Care and feeding of guinea fowls differs little from caring for domestic chickens, which is not surprising, because in fact they belong to the same species. The ration of household tsaría differs little from the food that is given to small chickens. True to feed the chicks of the royal bird have more, given their size and weight. Also in the diet of young guinea fowls there is a greater amount of proteins, and therefore protein. The main food for the Caesar in the first days of life is wheat porridge and steeply boiled eggs, the guinea fowl and small millet feed well.
In the first decade of life, broods of guinea fowl should be fed ten to twelve times a day, as the young grow, the number of feedings can be reduced. At the age of four weeks, the chicken fry need feed at most four times a day.
Little guinea fowl before chickens begin to feed pasture. Already at the end of the week it is safe for the guinea fowls to give chopped clover leaves, alfalfa, lettuce, cabbage, dandelion, and greens of cereals. Chicks should be given only fresh greens. Vile, hardened tops of the birds eat poorly, or ignore altogether. Nutrients in this feed - at least.
In order for the chickens to be full and feel good at home, they must be fed with fresh curd, powdered milk, crushed feed wheat and corn.
In the daily diet should be crushed chalk and shell, coarse sand from the river bank, boiled eggshell. The latter should not be carried away, because, despite the undoubted benefits that the egg shells bring due to the content of calcium and other trace elements in it, it can become a source of cannibalism in her fowl.
In the early stages of cultivation, various food waste, vegetable tops, hay dust, turnips, fodder beets, non-sour fresh silage, grass meal, and freshly harvested hay serve as feed for young royal birds.
And of course, the ideal option for feeding chicken, especially broiler breeds, is a factory combined feed. In it, depending on the age of the bird, all nutrients, vitamins and other additives are taken into account and scientifically balanced.
Proper feeding of young guinea fowl will allow already in 90 days to have livestock weighing from one to one and a half kilograms.
Adult bird diet
In formed guinea fowers, metabolic processes in the body are significantly accelerated in relation to other poultry. Consequently, the feed of these birds requires some more. Guinea fowls awaken among the first ones in the poultry yard and have their feed left over after evening feeding. In general, the royal birds eat four times a day. In addition to the described meal, the birds are given food at 7.00-8.00 in the morning, at noon, from 12.00 to 14.00 and in the evening at 18.00-19.00.
In general, guinea fowls do not particularly dig in food. Royal birds with great pleasure eat mash from grass, boiled potatoes, various cereals, compound feed or grain mixtures, so long as they have a moist texture. It is recommended to prepare such mash on milk, whey, meat broth or yeast solution. Such a diet has a good effect on the productive characteristics of the bird.
For guinea fowls, it is necessary to make balanced protein rations. With a sufficiently stable immune system, royal birds are often susceptible to diseases caused by a lack or overfeeding of animal protein.
Although guinea fowl and unpretentious to food, there is such a food that birds will eat through force. It includes barley, meat and bone meal. Unfortunately, these foods are rich in protein, so it is necessary to mix them into the main feed for guinea fowls.
In terms of nutrition, royal birds can be compared to geese. Guinea fowls also consume large amounts of fresh green fodder. To feed these birds you need chopped grass, food residues, tops from the vegetable garden and chopped vegetables.
Guinea fowls painfully tolerate dampness and cold, such weather can lead to the development of gastrointestinal diseases in birds. Therefore, in the breeding season, the birds are fed once a day with moist feed with the addition of baker's yeast (about half a gram per individual) and feed the pets with a weak solution of manganese.
It is very important when feeding guinea fowers to diversify their menu. The alternation of different types of grain will only benefit birds. Especially the royal birds are not indifferent to crushed corn with oilcake. Individual feeders should be filled with mineral feed, clean river sand and fine gravel.
In the summer, the backyard is full of worms and beetles. They also go to feed guinea fowls. If space is limited, or you are worried about the integrity of the beds, then the care of the animal feed for guinea fowls is entirely yours. There were cases that even frogs and mice became prey of royal birds in the conditions of walking.
What particularly pleases farmers is that guinea fowls are irreconcilable enemies of the Colorado beetles. Without damaging the potato field and poultry tops, they can spend hours searching for and eating these pests. But in order to use the birds in the fight against the "Colorado" they must first be taught. To begin with, beetles are given to the bird, mixed with bread, then in its pure form, and only after that they are released into the garden. Of course, the treatment of chemistry against the Colorado beetles should be abandoned.
