Time brings its own changes to the garden and garden culture and to the estimate of the usual dill-carrot-dill potatoes in the summer cottages and asters-phloxes in the front gardens more and more interesting landscape compositions with adjusted colors, alpine slides, mini-ponds and perfect curbs.
When making a garden plot, gardeners are increasingly paying attention to interesting ornamental types of garden plants brought from different parts of the world, and successfully adapt them to our climate. One of these plants is a heart-shaped hauttuynia, or as it is also called hauttuynia cardio-leaf.
This beautiful perennial groundcover comes from Southeast Asia. In China, Japan and Vietnam, they use it not only to decorate gardens, but also to make salads, drinks and in traditional Chinese medicine.
Houttuynia is an unpretentious plant that grows well on wet and damp soils, near water bodies, in shallow water. It develops beautifully both in the open sun and in the shade. This plant has a branched root system, which is located close to the soil surface, reddish stems and leaves in the shape of a heart, something like ivy leaves.
It is for the beautiful foliage that the heart-lined gardeners are appreciated. The colors of the leaves are green, red, yellow, smoothly flowing into one another. The saturation of the red color in the color of the leaves of the hauttuen depends largely on the illumination, and when the plant is shaded, the red color gradually fades and disappears. The hauttuynia does not bloom very heavily in the summer in medium-sized white-cream flowers.
Today gardeners are known for several varieties of this plant.
"Chameleon". The most popular variety of this plant. It is distinguished by particularly decorative and brightly colored leaves, in the variegation of which white, yellow, red and green spots are visible.
"Pied Piper". This variety is characterized by a yellow-orange gamut of leaves in small veins of green.
"Plena." This varietal hauttuynia leaves color is more modest, they are green-blue in color, but very beautiful double flowers stand out.
«Variegata". This variety has green, pink and cream leaves with smooth color transitions.
The combination of several varieties on one flower bed creates an unrivaled palette in its beauty and richness.
Planting and growing
Hauttyuniya "Chameleon" - a great choice for borders, stony hills, rockeries, decoration of decorative ponds. It combines well with other garden plants, creating an interesting color ensemble with them. A remarkable feature of this plant is that it, creating a carpet of stems and leaves, is able to almost completely suppress weeds. Agree, this greatly facilitates the care of the garden will please those who do not like to blow out flowerbeds for hours.
Planted hauttyuniya in shallow water, in the damp corners of the garden, at the drain pipes. When planted in water, it is necessary to take into account that when frost is over -15 degrees, the roots freeze out. Therefore, in this case, in the water, the hauttyunia should be planted in a basket, and pulled out of the reservoir for the winter and hid in the cellar.
In Europe, hauttuynia is also used by gardeners to plant in containers, which allows you to create bright vertical compositions. With this method of planting during the care of the plant, you need to carefully monitor the irrigation, and in the winter to bring containers into the cellar.
When growing hauttyunii should take into account the fact that the plant is very aggressive and during the growing season actively displaces its neighbors in the flower bed. To avoid this, experienced gardeners advise during planting to artificially limit the growth of the root system of the plant. To do this, a bucket without a bottom will fit, a plastic curb dug into the ground or, at worst, an old tire. Another way to limit uncontrolled growth is periodic cutting of the roots with a shovel.
Caring for hauttyuniya does not take much work, even a novice gardener. The plant does not need constant watering, it is enough just not to let it dry on the ground. It reproduces by cutting or dividing the bush. Cherenkovidnye leaves that break off a well overgrown bush, rooted in the wet ground. For the winter, the hauttyyny is covered with fallen leaves.
When planning a garden and a calendar of flowering plants, it must also be remembered that, almost until mid-May, the houttuynia hides in the ground and neither its creeping roots nor the red stems are visible on the surface. Therefore, in April-May this place in the flower bed may be occupied by spring primroses.
Heart-shaped Huttuynia can be grown in a container in order to clean the house for the winter or hide it in a non-freezing basement.
However, in central Russia, this plant winters quite well under snow cover.
And the Houttuynia wakes up really late - in the first half of June, as its leaves and flowers are sensitive to frost.
