General information

Types and features of the white pine tree

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send


More than a hundred names of the trees that make up the genus of pine, distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere. In addition, some species of pine can be found in the mountains just south and even in the tropical zone. These are evergreen monoecious coniferous trees with needle leaves.

The division is mainly based on the territorial affiliation of the range, although many species of pine plants are artificially bred and, as a rule, are named for the breeder.

General description of the genus of pine

The appearance of the pine can be different: most often it is trees, and sometimes creeping shrubs. The shape of the crown varies with age from pyramidal to spherical or umbrella-shaped. This is due to the death of the lower branches and the rapid expansion of the branches in breadth.

Shoots on which needles are collected, are normal, shortened or elongated. The needles, collected in bundles, flat or triangular, narrow and long, do not fall off within 3-6 years. Around the base are small scales. Fruits are cones within which seeds develop (with and without wings).

In general, various types of pine are not too whimsical, drought-resistant, cold-resistant and do not require fertile soil. Plants prefer dry sandy and stony soils, although in this matter the exception is the Weymouth, Wallace, resinous and cedar pine trees, which willingly grow with moderate moisture. For mountain pine suitable limestone soil. And now let's take a closer look at some varieties of this culture.

Pine ordinary

This is perhaps the most common coniferous tree in Eurasia, which can be called a symbol of the Russian forest. The species of pine ordinary light-requiring, normally feels in the harsh northern climate, and in the steppe heat. It hardly endures urban conditions, but it is the main crop for creating forests on sandy soil. In landscape design, ordinary pine is in demand for a variety of decorative forms and rapid growth.

The tree can grow up to 40 meters. The bark is cracked, red-brown, the young plant has a thin, slightly orange. The needles are bluish-colored, doubled, rigid, flat or curved, 4-6 centimeters long. The maximum age of a tree under favorable conditions is 400-600 years.

There are many artificially derived undersized and dwarf varieties of Scots pine. Under natural conditions on the territory of the range, it is found in various forms and easily interbreed with such species as black and mountain pines. Depending on the area of ​​growth, about 30 ecological forms - ecotypes are also distinguished.

Siberian Cedar Pine

Popular and other types of pines. In Russia, one of the most valuable forest tree species is Siberian Cedar Pine, a powerful tree with a rich, multi-top ovoid crown. The needles are short (6-13 cm), rough. It is frost-resistant, grows near a permafrost zone, in a taiga strip. Seeds of large cones are edible and rich in fatty oils. In height reaches 3 meters.

Cedar Pine Stone

Distributed in Western Siberia and the Far East. The cedar elfin pine has a bushy form, it grows densely and has the ability to take root with the branches lowered to the ground. It is a decorative variety due to the beautiful bluish-green needles, bright red male spikelets and spectacular red-purple cones.

Pine Weymouth

Very beautiful and tall pine.

Varieties and types of North American conifers are of great economic importance. Weymutov pine is distinguished by its thin, soft and long needles of bluish-green color. Cones have a curved elongated shape. Excellent withstands severe frosts, but for all the simplicity is not suitable for landscaping the city.

Pine mountain Veymutova

Some well-known species of pine grow in the Crimea, for example, mountain Veymutova. This is a very beautiful North American variety, which differs from the previous shortened blue-green needles and large, somewhat curved cones. The height of an adult tree is about 30 meters, the crown is narrow, characterized by reddish pubescence on young shoots. This is a heat-loving tree, although it is difficult to endure drought. It grows mainly in those mountainous areas that are protected from the sea winds.

Pallas Pine (Crimean pine)

Another view widespread on the Crimea peninsula. Pallas Pine is a tall tree, about 20 meters. The bark is reddish-black, mottled with cracks. The crown is dense, changing the shape from ovoid to umbrella-shaped. Differs horizontally stretched branches with curved ends and large cones. Crimean pine is light-requiring, undemanding to the soil, easily tolerates the lack of moisture. It also grows in the Caucasus, Crete, the Balkans, in Asia Minor.

Pine Geldreyha

This species is common in the Balkans and southern Italy. It is characterized by a spectacular long needles of soft green color. Like many other species of pines, photos of which are presented in the material, it is very unpretentious, moreover, it easily tolerates urban conditions. Weakness is not winter-hardy enough for the middle lane, so it is ideal for the southern regions.

Pine flowering pine

One of the winter-hardy species grown in central Russia is the so-called Japanese red pine. The main condition for its good growth is not too long soil freezing. The needles are long and crowded at the end of the branch; during dusting, the tree exhales aroma. Does not accept urban conditions, grows on poor sandy soils.

