Pear "True" refers to the varieties of autumn ripening. Founders: Yu.A. Petrov and N.V. Yefimov. The variety was obtained by crossing pears "Josephine Mechelnskaya" and interspecific hybrid No. 3.
It is a medium-growth tree with a crown of medium thickness and drooping branches. The main branches are straight, compactly arranged, at an angle of 45, the side branches are curved, of irregular shape, directed to the sides and upwards. The bark is smooth, brown. Fruiting on simple and complex kolchatka, spears, spur, fruit bags. The shoots are curved, reddish-brown, hairless. The buds are smooth, rounded-conical.
The leaves are ovate, dark green, finely serrate along the edge, smooth. The scape is thin, naked. The flowers are small, white, with round petals, fragrant.
Fruits of medium size, weighing up to 150 g, pear-shaped, smooth, with a dry, shiny skin. The color of the fruit is green with a slight tan and a few subcutaneous points of gray tint. When fully ripe, the peel becomes greenish-yellow. The stem is thick, kosospostavlennaya. The flesh is creamy, dense, semi-oily, fine-grained, juicy, sour-sweet, aromatic. Fruit ripening occurs in the second decade of September - early October. The shelf life of pears is 1-2 months.
Variety pears "Faithful" skoroplod, winter-hardy, resistant to scab and other diseases.
Culture is not demanding on the soil and growing conditions. It develops well and bears fruit on nutrient, drained substrates. The fruits have universal application. Used to make desserts and various drinks.
When describing the pear "Faithful" marked variability of the variety and late fruiting. The culture is self-infertile.
History and description
So, how did this loyal to its farmer variety appear? It was discovered by Soviet scientists in 1958 by crossing varieties of Josephine Mechelnskaya and interspecific hybrid No. 3. This version of the state test passed after as many as 40 years - in 1998, but only in 2001 was entered into the state register.
In general, it is a light-loving tree, for which it is also necessary to plant several additional pollinators. The first harvest you can get already 3-4 years after planting, and you can collect the fruit closer to the end of September. The yield of Verna pear varieties is quite good: 35–40 kg of pears from one tree per year.
Also, this variety is characterized by excellent transportability, and its fruits are perfectly stored for 1-2 months, subject to all necessary conditions. If you put them in the cellar, the shelf life increases to 3 months, although the best option would be to eat (or process) within one or two months after harvest.
Characteristics of the tree and fruit
We now turn to the description of the tree of this variety. The tree itself can be described as srednerosloye, with a crown of irregular shape. It is asymmetrical, and slightly tilted to the side, so if you want to give it a certain shape, you have to do pruning. Skeletal branches are spliced with a stem at a right angle, drooping. The bark on the headquarters is smooth, has a brown tint.
The shoots are not too long, slightly curved, painted in a reddish-brown color and have no edge. The leaves are medium in size, of beautiful emerald color, smooth to the touch, and the leaf plate itself is curved upwards. Flowers in pears are also not too large, white in color, have a pleasant aroma. They have round petals, small.
A pear of this variety cannot boast of huge fruits - on average, their weight varies between 100-140 g.
They have a characteristic pear shape, covered with smooth, dry and shiny skin. By the time the pears reach maturity, the skin becomes greenish and a red blush covers it. After it reaches full maturity and is ready for use, the skin becomes yellowish. Subcutaneous points of this fruit is so small that they are almost impossible to notice.
The flesh of the fruit is quite dense, has a creamy tint. It can also be noted that it is very juicy and oily. They taste sour-sweet, have a rather weak pear aroma. In general, the variety received a good tasting rating - its appearance was rated at 4.2 points, while the taste characteristics were rated somewhat higher - by as much as 4.5 points. All this indicates that Verna’s pear variety was well received by farmers and experts, and gained popularity in Russia.
Advantages and disadvantages
Each variety can find both advantages and disadvantages. This variety of pears has not become an exception, therefore we will consider its pros and cons in more detail.
- Relatively high yield. As already mentioned, with one tree with proper care you can get up to 40 kg of delicious pears.
- Delicious and beautiful fruits. As already mentioned, the fruit received a good tasting rating (4.2 for appearance and 4.5 for taste characteristics).
- Long shelf life. Observing all the conditions, you can keep the fruit in a usable form for 2-3 months.
- Excellent transportability. The fruits are well tolerated in transportation and retain their presentation, so they can be grown for commercial purposes.
- Frost resistance The variety tolerates low temperatures, so these trees can be grown without much hassle even in the cold regions of our country.
- Disease resistance. Pear True not bad resist the main diseases, although not prevent preventive spring treatment. At the same time the risk of major diseases is minimal.
- Versatile use of the fruit. Fruits can be eaten fresh or made from various preparations, jams and compotes.
- Regular pruning required. Since the crown has an irregular shape, it is necessary to form it correctly in order for the tree to grow and bear fruit normally.
- More careful care of the wheel circle. It must be kept in perfect order, and do not forget that it is not recommended to plant other plants near the tree.
- Irregular fruiting is possible. Take into account the fact that if you do not follow the basic rules for caring for a plant, it is likely that it will no longer bear fruit. Therefore, you must follow the basic recommendations.