And only in mid-July, it reaches full development and blooms.
The stem of a hauttuynia has a reddish color up to 30 cm high, on which smooth beautiful, as a rule, dark green leaves of a heart-shaped form grow.
The plant blooms in July or even in August, depending on the air temperature.
The hauttyunia bloom is very original - a flower consisting of an elongated spike-shaped inflorescence of small yellow flowers pressed against each other, like the ear of corn, and the white surrounding around a five-leafed leaf.
Huttyunya heart-shaped belongs to the decorative leafy plants.
In this sense, she has very interesting varieties:
- ‘Chameleon’ - with tricolor leaves, like a traffic light: red, yellow and green, smoothly flowing into each other. The green sheet in the middle to the edge already has a yellow color, and the border of the sheet is colored red. A true natural masterpiece. This decorative variety looks very impressive throughout the summer.
- ‘Variegata’ - with red-green leaves with yellow and cream spots,
- ‘Plena’ - with regular green leaves, but double flowers.
Houttuynia can grow in a flower garden (prefers sunny places - otherwise its leaves lose their bright color), on an alpine slide, on the shore of a reservoir and even in shallow water (at a depth of 5-10 cm), it is also used as a groundcover.
Houttuyny propagated by cutting or dividing rhizomes.
Houttuynia, being a ground-cover plant, grows rapidly, so it is easier to propagate it by dividing the rhizomes, which are best practiced in spring. Divided plant roots are planted at a depth of 5-10 cm.
In China and Vietnam, hauttuynia is grown as a leafy lettuce plant, and in Japan it is used to make tonic tea.
At the same time, it is difficult to eradicate the weed of rice fields, and in the Transcaucasus - tea plantations.
The plant has a medicinal effect, but it is better not to experiment on your own, as allergic reactions may occur.
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High summer temperature is not terrible to the plant, if you ensure timely watering. Winters with heavy snow are highly desirable, as in such conditions, the hauttunia can winter at -25 ° C. In a snowless winter, the maximum temperature at which it can survive is -18 ° C. As soon as the temperature is zero, the leaves die off the plant.
Houttuynyu planted in the prepared substrate, mixing loam and peat soil in a ratio of 1 to 1. However, it is able to grow in marshy soil, in coastal water, on a rocky hill.
This flower loves moisture, so it needs frequent watering (in hot summer - at least every other day). However, if you put him near the water, this need disappears.
The flower likes moist soil, it can be planted on the shore of a pond or in shallow water, to a depth of 5 cm, however, in the frosty regions, the latter option is not suitable, as the plant freezes. Moist air around it can provide wet compost scattered around.
You need to feed the hauttyunia with fertilizers in the form of fish, bone, phosphorite or horn flour, which do not dissolve in water, but crumble around, slowly absorbing into the soil and feeding the plant. Another option is fertilizer in the form of resin-coated granules. They are scattered around in the spring, and during the summer they are gradually absorbed into the soil.
Cut the plant in the spring - cut overgrown roots, cut off parts of the roots for transplantation, and in adult plants cut cuttings. Cutting off the foliage is not necessary, the leafy carpet will still look very neat, even if you cannot keep it in the right place.
To help the hauttyyny easier to transfer the frosty winter, it can be sprinkled with compost, dry leaves, sawdust, spruce or pine branches, or covered with a special covering material that is sold in stores with goods for gardening. After the snow falls, you can sprinkle them as a supplement.
Another option is to plant the plant in a large container and bring it to the basement or garage for the winter. If it seems to you that your hauttyuniya has not survived the winter, do not rush to dig it out, it tends to give out late shoots, so it may well please you with the beauty of the foliage.
Restriction of growth of rhizomes
Houttuynia has creeping roots that grow in different directions. If you do not follow its growth, it can spread throughout the site. In order to prevent this, plastic, metal or rubber fences should be buried in the ground so that they cover a depth of 30 cm. Also, the flower can be planted in a large pot, in water, an old leaky bucket. Consider that its roots can spread over the surface.