Japanese species of ornamental pines are small-flowered (white) pine, which received its second name for the spectacular white or bluish stripes on the needles, pronounced due to twisting. Unfriendly, in central Russia only the stunted dwarf variety grows. Since the tree loves warmth and good lighting, the climate of the Black Sea coast is perfect for it.

Pine yellow

A luxurious view with a narrow, pyramidal, openwork crown in nature grows in North America. It has a long pine needles and a beautiful thick bark. It is taking root in the southern regions and central Russia, but freezes in especially cold winters. The height of the tree reaches 10 meters. Prefers protected from the winds of the place, so it is best to land in groups. Yellow pine is not susceptible to harmful urban conditions.

European Cedar Pine

The European species of cedar pine is similar to the Siberian "relative". The difference is smaller, more dense spreading crown and long thin needles. In addition, cones and tree seeds are not so large. It grows slower, but lives longer. It will look perfect in single and group garden and park landings.

Korean Pine Cedar

A rather rare ornamental species growing in the Far East, in East Asia, Korea, and Japan. In beauty, this conifer can be compared to Siberian cedar pine, although the Korean woman’s crown is less dense, trimmed with bluish-green needles and decorated with decorative cones. Seeds nuts, too edible. The frost of central Russia is relatively normal in culture; it grows into a stunted tree, although in the wild it can reach a height of 40-50 meters.

Pine of Montezuma

The owner of a very long needles, in nature found in western North America and Guatemala.

The tree grows up to 30 meters tall and has a sprawling spherical crown. Huge conical cones can reach a length of 25 cm. It prefers a warm and humid climate, therefore, it survives well in the Crimea. It is not subject to diseases and the influence of pests.

Spiny pine

Many ornamental species of pine, including bristle ones, grow well and bear fruit in conditions of central Russia. This North American species is quite rare and is a small tree or shrub with raised branches that form a lush sprawling crown. The needles are thick, and on the cones - long spines. Unpretentious and hardy all varieties.

Rumelian pine

A variety of Balkan pine has a low pyramidal crown, dense green needles 5-10 centimeters long and cylindrical hanging cones on legs. Young shoots are naked. The bark of brown color, exfoliated. Rumelian pine grows rapidly and has no special requirements for lighting and soils. Used in the decoration of parks.

Pine twisted (wide coniferous)

It grows in North America and, thanks to good winter-resistance, is bred in central Russia. Culture extends over large areas along the Pacific coast. The name is given for a pair of twisted needles. It can be a shrub or a tall (up to 50 meters) tree, the lower branches of which are omitted, and the upper ones are either spreading or directed upwards. Culture is growing quite slowly, but unpretentious to the conditions of life, not only in nature, but even in the city.

Thunberg Pine

Rare decorative species from Japan, which is also called black pine. The main habitat is highland forests, about 1000 meters above sea level. This evergreen tree grows up to 40 meters in height. The crown is usually irregular in shape, light green in color, with long, rigid needles (8-14 cm x 2 mm). The bark is black, and the young shoots are orange and bare. Thunberg pine cones are almost flat, and gray seeds with wings. A heat-loving and moisture-loving culture that grows well in Sochi in our country.

Himalayan Pine (Wallych or Walicha)

Luxurious long-coniferous pine came from the Himalayas and the Tibetan mountains. It grows quickly, does not tolerate frosts too well, is moisture-loving. The ideal place for culture here is the Crimea, where it bears excellent fruits. A tree in nature reaches a height of 30-50 meters. Beautiful 18 centimeter gray-green needles hanging down. Decorative yellow cones are also long - about 32 centimeters. The species is cultivated for group landscaping.

Pine black

Many decorative species of pine trees are wild-growing, including black pine, which came to us from the mountainous regions of Central Europe. This breed is very resistant to urban conditions. The name received for a very dark bark and dense green abundantly growing pine needles. Due to this, shady zones are created, unlike ordinary pine. In Russia, it is more suitable for the steppe part of the North Caucasus, although low-growing decorative forms can be bred further north.

What are the pine cones?

Different types of pine cones are distinguished by their shape, size and color. But all of them at the beginning of life are soft, yellow-green, and as they grow older, they stiffen and change color from dark green to brown.

The largest in size are the cones of the American pines Lambert - 50 centimeters long, Coulter - reach 40 centimeters, as well as Cilician fir, growing about 30 centimeters long. Lyellar larch and Japanese pseudo-shrub have the smallest cones, barely reaching 3 centimeters.