During the harvest season of guinea fowls, where climate allows, you can feed watermelons and melons, cutting the melons in two. Royal birds will be glad to such a dessert. Yes, and from the usual vegetables, they do not refuse.
Video “Poultry Behavior”
This recording depicts moments from the fascinating life of birds, namely: white-breasted guinea fowl, mulard, hybrid broiler chickens.
When growing birds, a natural question arises, what to feed the hens in the first days of life. Daily chickens are fed with chopped boiled hard boiled chicken eggs soaked in milk bread. Feeding guinea fowls are fed three times a day. If the house stands near the area for grazing, it will not be difficult for the princes to independently get green fodder, otherwise they will have to get greens for them.
At the age of 1 day to 4 months, the Tsars are included in the diet:
- wheat cake,
- ground corn,
- oat flour,
- Wheat flour,
- millet seed
- barley flour,
- fish dust.
The composition of wet mash: boiled egg, sour milk, lettuce, clover hay, yeast.
Feeding for fattening
Four-month-old chicks begin to feed the dough from flour and steamed roots. Provide them free-range pasture. Some breeders claim that there is no need to fatten guinea fowls on purpose, because by 4 months with proper maintenance and feeding, they already have enough muscle mass and are ready for slaughter.
Meals in the first days of life
Basically, growing and feeding small chickens in the first days of life is identical to caring for chicken ducks. The body of daily chicks requires more raw proteins, about 24%, so their diet in the first days is enriched with cottage cheese, sour milk and boiled cereals. The older the birds are, the less raw protein they need. In comparison with small hens, queens need a lot more green fodder. In the diet of birds must be present chalk, crushed shell. To replenish calcium, it is necessary to give crushed egg shells that have undergone preliminary heat treatment.
Nutrition and Disease
Properly formulated diet - a pledge of good immunity, so the answer to the question of how to feed any guinea fishes is as follows: introducing extremely balanced feed. The resistance of the body of guinea fowls is quite high, but they are often exposed to diseases associated with an excess or lack of protein in the diet.
With all the simplicity in food, guinea fowls do not like fishmeal and barley, but these products must be given, so that the birds get good nutrition. Gastrointestinal diseases in poultry cause excessive moisture and hypothermia. In the mating season, wet masters with the addition of yeast and a solution of manganese as a drink should be given to feathered birds.
Guinea fowl and their nutritional needs
Guinea fowl in the wild eats a variety of food. When breeding in captivity, it is not particularly fastidious in nutrition and maintenance. The exchange processes in these birds are much faster than in other birds. The royal bird eats crushed corn with wheat cake with pleasure. In separate boxes should be poured river sand, crushed shells. In the homestead plots in the summer is full of insects. Guinea fowls with pleasure eat the Colorado potato beetle, and do not damage the potato tops and do not tear the beds. Even frogs or field mice can become birds of prey. At the end of summer - beginning of autumn you can feed gooseberries with melons and gourds. This dessert will have feathered to taste.
In winter, clover needles and hay are introduced into the diet. What to feed daily guinea fowl chicks? The same, than and small chickens. On the first day, after drying, the chicks feed on a crushed hard-boiled egg. Also, sour milk and cottage cheese are introduced into the ration, then greens of lettuce are gradually added and all sorts of important mixers are made, and in time they are transferred to broiler chicken feed.
From 4 months start fattening in free-range dough. The dough is made from oatmeal or wheat flour and boiled vegetables. To control the fat content of the offspring, livestock is weighed every month. In order for the chickens to be well born, and their products are of good quality, there should be enough calcium in the diet. It is advisable to introduce products such as boiled eggshell, crushed, chalk, meat and bone meal.
Now you know what to feed the young Tsars. Proper balanced nutrition is the key to good bird health. A lack or excess of protein can cause illness. When excess protein is observed loss of feathers, peeling of the skin.
Dampness and cold can cause digestive problems in birds, so they are given wet mash with the addition of yeast to maintain immunity. In general, feeding guinea fowls is not difficult.
Choice of diet
When choosing a bird ration, keep in mind that it should be correct and balanced. But it is also important to take into account the age of birds and some of their features. Give individuals more protein food. Add more legumes to their diet. Birds also love insects, but they can get them themselves.