It is best to propagate hauttyuniya in this way in early spring, then before the winter she will be able to gain strength. During this period, the plant has not yet had time to "wake up" after wintering.
We offer you detailed instructions:
- Carefully remove the top layer of earth (before the root system).
- Find the knot at the root and cut off the tip of the root with it (you can shovel).
- Push the shovel under the root and lift it out of the ground. Shake off
- If the root is too large, cut, but the bundle should remain.
- The soil is rich in clay and sand, mix with peat and pour into a large pot or other container.
- In a hole 10 cm deep, lower the root and sprinkle with soil. Pour over.
- When the leaves appear, plant the flower in the allotted place with the pot to keep it in one place.
Cuttings are cut when the hauttyunia sprouted to a sufficient height (approximately at the beginning of summer). If, for any reason, grafting has occurred later, the young plant needs to be hibernated in the room, otherwise it may freeze. You can cut the stalk with a single leaf or cut between the leaves. The length should be between 2.5 and 4 cm.
Next, you need to act this way:
- The segment is placed in a small glass and pour water so that the level does not exceed 1/3 of the plant. As the evaporation of water must be poured.
- If the cutting was cut with a sheet, put the glass in the light, if without a sheet - in a dark place.
- When the roots grow, pour the soil into the prepared container and plant so that they are submerged to a depth of 10 cm. Water.
- Plant the plant with its capacity in the prepared place.
Houttuynyu used in cooking, for registration of the dacha, for the treatment of various diseases as an unconventional tool. In garden design, hauttuyny is applied as follows:
- to brighten up the empty spaces along the edge of the pond
- for registration of stony hills,
- for registration of a site near a fence, footpath or house,
- in pots to decorate the terrace or window sills.
- as a revitalizing tea,
- with inflammations,
- as a diuretic,
- from wounds and purulent inflammations on the skin,
- to liquefy sputum in the airways,
- for receiving essential oil,
- with prostate,
- to strengthen the immune system
- with hemorrhoids.
Difficulties in growing
Houttuynia does not require special care, but when it is grown there may be some difficulties:
- Having planned the location of various plants during the design of the site, after wintering you can find a hauttuynia elsewhere. To avoid this, planting a flower, dig in the limiters for the rhizome, or plant in any container.
- The colorful leaves of the plant turned pale green. This means that the flower is not enough sunlight. He must be transplanted or removed that casts a shadow on him.
- White spots appeared on the foliage, the color faded. Probably the bright sun burned her. If it is not possible to dispel sunlight, water and spray the leaves more often.
- In spring, all the plants in the flowerbed bloomed, and instead of hauttyynii - emptiness. This happens because its shoots appear in the late spring and early summer. Up to this point, to brighten the void, you can plant snowdrops.
- The flower began to grow strongly. This means that you overdid it with fertilizers. A transplant can help, watering with a solution of lime, adding sawdust or sand, plentiful watering with water.
- After wintering the plant died. This can happen if the fertilizer for the plant was a lot of nitrogen, or the reservoir in which it grew, froze. Carefully pick up fertilizer, wrap a flower or bring it into the room for the winter.
Diseases and pests
Like other aquatic plants, hauttyuniya, planted on the edge of the reservoir, may be affected by pests:
- Bloodworm - small worms red, do not cause significant damage, but can damage the roots. The means to combat it are fish.
- Mosquito krikotopus - its small larvae devour the leaves. You can trim the gnawed leaves and burn.
- Water fire - beige in a dark strip of caterpillar length 2.5 cm, eat the leaves. They can be swept into the water to feed the fish.
- The caddler is its larvae in the form of yellow caterpillars, which make holes in the foliage and flowers. Collect them and throw them to the fish.
- Prudovik ordinary - a large colony of these snails can eat the foliage. Usually they are collected manually.
- Aphid - 6 mm light green or brown insects that weaken plants. To combat them, it is best to get insects that destroy them - hovering, horsemen.
- The midges, their larvae, are difficult to distinguish with the naked eye, but the traces of their vital activity in the form of holey leaves are striking. Such foliage needs to be collected and burned.