In general, the genus of pine trees is characterized by rapid development and growth. Exceptions are those species that have to survive in difficult climatic conditions: high in the mountains, in the swamps, on the stingy stony soil in the North. In these cases, mighty trees are reborn into stunted and dwarf varieties. However, they are of great interest for the decoration of landscape plantings.

Pine belongs to the genus of coniferous evergreen trees, the Pine family, which is characterized by needle-like needles, growing in bunches from 2-5 pieces in each and woody female cones that ripen in two vegetative periods.

The pine tree lives on average about 350 years, growing in height from 35-75 m, however there are also long-livers. For example, pine bristle growing in the USA lives about 6000 years and is a long-lived tree species all over the world.

In addition, pine is distinguished by its powerful root system with a vertical taproot extending deep down, as well as peeling bark. Due to the structure of the pine roots, it can be called the pioneer of forests, as it can grow in various places: on sand, on rocks, above ravines, in a forest. Some species of pines are not afraid of drought, nor snow, nor frost, nor winds.

But pine is sensitive to air pollution by gases and dust, which limits its use in urban gardening. As a rule, pine is common in the temperate and cold climate of the northern hemisphere, where it forms forests on rocky slopes and drained soils.

In total, there are about 100 species of pine in the forests of the temperate zone and more than 20 species in the tropical and subtropical zones. Some species of pine are valued for the variety of shapes and beautiful crown shape, while others are for beautiful cones and color needles.

The most popular in ornamental gardening are Siberian pine, Weymouth pine, Rumelian pine, Banks' pine and pine alfin pine from the Alps, it forms low shrub thickets.

In the mountains of the northern part of the Black Sea coast and the Crimea, Crimean pine (Pinus Pallasiana) or Pallas is often found, a tree about 30 m high, which looks very decorative due to the long green needles.

In Russia, the pine tree occupies the widest range. The most valuable species of pine are: yellow pine, resinous pine, Weymouth pine.

Some species of pines are endangered and are listed in the Red Book. For example, chalk pine, pizza pine, burial pine and others.

Pine benefits man. Its homogeneous soft wood is beautifully processed, glued, painted and polished, so it is a popular building material.

Features pine care

Pine is light-requiring, therefore it develops better and grows in open places. In addition, pine drought-resistant plant that does not require additional watering.

Young specimens of pine and decorative forms with delicate needles can suffer from winter frosts, as well as spring burns of needles, so in the fall they need to be covered with lapnik branches, which must be removed in April. Adult pines are completely winter-hardy.

A large number of pine species are of low soil requirements, but prefer to grow on sandy or sandy soils. If there is a lot of sand in the soil, then you need to add clay.

The soil for planting pines should be in the following proportions - sod, clay or sand (2: 1). If the soil is heavy, a drainage, which is suitable for gravel or sand, is needed, with a layer about 20 cm thick.

Diseases and pests of pine

The most common disease of pine - seryanka (blister rust, resin cancer) - is caused by a rust fungus. At the tips of the needles, an orange bloom appears like pollen. Control measures: removal of infected trees, destruction of intermediate hosts (gooseberries and currants).

Preventive treatment of trees with copper-containing preparations (oxyfine, xom, abigak-pik, cuproxate) is recommended. It is also necessary to remove the showered needles.

The main pests of pine are butterflies and some species of aphids. Butterflies and their caterpillars feed on buds and needles, gnaw shoots. To fight with butterflies, trees are sprayed with the Lepidocide biopreparation.

Some diseases of pine are caused by aphids. It can be fought with karbofos or insecticides (pine moth, common pine scab, pine scoop).

Pine use in landscape design

Pine is traditionally used in garden design. Recommended for group and single landings and alpine slides. Some decorative forms of pine may be used for borders and free-growing hedges.

Pine Arista (Bristol)

Homeland of this pine is North America. It is a small bushy tree, no more than 15 m in height. The oldest of all the specimens of this species is pine, growing in the mountains of Arizona. She is over 1500 years old. But in general, the life expectancy of pine depends on the place of growth.

In culture, a very beautiful look of pine, however, the dead needles remain on the tree for a long time, thereby spoiling its appearance, therefore it is recommended to remove it manually. The tree is about 15 m tall. It blooms in early spring. Anther buds are numerous, yellow or reddish. Arista's pine looks great as a bonsai or rock garden.

