self-seeding, capable of mating. Planting density - 5 pcs. on 1 m2.
Eryngium (ERYNGIUM). Celery family (umbrella).
There are about 230 species growing on almost all continents. But more often perennial grasses are grown in culture with leathery, whole or dissected leaves, and along the edge - prickly. The flowers are small, blue, located in the bosom of the bracts and collected in the capitate inflorescence, surrounded by hard, prickly leaves of the wrapper. Magnificent in its originality and exoticism. Abundantly bear fruit.
Alpine eryngium(E. alpinum) - 70 cm high, interesting wrap of bluish, folded up leaves.
Eryngium amethyst(E. amethystinum) - Amethyst blue wrapper.
Burger's Eryngus(E. bourgatii) - 30-40 cm high, leathery leaves with a white pattern.
Eryngium planum(E. planum) - a plant of the steppes of Europe and Asia, the stalks are bluish, the capitate inflorescences are small, glaucous.
Growing conditions. Sunny areas with loose, poor, sandy or stony soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (for the winter) or by dividing the bush (in spring and at the end of summer). Planting density - 5 pcs. on 1 m2.
Wormwood (ARTEMISIA). Aster family (Asteraceae).
Large genus (more than 250 species). Of the many species cultivated mainly shrubs and perennials with fragrant silvery leaves, pubescent or felt. The flowers are inexpressive, colorless, therefore it is better to cut flower stalks.
Kinds. In central Russia, the most decorative and stable:
Wormwood Wormwood(A. purchiana) - forms a cover of straight stems with elongated silvery whole leaves, responds well to constant pruning, can be planted in borders.
Steller's wormwood(A. steiieriana) - low plant with spatulate leaves, forming a dense spot, sometimes the leaves overwinter.
Louis Wormwood(A. iudoviciana) - with narrow, lanceolate leaves.
Schmidt wormwood(A. schmidtiana), especially interesting is the shape of “Nana” with a height of 15-20 cm with rounded, heavily rugged leaves.
Growing conditions. Wormwood - undemanding plants that grow well in sunny places with any soil, especially good on drained sandy alkaline substrates.
Reproduction. The division of the bush (spring and late summer), seeds (sowing in spring). Planting density - 9 pcs. on 1 m2.
Description of the best medicinal plants and their photos
In this chapter, you can find a description of such medicinal herbs and plants as rhubarb, cat's paw, cyanosis, flax grass, and mullein.
Rhubarb (RHEUM). Buckwheat family.
Powerful perennial with many-headed rhizome, from which large, rounded, five to seven lobed light green leaves with long, fleshy ribbed reddish petioles depart.
At the end of spring a powerful peduncle rises above the rosette of leaves (height up to 150 cm), carrying a large panicle of small whitish-fawn flowers. It grows in the meadows of Eurasia.
Kinds. In the culture most often used:
Rhubarb palate(Rh. Palmatum) and R. tangut(Rh. Tanguticum) with more deeply dissected leaves.
Black Sea Rhubarb(Rh. Rhaponticum) - dense shiny leaves.
Growing conditions. Well-lit and semi-shaded areas with deep fertile garden soils and normal moisture.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing for the winter) and dividing the bush (spring and late summer). Landing density - single.
Cat's foot, antennaria (ANTENNARIA). Aster family (Asteraceae).
Low (5-10 cm) dioecious plants from the pine forests of Europe and North America. The leaves are densely pubescent, belovojlochnye, wintering, collected in the outlet. Expand due to creeping shoots. Flower baskets are small, rounded, in capitate inflorescence.
Kinds.Cat's foot dvudomnaya(A. dioica) has the form:
"Tomentosa" - more densely pubescent, "Rubra" - with red-rose flowers, "Minima" - 5 cm high.
"Rosea" - with pink flowers, Sunniva antenna(A. aprica) - 10-15 cm high.
Growing conditions. Sunny areas with poor, slightly acidic dry sandy soils. On ordinary garden soils it will quickly grow and lose its decorative effect.
Reproduction. By dividing a bush or creeping shoots (spring or late summer). Planted thickly -36 pcs. on 1 m2.
On poor sandy soils, it creates a low, slowly expanding, but consistently decorative silver ground cover.
Cyanosis (POLEMONIUM). Family sinyukhovyh.
Kistokeneva perennials grow in light forests of the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere. Shrubs from 25 to 50 cm tall, leaves are decorative, wintering, numerous flowers, gathered in an inflorescence brush, blue.
Cyanus creeping(P. reptans) - 30 cm high
Sinyuha blue(P. caeruleum) - 60 cm high.
Growing conditions. Illuminated or semi-shaded areas with ordinary garden soils. Very undemanding plant.
Breeding. Seeds (sowing for the winter), dividing the bush (in spring, at the end of summer). Possible self-seeding. Planting density - 9 pcs. on 1 m2.
Lyonian (LINARIA). Norichnikov family.
Perennials from the Mediterranean with narrow leaves and double-lipped flowers with a spur in a raceme. The plants are graceful, low (40-50 cm).
Lyonian Dalmatian(L. daimatica) - yellow flowers.
Lyonka ordinary(L. vuigaris) - yellow flowers.
Lyonian Macedonian(L. macedonica) - pubescent plant, yellow flowers.
Flaxena purple(L. purpurea) - red flowers.
Growing conditions. Sunny areas with loose sandy dry soils.
Reproduction. Seeds (sowing in spring) and dividing the bush (spring). Planting density - 20 pcs. on 1 m2.
Korovyak (VERBASCUM). Norichnikov family.
Plants open dry places in Europe and the Mediterranean. Biennials and perennials in height from 50 to 150 cm, basal leaves are large, on petioles, the stem is straight, with sessile whole pubescent leaves. Flowers are wheel-shaped, small, in a large branchy large inflorescence. The magnificent plant providing architecture of a flower bed.
Mullein hybrid(V. x hybridum) - more often grown as a two-year.
Olympic Mullein(V. oLympicum) - height 180-200 cm, leaves strongly pubescent, flowers yellow.
Purple Mullein(V. phoeniceum) - height 100 cm, violet flowers in a rare brush.
Black Mullein(V. nigrum) - height 120 cm, yellow flowers with a red center.
Growing conditions. Sunny areas with loose sandy soils. Drought resistant
Reproduction. Seed (spring), seedlings bloom in the second year.