For aquatic plants such diseases are characteristic:
- Root rot - the affected roots begin to rot, after which the flowers die. A way out of this situation can be a thorough check of the roots of the hauttyunia before planting and discarding the blackened and soft, otherwise you will have to drain the water and clean all the plants.
- Leaf spot - first brown spots appear, then the leaves die. The way to fight is timely cutting off the infected leaves.
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Description of the plant hauttyuniya cardiocellular (with photo)
Starting the description of the plant heart-shaped hauttyuniya, it is worth saying that it belongs to the monotypic eponymous genus from the family Savrurova. This is the only species represented by a variety of perennial herbaceous crops. Many of them are used in Japan as a leaf salad, as well as brewing tonic teas. In China, they eat cord-shaped rhizomes, for example, while traveling in this country, try a nutritious and healthy salad.
Unpretentious frost-resistant plant hauttyuniya sertselischnaya has a growth of from 20 to 30 cm. Creeping rhizome, vertically located, quickly rooted at the nodes. For this reason, as a garden crop for the roots of the hauttyunia, the chameleon is required to dig in iron or plastic barriers to stop the rapid development of the underground system and the growth of the plant throughout the garden. In Asian countries, perennial - difficult to clean the weed on the tea and rice plantations. This is due to the rapid development and growth of the root system.
From the cord-shaped roots of white color, erect stems are formed, capable of a little branching. Имеют красноватые окрас и бороздчатое основание, ростом до 30-40 см. На стеблях хауттюйнии сердцевидной располагается важная декоративная часть — листовые пластины. Это цельные простые листочки на черешках, имеющие очередное расположение. Разные формы могут отличаться по строению листовой пластины. Встречаются экземпляры хауттюйнии с яйцевидными, треугольно-яйцевидными или яйцевидно-ланцетными листочками, некоторые из них представлены на фото ниже.See how hauttuynia can be used - the photo shows the variants of its use in landscape design:
Leaves and flowers hauttyuynii
The tip of the leaf is always sharp, and the base from which the short grooved stem exits has a heart-shaped notch. The color of the sheet plate is completely dependent on the lighting. When shading a plant, it acquires a saturated green color. The ability to be a chameleon is an excellent quality of the hauttuynia as a garden plant for ennobling the coastline of ponds, rivers and streams. In bright sunlight, the leaf plate becomes colorful and colorful.
Decorative effect is also observed in flowers hauttyuynii. Its flowers are small, less than 1 cm in diameter, bisexual buds, collected in a spike-like standing inflorescence of a pale yellow or yellow color. 4 petals of the corolla cover are also white in color. The inflorescences are small, their length is from 1 to 3 cm. There are up to 4 thick “ears” with buds on one bush.
After flowering, which occurs from May to June, a single nesting ovary is formed, and then a fleshy fruit, presented as a rounded box with a large number of seeds.
Planting a hauttyunium heart-shaped chameleon and caring for a flower
In order to reproduce, plant the hauttyuns of the heart-shaped chameleon and care for the flower in the future, we were successful to begin by learning how to do it. To get new hauttyunia plants, use vegetative methods - rhizome division or grafting. Perennial seeds have a low germination rate and require very complex stratification. Planting hauttyunii and care for her on the site in open ground begins in the preparation of the appropriate type of soil.
The soil for planting hauttyuniya chameleon and the subsequent care of it requires a light, permeable. The substrate for germination should consist of loam with the addition of peat. Well hauttyuniya will grow in the soil with a high content of humus. Many growers grow a decorative perennial on alpine hills with a rocky, permeable soil mixture. To create beautiful compositions in the heart-shaped reservoirs of the heart will also be a good addition. It is possible to dig in a plant on the coastline to a depth of no more than 10 cm. When grown on ordinary garden soil, a powerful drainage layer of expanded clay and constant abundant watering are required.
The rhizome is divided in early spring, when the plant is still at rest. It is important for planting a hautle planting a chameleon to take parts with a renewal kidney, which can be seen on the plant with the naked eye. Rhizome germinated in a separate container, with it digging into open ground to avoid overgrowth.