Pine Armandi

Pine Armandi differs from other species of beautiful resinous yellow-brown cones, which look spectacular against the background of narrow and long blue-green needles. It grows in China and is valued not only for its decorative appearance, but also for durable, soft wood, which is used in the furniture industry and is used for the manufacture of sleepers. In addition, turpentine, a raw material for the pharmaceutical and chemical industries, is obtained from the resin of this pine. Tree height up to 18 m. Lives more than 500 years.

Pine Banks

It features a multi-barreled structure, imported from North America. Light green needles are rather short and twisted, cones of a curved form. It grows up to 25 meters in height. Frost-resistant, unpretentious view suitable for any soil. Divorced only in botanical gardens.

Сосна Гельдрейха

Этот вид распространен на Балканах и юге Италии. Характеризуется эффектной длинной хвоей нежно-зеленого окраса. Как многие другие виды сосен, фото которых представлены в материале, очень неприхотлива, более того, легко переносит городские условия. Слабость – недостаточно зимостойка для средней полосы, поэтому идеально подходит для южных регионов.

Сосна горная

The mountain pine is very attractive. Types of pine trees are scattered throughout the Northern Hemisphere. This species grows in the mountains of Central and Southern Europe. It is a large branched tree or sprawled elfin wood. Of particular interest for landscape design are various compact ornamental trees, of which they create beautiful compositions along the banks of reservoirs, in rocky gardens, etc. The maximum height is 10 meters and the minimum is 40 centimeters.

Pine flowering pine

One of the winter-hardy species grown in central Russia is the so-called Japanese red pine. The main condition for its good growth is not too long soil freezing. The needles are long and crowded at the end of the branch; during dusting, the tree exhales aroma. Does not accept urban conditions, grows on poor sandy soils.

Japanese species of ornamental pines are small-flowered (white) pine, which received its second name for the spectacular white or bluish stripes on the needles, pronounced due to twisting. Unfriendly, in central Russia only the stunted dwarf variety grows. Since the tree loves warmth and good lighting, the climate of the Black Sea coast is perfect for it.

Pine yellow

A luxurious view with a narrow, pyramidal, openwork crown in nature grows in North America. It has a long pine needles and a beautiful thick bark. It is taking root in the southern regions and central Russia, but freezes in especially cold winters. The height of the tree reaches 10 meters. Prefers protected from the winds of the place, so it is best to land in groups. Yellow pine is not susceptible to harmful urban conditions.

European Cedar Pine

The European species of cedar pine is similar to the Siberian "relative". The difference is smaller, more dense spreading crown and long thin needles. In addition, cones and tree seeds are not so large. It grows slower, but lives longer. It will look perfect in single and group garden and park landings.

Korean Pine Cedar

A rather rare ornamental species growing in the Far East, in East Asia, Korea, and Japan. In beauty, this conifer can be compared to Siberian cedar pine, although the Korean woman’s crown is less dense, trimmed with bluish-green needles and decorated with decorative cones. Seeds nuts, too edible. The frost of central Russia is relatively normal in culture; it grows into a stunted tree, although in the wild it can reach a height of 40-50 meters.

Pine of Montezuma

The owner of a very long needles, in nature found in western North America and Guatemala.

The tree grows up to 30 meters tall and has a sprawling spherical crown. Huge conical cones can reach a length of 25 cm. It prefers a warm and humid climate, therefore, it survives well in the Crimea. It is not subject to diseases and the influence of pests.

Spiny pine

Many ornamental species of pine, including bristle ones, grow well and bear fruit in conditions of central Russia. This North American species is quite rare and is a small tree or shrub with raised branches that form a lush sprawling crown. The needles are thick, and on the cones - long spines. Unpretentious and hardy all varieties.

Rumelian pine

A variety of Balkan pine has a low pyramidal crown, dense green needles 5-10 centimeters long and cylindrical hanging cones on legs. Young shoots are naked. The bark of brown color, exfoliated. Rumelian pine grows rapidly and has no special requirements for lighting and soils. Used in the decoration of parks.

Twisted pine (wide coniferous)

It grows in North America and, thanks to good winter-resistance, is bred in central Russia. Culture extends over large areas along the Pacific coast. The name is given for a pair of twisted needles. It can be a shrub or a tall (up to 50 meters) tree, the lower branches of which are omitted, and the upper ones are either spreading or directed upwards. Culture is growing quite slowly, but unpretentious to the conditions of life, not only in nature, but even in the city.