It should be borne in mind that if the breeder decided to have guinea fowls, then you need to understand that birds require special feed. Although the birds and unpretentious, but they still need a balanced diet. As feed should be used:
- boiled vegetables,
- green fodder (tops, ground grass).
Sometimes add fishmeal to porridge (although they do not like guinea fowl such food).
Guinea fowl chicken requires a balanced feed. Food should include boiled eggs, freshly baked bread dipped in milk.
Crush the food in advance and place in the feeders, do not forget to add drinking water.
Important! It should be noted that the young need to be kept in a warm and clean place. It is also better to keep them away from the hen, as it does not protect them from the cold, and the chicks can get sick and die.
There are no specific rules for the diet of chicks. The main thing is to carefully consider the choice of feed.
There is one condition. If the young are kept with pasture, then they need to be fed 3 times a day, because they can produce food themselves.
If they are bred in a closed form, then feed very young chicks at least 12 times a day, later the feeding regime decreases.
Feeding of the monthly guinea fowl
Feeding the monthly guinea fowl is almost the same as feeding adult birds. They feed, as well as mature individuals. In the diet, it is important to include wheat cereals in milk with fresh herbs.
Do not forget to add substances to porridges full of minerals that birds consume with pleasure.
Important! Include in the food fine peeled gravel. It should be added to all birds of any age, starting from a month. Gravel helps them improve digestion.
What to feed guinea fowl in the summer
Feeding guinea fowl depends not only on the age of the bird, but also on the season and even the weather outside the window, because at any moment birds should receive the most nutritious and healthy food, compensating for the body's energy and vitamin losses.
In the year one bird eats about 32 kg of feed mixture, 2 kg of mineral feed, 12 kg of fresh greens, 4 kg of food of animal origin and the same number of root crops. With free range in summer, the amount of grain food can be reduced by 1/3 of the usual amount. Of course, spoiled feed and moldy grain should not be given to birds.
When free-range you can not worry about enough green grass in the diet of guinea fowls, because they are able to find everything you need. However, with cellular maintenance, the poultry farmer will have to independently collect greens, which means it will be helpful to know about some of its consumption rates.
So, for 1 adult bird per day there are about 40–60 g of chopped herbal mixture, the main components of which can be:
- nettle - 20 g,
- quinoa - 10–15 g,
- ambrosia - 10 g,
- tops - 10 g,
- cabbage leaves - about 10 g,
- dandelion leaves - 10 g,
- legumes - 10 g.
At the same time, we should not forget that the grass cannot serve as the only food of guinea fowls, and grain mixtures must still be present in their diet.
Grain and Grain Mixes
As we mentioned earlier, in the period of feeding birds with greens the amount of grain feed consumed by them can be reduced.
As a result, an approximate diet per individual per day will look like this:
- crushed wheat - 5–10 g,
- crushed corn - 10 g,
- chopped barley - 5–10 g,
- millet (up to 40–59-day-old) - 4 g.
The summer diet of guinea fowls does not do without root vegetables, which, before serving, can either be grated raw, or boiled and mashed. For poultry feeding, it is preferable to use potatoes and carrots, since the remaining guinea fowl roots are eaten with less hunting. A day for one guinea fowl may account for 20–30 g of such food.
Leftover food from the human table is a great alternative to grain feeds and a good way to diversify the bird menu.
Both in winter and in summer, guinea fowls will not refuse:
- boiled vegetables (they eat well the remnants of soups and other liquid dishes, as long as they are not heavily seasoned with spices),
- cereal (buckwheat, rice),
- remains of fish and meat dishes
- dairy products.
Any of these types of food waste will be an excellent addition to wet mash, replacing up to half of the grain. 1 bird can account for about 30–40 g of such food per day, although it is difficult to make accurate calculations: some guinea fowls eat more, others prefer mostly “green” food.
For the well-being of the bird and its full development in the usual diet is useful to include mineral supplements that help strengthen the bone tissue.
The approximate composition of the desired mineral mixture in this case is as follows:
- salt - 0.3–0.6 g,
- fodder yeast - 3-4 g,
- bone meal - 10–12 g,
- meat and bone meal - 10 g,
- crushed chalk - 5 g,
- wood ash - 10–15 g,
- fish oil - 3 g,
- large river sand - 5–10 g,
- crushed shells - 5 g,
- fine gravel - 3–6 g
This amount of nutrients will be quite enough for one adult bird per day, and she will not necessarily eat the mixture in full. You can either mix all the mineral ingredients together, or scatter them into separate containers, but only so that all guinea fowls have access to the dishes at any time.