The origin of the cultivar
The cultivar was developed in 1958 by the famous Russian breeders of VSTISP - Yu. A. Petrov and N. V. Efimova. The hybridization was based on the Josephine Mechelnskaya variety, from which Vernaja pear was obtained by crossing with hybrid interspecific No. 3. Since 1998, the cultivar has been submitted for state testing, and in 2001 it was entered into the state register.
Fruit tree description
Medium pear tree has an asymmetrical crown. The compact curves of the skeletal branches are spliced with the stem almost at right angles, drooping. Bark shoots smooth, brown. Young growth grows to an average length, has a reddish tint. Shoots densely dotted with small lentils.
The tree tying the fruit on all types of wood - kolchatka, fruit bags, spears, spurs.
The buds are of medium size, elongated. Leaf plates are dark green, with coarse streaks, serrate edge. The size of the leaves is average, the shape is oval, the plate is curved upwards, the petioles are thin. The buds are white, small in size with round petals and pronounced aroma.
True pear refers to the cultures of the autumn ripening, the description of the variety states that the harvesting should be carried out from mid-September to early October. Consider the main characteristics of the fruit:
- weight 120-150 g
- pear-shaped fruits have a small bevel, asymmetrical,
- the skin is smooth, glossy, green in color, as the aging color changes to yellowish-green. A small amount of subcutaneous gray dots appears,
- the flesh is tender, half-oily consistency. It is saturated with plenty of juice, has an average density, cream color,
- the tasting committee rated a pronounced sweet-sour taste with a delicate aroma of 4.5 points out of 5. The appearance of the fruit received a rating of 4.2 points,
- the crop retains its pristine freshness and taste characteristics for 1-2 months when stored in a fruit storage or refrigerator.
The true sugar content of pear is 10.1%. Fruits are full of vitamins, minerals, fiber, pectin, antioxidants, enzymes.
Gardeners recommend eating fresh pears, making juices, jams, dried fruits, jams, fruit wine.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Oddly enough, the autumn cultivar has no flaws. The advantages include high yields (up to 40 kg), stable fruit bearing, self-fertility, winter hardiness, good immunity to scab, and precociousness. Vernaya will begin to bear fruit in 3-4 years after planting. The undoubted advantage is the taste and marketability of fruits, the ability to preserve the harvest for a long time.
The variety is valuable as a skeleton generator, used by breeders for breeding new hybrids.
Planting and care
A small instruction on planting and caring for a pear, described in this section of the article, will help to collect a decent crop.
Prominent refers to unpretentious cultures. It does not impose special requirements on the substrate, but prefers loose, drained, fertile soils. The site for heat-loving culture is chosen with maximum illumination, protected from blowing by cold winds.
Early preparation of the pit will allow the soil to compact. When planting in the hole lay the basic fertilizer, excluding the presence of fresh manure. Suitable humus, peat, mineral complexes, wood ash. In the process of planting it is important not to deepen the root neck.
Experienced gardeners recommend planting the True Pear near other pollinators that bloom simultaneously with the cultivar. Cross-pollination allows you to increase yield.
Standard care includes:
- caring for the wheel circle
- fertilizer application
- preparation for wintering.
After 2 years, seedlings should be fed. This is done in early spring and autumn. Moreover, the autumn portion of fertilizers eliminates the presence of nitrogen. The trace element promotes rapid growth of shoots, reduces winter hardiness.
The irrigation mode weekly for 20 liters for an adult copy. A portion is better to make gradually, dividing the next morning and evening. During flowering, the budding of buds of the next year, the formation of fruits, pay special attention to irrigation.
Pruning is carried out annually in early spring. For rehabilitation and rejuvenation remove damaged, old shoots. When forming the crown should cut out the extra branches.
By the winter, tree trunks are dug up, adding a little wood ash, highly mulched with humus. Shtambu wrapped with lutrasil, splashed with fir branches.
Faithful - a pear with excellent characteristics. She will feel great in the climatic zone of the Moscow region, where it will require a minimum of care and will delight you with an excellent vitamin harvest.
Breeding history and breeding region
This variety was born thanks to the long breeding work of Yuri Petrov and Nina Efimova. In 1958, researchers of the All-Russian Breeding and Technological Institute of Horticulture and Nursery Growing crossed Josephine Mechelnskaya and interspecific Hybrid No. 3, as a result of which the world opened Verna’s pear variety, which passed the state test since 1998, and in 2001 received its place in registry.
This medium-grown tree has an irregular in shape, drooping thick crown. The branches are curves, are located close to each other at a right angle relative to the trunk, and their ends are directed in a chaotic order, upwards and along the sides.
The trunk covers brown smooth bark. The crown consists of foliage of dark green color. Leaf plates have an ovoid shape, and to the touch are very smooth, despite the fact that they have pronounced veins. During the flowering period, the tree is covered with small white flowers with a rich aroma. Kolchalki, on which fruits are formed, can be both simple and complex and are characterized as spur, lance and fruit bags.