Thunberg Pine

Rare decorative species from Japan, which is also called black pine. The main habitat is highland forests, about 1000 meters above sea level. This evergreen tree grows up to 40 meters in height. The crown is usually irregular in shape, light green in color, with long, rigid needles (8-14 cm x 2 mm). The bark is black, and the young shoots are orange and bare. Thunberg pine cones are almost flat, and gray seeds with wings. A heat-loving and moisture-loving culture that grows well in Sochi in our country.

Himalayan Pine (Wallych or Walicha)

Luxurious long-coniferous pine came from the Himalayas and the Tibetan mountains. It grows quickly, does not tolerate frosts too well, is moisture-loving. The ideal place for culture here is the Crimea, where it bears excellent fruits. A tree in nature reaches a height of 30-50 meters. Beautiful 18 centimeter gray-green needles hanging down. Decorative yellow cones are also long - about 32 centimeters. The species is cultivated for group landscaping.

Pine black

Many decorative species of pine trees are wild-growing, including black pine, which came to us from the mountainous regions of Central Europe. This breed is very resistant to urban conditions. The name received for a very dark bark and dense green abundantly growing pine needles. Due to this, shady zones are created, unlike ordinary pine. In Russia, it is more suitable for the steppe part of the North Caucasus, although low-growing decorative forms can be bred further north.

What are the pine cones?

Different types of pine cones are distinguished by their shape, size and color. But all of them at the beginning of life are soft, yellow-green, and as they grow older, they stiffen and change color from dark green to brown.

The largest in size are the cones of the American pines Lambert - 50 centimeters long, Coulter - reach 40 centimeters, as well as Cilician fir, growing about 30 centimeters long. Lyellar larch and Japanese pseudo-shrub have the smallest cones, barely reaching 3 centimeters.

In general, the genus of pine trees is characterized by rapid development and growth. Exceptions are those species that have to survive in difficult climatic conditions: high in the mountains, in the swamps, on the stingy stony soil in the North. In these cases, mighty trees are reborn into stunted and dwarf varieties. However, they are of great interest for the decoration of landscape plantings.

Pine belongs to the genus of coniferous evergreen trees, the Pine family, which is characterized by needle-like needles, growing in bunches from 2-5 pieces in each and woody female cones that ripen in two vegetative periods.

The pine tree lives on average about 350 years, growing in height from 35-75 m, however there are also long-livers. For example, pine bristle growing in the USA lives about 6000 years and is a long-lived tree species all over the world.

In addition, pine is distinguished by its powerful root system with a vertical taproot extending deep down, as well as peeling bark. Due to the structure of the pine roots, it can be called the pioneer of forests, as it can grow in various places: on sand, on rocks, above ravines, in a forest. Some species of pines are not afraid of drought, nor snow, nor frost, nor winds.

But pine is sensitive to air pollution by gases and dust, which limits its use in urban gardening. As a rule, pine is common in the temperate and cold climate of the northern hemisphere, where it forms forests on rocky slopes and drained soils.

In total, there are about 100 species of pine in the forests of the temperate zone and more than 20 species in the tropical and subtropical zones. Some species of pine are valued for the variety of shapes and beautiful crown shape, while others are for beautiful cones and color needles.

The most popular in ornamental gardening are Siberian pine, Weymouth pine, Rumelian pine, Banks' pine and pine alfin pine from the Alps, it forms low shrub thickets.

In the mountains of the northern part of the Black Sea coast and the Crimea, Crimean pine (Pinus Pallasiana) or Pallas is often found, a tree about 30 m high, which looks very decorative due to the long green needles.

In Russia, the pine tree occupies the widest range. The most valuable species of pine are: yellow pine, resinous pine, Weymouth pine.

Some species of pines are endangered and are listed in the Red Book. For example, chalk pine, pizza pine, burial pine and others.

Pine benefits man. Its homogeneous soft wood is beautifully processed, glued, painted and polished, so it is a popular building material.

Features pine care

Pine is light-requiring, therefore it develops better and grows in open places. In addition, pine drought-resistant plant that does not require additional watering.

Young specimens of pine and decorative forms with delicate needles can suffer from winter frosts, as well as spring burns of needles, so in the fall they need to be covered with lapnik branches, which must be removed in April. Adult pines are completely winter-hardy.

A large number of pine species are of low soil requirements, but prefer to grow on sandy or sandy soils. If there is a lot of sand in the soil, then you need to add clay.

The soil for planting pines should be in the following proportions - sod, clay or sand (2: 1). If the soil is heavy, a drainage, which is suitable for gravel or sand, is needed, with a layer about 20 cm thick.

Breeding pine

Reproduction of pine is possible with seeds: they should be sown in spring. You should know that the seeds of pine trees ripen only for 2 years after pollination. Graft decorative species. Propagate the pine cuttings, usually not obtained.