What to give fowl in the winter
In the cold season, vitamins and beneficial trace elements become much smaller, so the diet of guinea fowl may change. We have to compensate for the lack of grass and animal protein in other products.
Instead of grass
Many types of grass are not available in the winter, but you can still prepare something.
To feed guinea fowl in the cold season can be such products:
- finely chopped cabbage - 10–15 g per bird per day,
- grated carrot - 20 g,
- crushed beetroot - 10–15 g,
- germinated grain - 20–30 g,
- chopped conifer needles, which in winter are very rich in vitamin C (they give no more than 10-15 g).
In the springtime, it is better not to feed guinea fowls with needles, as it increases the concentration of essential oils that can harm the bird.
Instead of natural protein
Зимой у цесарок нет возможности найти себе улиток, саранчу или хотя бы колорадских жуков на огороде, поэтому приходится им скармливать приемлемую альтернативу животного белка.
К таким продуктам относят:
- мясокостную или рыбную муку — 15–20 г в сутки на 1 цесарку,
- измельчённые мясные отходы — 10–15 г,
- рыбьи внутренности — 10 г,
- творог — 10–15 г.
As a preventive measure, in order to prevent diseases of the digestive tract, gesar salted freshly prepared weak solution of potassium permanganate, replacing it with a standard drink 1 time in several days. During the breeding season, it is useful to supplement the birds ’diet with wet feed mixed with yeast in the amount of 0.5 g per 1 individual.
Grains and feed
No less important for guinea fowls of plant-derived protein. The grain contains very little (most of the composition is carbohydrates), so in the winter it is desirable to supplement the diet with soy, peas, beans and lentils, and the latter are even more preferred, especially if the poultry farmer is worried about the presence of GMOs in cheap soybeans.
All grain and legumes are fed to the bird only after pre-crushing, because only in this way can solid food be digested well by the bird's body. After mixing all of the above, in equal proportions, one average guinea fowl (about 3 kg) should account for 150–200 g of feed.
If we divide this number into the types of feed consumed by the bird, then it turns out that one individual eats about 30–50 g of legumes (peas, soybeans, or beans), in addition to which, of course, there is grain.
Mineral supplements and vitamins
Addition to the above described winter ration of guinea fowls can serve as mineral and vitamin supplements, which not only strengthen the bird's skeleton, but also have a good effect on its overall health.
For this purpose, individual troughs are usually filled in:
- crushed sea or river shells,
- crushed chalk
- wood ash
- coarse pure sand (or gravel of small fraction).
There is no specific norm of consumption of these minerals, it is enough just to add them to the feeders, and the birds will take as much as they need. In addition, it is desirable to pour sand and wood ash into large containers so that guinea fowls, if desired, could climb and clean the feathers.
Mineral supplements increase the hardness of eggs, normalize the level of calcium in the avian organism and contribute to the better grinding of food in the stomach.
Factory poultry feed and supplements to the basic diet can be a good solution for balanced nutrition of guinea fowls in the case when the poultry farmer does not have time to do independent selection of different products.
Most often they are given in a dry form, but the main thing is to choose a high-quality mixture with all the necessary certificates. Consider several popular options for such products.
Under this name, several options of feed are produced: full ration and premix, which provides for the mixing of the additive with the main food. The full rye “Ryabushka” is designed for feeding chickens after 120 days of age and during the entire period of egg production, but in practice this option is also used in breeding guinea fowls.
According to the producers, these small granules have a very positive effect on the body of the bird, which is expressed in:
- increasing egg production,
- getting bigger eggshells,
- improvement of poultry reproductive abilities and hatching qualities of eggs,
- strengthening the body's defenses and improving the appearance of the plumage,
- improving the digestibility and digestibility of nutrients from the diet.
In addition, there are high taste qualities of guinea fowl meat that consumes “Ryabushka” food. Such high results can be achieved due to the balanced composition of the product, which includes protein of plant origin (sodium chloride, lysine, methionine and cystine), calcium, phosphorus, copper, iron, manganese, zinc, selenium, iodine, cobalt and many essential vitamins for birds: A, D3, E, K3, H groups B (B1-B6, B12).
The use of feed should start with 80 g per day, feeding this amount twice.