Pear "Faithful" refers to the light-loving and sun-loving plants, therefore, it is recommended to plant it in open, well-lit areas. Planting in the shade can lead to a decrease in yield and viability of the tree. The sugar content of fruits mainly depends on the amount of sun and light that goes to the plant.
This pear is relatively picky in terms of soil composition, good drainage is of great importance, as stagnant water can adversely affect the development of the plant as a whole.
Of course, if there is such an opportunity, you should give preference to fertile soil, this tree will respond to a good, stable crop.
Pollinator is important for all varieties, both self-fertile and self-fertile. The “True” pear is not an exception, it depends on what the harvest will be.
The tree begins to give birth in 3-4 years after planting. In order for the tree to settle down better, fruit bearing well and consistently, during the first flowering, experts recommend cutting off all the inflorescences.
Next year you should not interfere in the flowering process, but it is highly desirable to cut off some of the green fruits. The fact is that the “True” pear tends to bear fruit not every year, but in order to avoid this, experienced gardeners advise to form a crop by cutting off part of the immature fruit.
When performing this agrotechnical reception, the pear will produce a crop annually, and its fruits will have even higher levels of sugar content.
Resistance to environmental conditions and diseases
The variety is highly resistant to scab. Provided that all the rules of planting are observed, the place is well chosen and the plant is provided with drainage, heavy rainfall is not terrible for him throughout the growing season. Often, the bark of young trees is damaged by rodents, one of the popular ways of dealing with them is the use of nylon pantyhose or a fine mesh. The trunk is wrapped with material, so pests do not have access to the bark, and the tree does not suffer from lack of air.
Pears of this grade differ in high gastronomic qualities. They can be used fresh, used to make juices, compotes and jams. Due to its homogeneous oily consistency, the fruits are perfect for preparing a variety of dessert dishes, such as fruit slices and salads, and for filling pies and cakes.
Description varieties pears True
The tree belongs to the middle. The crown has an average thickness of irregular flattened shape.
Branches with curvature grow almost at an angle of 90˚ with a compact arrangement.
Smooth bark on the main branches and trunk brown. During the summer period, the average length of curved reddish-brown shoots is reached.
A rather large number of medium-sized special formations - checheviches are formed on them in the cork part. Medium-sized smooth buds have a rounded conical shape.
Leaves with a dark green color are egg-shaped and smooth to the touch without hairiness, but with a rough venation (nervation). Mounted with a thin cutting of medium size without downiness. White flowers with round petals, though small in size, are very fragrant.
Fruits are formed on kolchatka (type of fruit wood), both simple and complex, on spur (short fruit twigs), on spears (fruit branches up to 15 cm) and on fruit bags (thickened parts of shoots). The shape of the fruit, as it should be, is a pear-shaped with a slight slant. The weight of a pear reaches 150g. The skin of the fruit is dry, smooth and shiny.
On the fetus there are small points of subcutaneous gray color. The color of the fruit is green, and when fully matured a yellow tint is added. The peduncle belongs to the category of thick and oblique. A very small funnel is almost absent, having a dull conical shape. Possessing a small, wide and smooth saucer, this pear has a half open cup.
Chambers for seeds closed medium size. The same size elliptical heart shape. Indicators of the length and width of the bottom tube also medium-sized cupped shape. The medium sized conical seed has a dark brown color.
The sour-sweet pulp of medium density cream shade belongs to the fruit with a fine-grained texture. Pear juicy and aromatic, although there are opinions about the faint aroma of this variety.
Appearance is estimated at 4.2 points, and taste - 4.5. But some appreciate the taste only 3.
The chemical composition of sugar - 10.1%, acids - 0.15%.
The following pear varieties have a great taste: Kupava, Krasulya, Lada, Dekabrinka and Rossoshanskaya Dessert.
In the photo below you can get more familiar with the pear variety "Vernaya":
Diseases and pests
Variety is considered scab resistant. The trunks of young trees need to be protected from rodents.
Мероприятия по защите грушевых деревьев нужно проводить с ранней весны до глубокой осени:
К первым относится внесение органических удобрений, например, навоза. Also fighting diseases with the use of herbal tinctures.
For example, to treat a plant that has a disease. powdery mildewApplied tincture rot hay.
Agronomic measures promote plant growth. This is the right place for planting, the timely and correct cutting of unnecessary and diseased branches, the preparation of planting material at the time.
Pest and disease control is based on spraying trees with appropriate chemicals. These chemical activities can be carried out both for the purpose of prevention and for the improvement of the tree.
Resistance to various kinds of diseases are Hera, Dekabrinka, Carmen, Larinska and Rogneda.
Under the physico-mechanical measures refers to the processing of material for planting and soil by heat treatment. Burning infected branches and mummified fruits.
The ideal varieties of pears, like apples, do not exist. Each has its own advantages.
These are positive factors influencing the choice of this variety for planting on the site, because there are not so many varieties with such qualities.
Transportability and storage
Fruits of “Uralochka” are kept at a satisfactory level, however, a short time is about 30 days. When creating special conditions, their safety up to one and a half months is possible.
By this time, the fruits still have an attractive appearance, so they are well transported even over long distances.