Diseases and pests of pine

The most common disease of pine - seryanka (blister rust, resin cancer) - is caused by a rust fungus. At the tips of the needles, an orange bloom appears like pollen. Control measures: removal of infected trees, destruction of intermediate hosts (gooseberries and currants).

Preventive treatment of trees with copper-containing preparations (oxyfine, xom, abigak-pik, cuproxate) is recommended. It is also necessary to remove the showered needles.

The main pests of pine are butterflies and some species of aphids. Butterflies and their caterpillars feed on buds and needles, gnaw shoots. To fight with butterflies, trees are sprayed with the Lepidocide biopreparation.

Some diseases of pine are caused by aphids. It can be fought with karbofos or insecticides (pine moth, common pine scab, pine scoop).

Pine use in landscape design

Pine is traditionally used in garden design. Recommended for group and single landings and alpine slides. Some decorative forms of pine may be used for borders and free-growing hedges.

Pine Arista (Bristol)

Homeland of this pine is North America. It is a small bushy tree, no more than 15 m in height. The oldest of all the specimens of this species is pine, growing in the mountains of Arizona. She is over 1500 years old. But in general, the life expectancy of pine depends on the place of growth.

In culture, a very beautiful look of pine, however, the dead needles remain on the tree for a long time, thereby spoiling its appearance, therefore it is recommended to remove it manually. The tree is about 15 m tall. It blooms in early spring. Anther buds are numerous, yellow or reddish. Arista's pine looks great as a bonsai or rock garden.

Pine Armandi

Pine Armandi differs from other species of beautiful resinous yellow-brown cones, which look spectacular against the background of narrow and long blue-green needles. It grows in China and is valued not only for its decorative appearance, but also for durable, soft wood, which is used in the furniture industry and is used for the manufacture of sleepers. In addition, turpentine, a raw material for the pharmaceutical and chemical industries, is obtained from the resin of this pine. Tree height up to 18 m. Lives more than 500 years.

Pine Banks

This pine grows from Bear Lake in Canada to Vermont in the United States. Pine Banks grows on sandy soils of hills and plains. A tree about 25 m high and a trunk with a diameter of 50-80 cm. Cones are curved and oblique, sessile, tapered, about 5 cm, keep on the tree, closed for several years.

The wood of this species of pine is hard and heavy. It is used in construction, it is made of sulphate pulp.

The fragrant resin of Banks' pine, serving on the shoots, makes this pine especially desirable for planting next to sanatoriums, with holiday homes, where it looks great in group plantings.

White pine (Japanese)

White pine, sometimes called Japanese, or maiden, grows in Japan, as well as in the Kuril Islands. It is a graceful tree no more than 20 m high with a long dark green needles, which has a silvery shade from the bottom side and with a dense cone-shaped crown.

In Japan, this pine is a symbol of longevity, as well as a symbol of the beginning of the year.

Due to its decorative nature, this type of pine is often found in parks on the coast of the Caucasus, where it has taken root thanks to a humid and mild climate.

Description of the species

White pine can grow at sea level and at an altitude of up to 1500 m above it, prefers a well-humidified cool climate, sandy and loamy soils, sufficiently shade-tolerant and frost-resistant. White pine is less demanding on light than its cousin, black or ordinary. Not afraid of high snow piles, smoke or gas. But sharply continental conditions with constant winds and dry air for the tree are disastrous. Does not tolerate white pine and too saline soils. The moderate latitudes of Russia are quite suitable for its breeding, but in severe frosts - above 25 ° C - there is a risk of frosting. Other conifers, linden, filbert, maple and beech are best suited to the neighborhood.

In its natural environment, the Pinus strobus lives up to 400 years. The tree trunks are stretched to a height of 40–70 m, reaching a diameter of 1–1.8 m. On average, most specimens grow from 25–37 m. The bark at a young age has a light gray color, fairly smooth, darkens in adult plants, thickens and covered with longitudinal deep cracks. Tree branches diverge horizontally or slightly upwards from the trunks, forming a cone-shaped openwork crown characteristic of many conifers.

In the first decades after planting, the Maymouth pine grows quite quickly: by the age of 35–40 years old, it reaches a height of 17–20 m. Even larch is inferior to it in this. In the subsequent period, the growth rate slows down.

With age, the correct peaked peak of the pines expands and is rounded.