Premix "Ryabushka" is a dry mix with the most complete set of useful components that are simply added to the basic diet of poultry. Completely replacing the usual food in this case will not work, but adding it with useful components is quite realistic.
In fact, the powder contains all the same components as in the full-fat option, except that in addition to them there is a feed antibiotic and a flour-and-cereals filler.
There are no hormones, preservatives or GMOs here, so the additive can be safely used for any poultry, observing the dosage on the package. For guinea fowls this is 1.2–1.5 g of mixture per bird per day.
For fowls, chickens and other poultry, Golden Felutsen P2 is often used, another feed additive that goes well with the main feed. It is presented in the form of powder, which is mixed in the grain mixtures or wet mash, following the dosage specified by the manufacturer: the laying guinea hens are fed 55–60 g per 1 kg of food, and the breeding individuals the amount of the additive is increased to 70 g per 1 kg of feed.
The composition of "Felucene" includes carbohydrates, vitamins A, groups B, D, K, C, H, as well as minerals represented by calcium, phosphorus, zinc, selenium, cobalt, iodine, manganese, sodium chloride. No additional powder treatments are required before use.
Among the advantages of using "Feluzen" are:
- improving the incubation qualities of eggs,
- normalization of digestive processes
- enhancing the protective functions of the avian organism,
- increasing the strength of eggshell and poultry bone system,
- reducing the likelihood of developing anemia and various deformities of young birds.
Like other supplements, this complex should be introduced into the diet gradually, starting with 1/7 of the daily dose and bringing it to the recommended values during the week.
Like the previous versions, the specified feed additive is supplied in the form of a powder, including calcium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, selenium, iodine, vitamins A, D3, E, group B (B1-B6, B12), K, H as well as macro- and microelements: manganese, zinc, copper, iodine, cobalt, calcium, iron.
Its effect on the bird's organism resembles in many respects the action of similar compounds:
- strengthens the bone system
- increases the strength of the eggshell and the nutritional value of the eggs themselves,
- reduces the consumption of the main feed used (in this case by 10–12%).
To obtain the most effective results, "Mixvit" should be added to the main grain feed of guinea fowls per 1.2 g per bird per day.
Balanced nutrition is the first condition for growing any poultry, because along with food all the necessary vitamins, macro- and microelements get into their bodies. Guinea fowl in this regard is not much more demanding than the same chickens, but this does not mean that they can be fed with anything.
Only compliance with the requirements for the summer and winter diet together with the dosed use of vitamin supplements will be able to ensure good health of the birds and increase their productivity, which should not be forgotten.
Feed and feed rates
In the table below you will find the ideal feed composition and serving size for guinea fowls of different ages, which take into account the required amount of all nutrients.
It is very important for guinea fowls to receive mineral substances in large quantities. They are taken from crushed shell rock. Cessarok ration also includes fine gravel or river sand in a large fraction. The presence in the food of guinea fowl chalk and wood ash.
In this way, The optimal serving size for an adult guinea fowl is 100-130 g. feed.as home cooked in accordance with the table, and industrial feed. It is also optimal to add 50-70 grams of fresh herbs or vegetable tops.
It is important not to forget that if adult guinea fowls use their daily walking in the garden or on the meadow, they almost completely satisfy their needs for animal feed at the expense of insects, worms, slugs, frogs and mice. Colorado beetles are a delicacy for them. So guinea fowl can be your helpers in the fight against this pest.
In addition to proper nutrition, it is important to maintain a drinking regime. Fresh water should be constantly in the drinkers. It should be changed 2 times a day.
Diet at different times of the year
The composition of feed for guinea fowl varies depending on the time of year. The main seasonal difference in the nutrition of guinea fowls is the availability of green supplements to the finished feed in the summer. In winter, it is useful to include spruce needles in the rations. In the spring it is categorically undesirable to give the needles to the birds, since it contains a high concentration of essential oils that only harm the guinea fowl.
If the weather is damp or cold for several days, then the birds should be allowed to drink a solution of weak potassium permanganate in addition to the main drink. Continue to give such a solution should be within three days.
We have considered in detail the topic of feeding guinea fowls at home. Guinea fowls are especially important in the presence of a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals. A lot of vitamins found in yeast supplements, germinated grain. In addition to these qualities, these additives significantly improve the taste of animal feed and make it more attractive to guinea fowls. It is important to provide the birds with regular fresh water. It is better to place granulated feed additives (gravel, sand, mineral shell rock) in separate feeders.