Cuttings can be cut from an adult, well-developed plant. They are rooted in water or a substrate consisting of equal parts of river sand, earth, and peat. After the appearance of the first roots, the cuttings are seated in separate containers and dug straight into them in open ground. When planting hauttyuyniya it is important to observe the density - on 1 square. meter no more than 16 seedlings.
Caring for a decorative hauttuynia
A plant with beautiful decorative leaves is thermophilic. It requires open sunlight, otherwise its picturesqueness will be scarce. The basis of proper care for the hauttuynia is knowledge of frost resistance and the love of perennials to moist soil.
For planting hauttyuyniya choose a well-lit warm place with wet soil. When planting in the northern regions of the plant should be cleaned for the winter in the house or in the greenhouse. In these parts of the country, hauttuynia is not recommended for decorating ponds and other bodies of water. In winter, it can freeze into ice and die. In the garden, the plant is also best grown in separate containers, in which the plant is dug out and left for the winter to a cool room. The maximum frosts that make the culture -18 degrees. To increase the resistance in autumn, before frosts, hauttuynia is covered with spruce, sawdust, dry oak or maple leaves.
After harsh winters, the plant gives the first shoots only in early June. This is due to its thermophilic. But, the perennial culture quickly makes up for development and in a month we will see spikelike inflorescences. Some growers do not recommend throwing out rhizomes, as the plant is formed from them later, provided that it is well tolerated serious frosts.
To maintain the decorativeness of the plant, it is recommended to plant it in a sunny place. With a slight shading, the variegated color will turn green, and with a full sheet plate will lose its picturesque view, which can be seen in the photo below:
Houttuynyya is not included in the State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation, however, due to its beneficial properties it is used in Eastern medical practice. Due to valuable chemicals from the composition of the plant, hauttuyniya has a pronounced antibacterial, antiviral and antitumor properties.
The anti-inflammatory property of hauttuynia has found its use in the anti-inflammatory capsules “Houttuynia heart-shaped” from the Thai manufacturer Kongkairb. The drug is used as an anti-inflammatory and diuretic.
According to the manufacturer, the use of capsules "Hauttuynia heart-shaped" helps to cleanse the lymph in the body, and also has a certain effect on the body with psoriasis, eczema, skin lesions, infections of the genitourinary system.
Anti-inflammatory capsules "Heart-shaped" are sold without a prescription. Designed to treat urinary infections and eliminate pathogenic microflora in the body.
The manufacturer indicates contraindications to the use of his drug: individual intolerance to the components of the plant, children under 16 years old, diseases of the cardiovascular system, anemia, bronchial asthma, pregnancy, lactation.
Contraindications and side effects
In Russia, the plant is not medicinal. Contraindications to its use have not been identified, because the plant has not been studied and is not used in official medicine. That is why any use of the plant both inside and outside is not recommended.
In landscape design
In modern Russian gardens and nurseries, the hauttuynia plant is still considered outlandish, but it is already heating up interest due to the unusual multicolor coloring of its lush foliage, as well as its amazing ability to grow.
It is the brightly colored leaves of the Houttuynia that are the basis for the decoration and innovation of this plant. By the way, it sharply distinguishes it from its decorative and hardwood counterparts. Flowers hauttyynii also not without decoration.
Very often, hauttuynias are used to decorate both artificial and natural water bodies. But not for all regions, this plant is intended, in the northern regions of Southeast Asia, it simply dies, freezing in ice when the water bodies freeze. In mild climates, a hauttyunia can winter in a pond that does not freeze to the bottom.
Experienced growers-decorators know that in regions with a cold climate, hauttuynia should be grown in portable containers in order to move the plant to the storage greenhouse for the winter.
To highlight hauttyuniya on the site, it is recommended to place it against the background of dark green junipers. The fact is that the motley foliage of the plant harmonizes perfectly with the red, yellow, violet gamut. A hauttuynia is a typical ground cover, on favorable places it forms a solid carpet, in its color equivalent to a blooming flower bed.