Young shoots of the tree are flexible, greenish, slightly pubescent. The egg-shaped buds up to 0.5 cm in size are brownish in color, they smell gently in resin. The needles are bluish or gray-green, thin and long - about 7–10 cm, maybe slightly curved, located in bunches of 5 each. At the base of the needle is slightly lighter, have serrated edges and sharp tips, but they are soft and elastic. On the branches, the needles are maintained up to 3 years, then gradually replaced by a new one.

Male cones at Weymouth pine are small, not more than 1.5 cm, elliptical, yellow. The females are cylindrical, elongated, 3–4 cm thick, about 10–12 cm long, brownish brown, growing in clusters, hanging on short cuttings. In form, they look like spruce, ripen in September, fall almost immediately after disclosure. The seeds are reddish, 0.5 cm in size, equipped with small wings.

Characteristics and use of wood

Eastern white pine wood is inferior to ordinary strength and hardness, as well as resistance to shock loads and compression. The disadvantages of the breed include low biostability - the material is easily affected by a fungus. The advantage of wood is a small shrinkage and no deformation in the process. Density in dry form is about 420 kg / cubic meter.

A characteristic feature of white pine is the very light color of sapwood. The core array differs slightly - light yellow or beige. The texture is even, fine, with straight fibers, the resin passages are narrow and there are few of them. This is a beautiful uniform material with a matte sheen on the cuts.

Weymouth pine is amenable to all types of processing: sawing, cutting, grinding, polishing, gluing, impregnation with antiseptics, priming solutions, paints. Holds nails, staples and screws well.

Traditionally, this material was used in shipbuilding, erection of buildings for a short time. White pine is well suited for the production of furniture, interior decoration. It is used to make parts of musical instruments, drawing boards, models of sailing vessels, picture frames.

Varieties

The decorative qualities of white pine inspired breeders to develop its various varieties suitable for landscaping parks, decorating gardens, squares and front gardens. Существует более десятка разновидностей веймутовой сосны для ландшафтного дизайна. Among them:

  • Альба. Подходит для высаживания на обширных площадях, так как имеет крупные размеры: в высоту взрослое дерево достигает 20 м, крона широкая, пирамидальная или асимметричная, хвоя длиной около 7 см, серебристо-зеленого оттенка.
  • Блю Шег. Карликовый сорт, подходящий для озеленения небольших участков. An adult tree grows up to 120 cm, the crown is spherical and very thick. The needles are long, beautiful bluish-green color. Blue Sheg loves the sun and moisture, it is frost-resistant.
  • Makopin. Shrub slow-growing variety, rises by 5–6 cm a year. During life it reaches 2 m. Crohn is irregular, spreading, saturated green color. Cones are very large - up to 20 cm. The plant tolerates a dense shade, it takes root on scanty soils.
  • Radiata. This is a small copy of white pine. An adult tree is drawn up to 2.5–4 m, the annual growth is no more than 12 cm. Crohn is narrow pyramidal at a young age, and later becomes spherical in shape. The needles are long - up to 10 cm, gray-green. Radiata is not afraid of snow, winds and frost, tolerates haircuts.
  • Fastigiata. These trees grow quickly, in the year the trunks and branches are extended by 20 cm. The crown has a neatly columnar shape, the needles are very thick, silver-green. The variety is considered to be universal, as it tolerates any climatic conditions, winds, frost, direct sunlight and deep shade.
  • Minimus Dwarf shrub with a height of not more than 80 cm, the width can grow up to 1.5 m. Suitable for fans of rare decorative flora. The needles of the plant during the year can change color, becoming from a yellowish-green almost turquoise. The plant is frost-resistant, but very sensitive to unfavorable ecology: it does not tolerate dirty air.

  • Pendula. Variety with original hanging crown. The branches of the tree are rarely and arcuate, can move along the ground. The needles are dark green, thick. The height of the pendula grows up to 3-4 m. This pine is suitable for decoration of alpine slides in gardens.
  • Louie Variety pinus strobus louie different bright lemon color needles. In the shaded places, her needles become just light green. A mature tree can reach 6 m in height, the crown is pyramidal, compact, dense.
  • Pumila. A small ornamental shrub with a height and width of the crown of about 100-150 cm. It has a spherical shape. Emerald-turquoise needles, up to 10 cm long. It grows slowly - about 6–8 cm per year. Unpretentious to the nutritional value of the soil, shade-tolerant.

Engage independent grafting cuttings under the force only experienced breeders. For breeding it is better to use ready seedlings.

Deciding to purchase and plant a white pine on the plot, remember that this tree is not resistant to fungal damage. It is advisable to avoid its neighborhood with mountain ash, gooseberry or currant.

The price of decorative seedlings of varieties of white pine in nurseries is 2000-4000 rubles. When buying, you need to carefully examine the root system and the state of the needles. Sluggish yellowed needles and dried ground at the base of the cutting indicate that the material is unsuitable.

When planting, it is recommended to feed nitrogenous fertilizers. In the first months of the tree require frequent and abundant watering - 15 liters of water per week. From the second year of life, a few waterings per season are enough in dry weather.

Varieties and varieties

Before you buy a sapling in the nursery (which is easiest), you need to think where and for what purpose the tree will be located. The conditions of lighting and moistening of the site, as well as the desired Dimensions are decisive when choosing a variety of Weymutov pine:

  • Alba. Heliophilous and fast-growing variety (annually up to 20 cm). In open sunny areas, the needles acquire a bluish tint, in shady places it grows worse and has the usual green color of the needles. This tree reaches 20 meters in height and has a wide umbrella crown - about 10 meters in diameter. The trunk can sometimes bend, shoots strongly branched and grow unevenly.
  • "Makopin". Shade-tolerant variety, adding no more than 6−8 cm per year. Compact, square-shaped bush with bluish-green needles. The diameter of the crown and the height are almost equal and not more than 2 meters. Numerous large cones (up to 20 cm) of this pine tree are especially attractive. At the beginning of development, they are green in color, and at the time of ripening they become dark brown. The Weymouth Pine "Makopin" feels depressed in the heat and in the bright sun, therefore, needs shelter, does not tolerate stagnant water or severe drought.
  • “Blue Sheg” is a dwarf form of a White-faced pine, reaching 1.2 meters in height. The soft bluish-green needles of its spherical crown will decorate any garden plot. The baby is able to withstand severe frosts, but does not tolerate drought and prefers sunny open areas.
  • "Fastigiata" has a smooth and straight trunk. This is a very unpretentious variety: shade-tolerant, cold-resistant, wind-resistant. At a young age, they look like a shrub, but over the years they stretch upwards. Growth is very intense - not less than 20 cm per year. This variety has short shoots with greenish-silver, very prickly, needles.
  • "Winding" or "Contourt". A rare young variety, introduced into the culture only in 1993. The peculiarity of this pine is the curvature of the shoots, which are intertwined with each other. Decorative trees give a neat medium-sized bumps and dense green needles.
  • “Radiata” is one of the most popular and ungrateful garden varieties of white pine. The maximum tree height is 4 meters. The shape of the crown changes throughout its life. Cones are very attractive: hanging, slightly curved cylindrical, pleasantly nut-colored. This variety allows for experiments with pruning and crown formation.
  • "Pendula" has a unique silhouette: branches located widely hang down, creep along the ground or form bizarre bends. Due to the different lengths of the shoots, an asymmetrical drooping crown is formed. The tree is light-loving, grows very quickly, but in the adult state does not exceed 2-3 meters.
  • “Pumila” is a low-growing subspecies of pine, growing to 1–1.5 meters. An adult plant has the shape of a square with a lush crown. Long, emerald-green needles give him fancy.
  • "Minima" and "Minimus" - similar in appearance to the variety. They are well suited for the design of alpine stony hills, flower beds and recreation areas. Miniature bushes grow in width by one and a half meters, reaching a height of about eighty centimeters. Originality gives them the variability of color needles: from bright green in spring to turquoise in autumn. Pine Weymouth "Minima" is subject to burning of needles, therefore, requires shading, and is oppressed polluted atmosphere.
  • "Nana" - slow growing, low bush. In height can reach from 1 to 3 meters. This variety is characterized by very thin shoots, which are located horizontally on the ground at the base of the trunk, and are directed upwards at an acute angle closer to the top. The needles are very long, emerald with a blue tint. It prefers well-lit open areas, but in a shaded place forms a denser crown.
  • "Densa" - dwarf variety, very slowly growing, only 1, 2 meters in height. The shape of the crown varies with age from spherical to conical. This species has short needles - about 5 cm, with an unusual dark blue shade.
  • "Louis" is different from other varieties of bright lemon needles. A tree with a pyramidal crown reaches 6 meters in height.
  • Reinshaus. A variety created in 1966 by German breeders. Kegform dwarf, growing very slowly - up to 5 cm per year.
  • "Secret" - one of the most miniature dwarf varieties, reaching 50 cm in height.
  • "Prostrate" is a creeping dwarf variety, the branches of which rise up from the ground.

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send