Houttyuniya, as an ornamental plant, is perfect for decorating rock garden. Varieties with variegated leaves look great in the foreground in the flower beds located next to the ponds. If hauttuyniya landed in rabatkah or mixborders, it is due to its low growth can completely cover the withering flowers, filling the voids between the flowering specimens.
The plant hauttyuniya - this is a real find for the gardeners grower. It will beautifully fill any window in any concrete room. In pottery compositions and flower boxes, hauttuynia successfully replaces the usual ivy. The plant looks great on the background of vertical compositions of climbing vines on the walls and fences.
Houttuynia is a herbaceous perennial. Its thin roots are cord shaped horizontally in the surface layer of the soil. White hauttyunia rhizomes give rise to a different variety of reddish low stems on the surface. Such stems are erect or slightly sinuous, bare, furrowed. In height, each of them can reach up to 40 cm, not more.
The leaves of the hauttuyny are quite often relative to each other, in size and shape similar to linden leaves, they are petioled, alternate, whole, simple, ovate-lanceolate, broadly ovate, triangular-ovate, pointed. Their color is colorful green, motley.
By the way, the stalks of hauttuynia leaves are shorter than the leaves, oblong, whole, furrowed and dull. It should be noted that the only species from the multi-type genus of Houttuynia (Latin Houttuynia) is Houttuynia heart-shaped, or Houttuynia cardiocephalic (Latin Houttuynia cordata). The species is named so in the form of the leaves of this herbaceous perennial.
Flowers hauttyunii bisexual, without perianth, medium-sized, simple or terry. Outwardly, they are similar to callah, only miniature. The flower of the hauttuenia is framed by 4-5 petals of a white-cream corolla, the diameter of which reaches 3 cm. A small ear rises in the frame of the petals.
Stamens 3 pieces, anthers oval, yellow, double. Gynetsy parakarpny (from 4 carpels). Stigma is nibbling. The ovary is single-celled, the fruit is a roundish, fleshy, multi-seeded box. Seeds are round, numerous. The inflorescences of hauttyunia are yellow, dense, spicate, solitary. It blooms in May and June, not abundant, but long.
Homeland hauttyynii - Southeast Asia. The natural area of distribution - the south-eastern Asian areas in areas stretching from the Himalayas to the Japanese archipelago. Distributed on the islands of Taiwan, Ryukyu, Java.
At home, this plant is a frequenter of shoal and moisture-overcrowded places. In China and other rice-growing countries, the hauttyunia is a weed that is difficult to eradicate. Prefers sunny places. In Vietnam and in China, hauttuynia are cultivated as leaf lettuce.
Preparation of raw materials
As raw material, stalks and leaves of hauttuynia are harvested. Collection occurs during flowering plants. The leaves are collected in dry weather in the afternoon. The leaves are cut from the cut stems of the hauttyunia and put in a bowl or bucket. Drying leaves produced on paper. Collected hauttyuniya stems are cut with a knife or scissors, then laid out on paper for further drying.
When the raw material is dried, it is removed for storage. Fabric bags are best for this, but glass containers will do. Stored raw materials hauttyunii no more than 1 year. Otherwise, most of the beneficial properties and specific aroma are lost.
The curative properties of hauttuyny in Russia have not been proven scientifically. However, eastern medicine causes the medicinal properties of this plant by the content in its chemical composition of essential oils, from which such substances as potassium chloride, carpic acid, myrcein, methylnonyl ketone, potassium sulfate are isolated.
According to the statements of Chinese and Japanese medical practice, hautuiuniya has antibacterial, diuretic, antiviral and anti-tumor properties on the human body. However, the healing properties of hauttuynia are currently not officially proven either in Russia or in other countries.
The Houttuynia genus (lat. Houttuynia) was named after a Dutch botanist researcher and doctor by the name of Martin Houttøyn. Martin studied medicine at the University of Leiden, and in 1749, he was awarded the degree of Ph.D. for one of his works.
The smell of hauttyuniya, to put it mildly, is not very pleasant and not at all appetizing. In Asian countries, the local population calls this smell "fish mint." Some even call this smell the smell of an unwashed dog. And it smells like the whole plant, without exception.
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