One of the five types of thuja is western, has many varieties, among which the thuja western Brabant is distinguished. Decorative frost-resistant, fast-growing tree with a compact columnar crown is commonly used in landscape gardening.
In the wild nature, western thuja, which is not without reason called the "life tree", grows in the eastern regions of Canada and in the north of the USA. The evergreen introduced to Europe in the middle of the 16th century was used to decorate parks. In Russia, the thuja of this species has a wide area of distribution. It is cultivated in many areas, including the Far East and Siberia.
Acquainted with the description of Tui Brabant, we see that this variety is winter-hardy, withstands temperatures down to 30-35 ° C. The plant is great for the harsh Russian climate. Brabant is one of the fastest growing varieties of western thuja, for a year it can grow by 30-35 cm.
In the Russian climate, the height of the thuja Brabant does not exceed 3.5-4 meters. The shape of the crown is columnar, compact. Branches can lean to the ground. The bark on the trunk is reddish-brown, sometimes it exfoliates. The green needles turn brown in the winter. In April-May, the thuja blooms; after flowering, small oblong brown cones form.
Thuja Brabant and Smaragd varieties are very often used to form hedges. Their characteristics are very similar. Among the differences Tui Brabant and Smaragd can be identified.
- the needles turn brown in the winter,
- crown columnar shape,
- annual growth is 35-40 cm,
- hedge quickly grows dense green wall.
- needles in the winter does not lose color,
- pyramidal crown shape,
- annual growth - 10-20 cm
- It has less branching and does not require frequent haircuts.
Both varieties of Tui have varieties with golden needles - Golden Brabant and Golden Smaragd. For thuja Golden Brabant is characterized by a golden yellow color, which persists in winter.
Young trees have a dense cone-shaped crown; in older trees, it becomes more friable.
How to care for thuja Brabant
Although thuja western Brabant is unpretentious in care, it still has its own preferences for soil type, moisture, sunlight, temperature. If you ignore the basic rules for its cultivation, decorative functions may be lost. In particular, the main care is to periodically trim the shoots to form a beautiful crown shape.
When cutting a thuja, you can select the cuttings to use them for reproduction. Placed in a container with water, they will give the roots. Rooted seedlings can be planted in the ground.
Place and type of soil
Thuja belongs to the light-loving plants. It does not tolerate round-the-clock shadow, losing the brightness of the color of the needles. At the same time, constant heat is also harmful to her. The best option when choosing a place to land will be partial shade. In country areas it is advisable to plant trees on the west or east side of the buildings.
The most favorable soil for cultivating thuja in western Brabant is loam, although it can grow on any soil. On light soil, the plant develops better and looks more decorative. It is preferable to plant a thuja in spring or autumn, but it is also possible in summer.
A planting pit is dug 60-80 cm deep, wide for the size of the root system. The pit is filled with water and allowed to soak in moisture. If the ground is heavy, it is necessary to lay at least 15 cm of the drainage layer. The root collar is placed at ground level and the seedling is filled up with a prepared soil mixture. It is desirable that its composition included peat, sand and leaf earth in the ratio of 1: 1: 2. To improve growth, a nitroammofosk is added to the mixture. After that, water the plant.
After planting, regular watering is needed, about once a week. When landing in a hot time, the frequency of irrigation increases. The plant responds well to sprinkling. For this you can use a hose with a spray. In dry soil, thuja develops poorly, the needles turn yellow and fall off.
The soil should be loosened to a small depth, since the plant root system is superficial. To protect the roots from drying out and overheating, it is advisable to cover the soil with mulch - peat, compost, sawdust, bark.
Thuja does not suffer from winter frosts, but in the spring it can get sunburn. Especially it is necessary to protect young trees, sheltering them from the sun with material that allows sunlight to pass through well. In an evergreen, the process of photosynthesis occurs even in winter. In places where heavy snowfalls occur, the crowns of trees for the winter are tightly tightened with a rope.
In the first year, while the roots are not strong enough, feeding is carried out up to three times per season. One year after planting, every spring is made fertilizing with complex fertilizer. Pruning is best done 2-3 years after disembarkation. This procedure is preferable to do twice - in early summer and late August. Minor crown adjustments are made all season. As you can see, planting and caring for the thuja Brabant (photo) are not particularly difficult.
The use of Tui Brabant in garden design
The advantage of the variety is that it is very fast growing. This property of Tui Brabant in landscape design has been successfully used. Thuja is a universal element for creating a single ball, a neat cone, a pyramid. Non-standard single pieces of wood can be planted in any surface relief. But if beautiful geometry from Tui Brabant or Smaragd is planned, then the landing area should have a perfectly flat plane.
Thuja western Brabant is best used for haircut on cloudy days. This will prevent young shoots from burning in the sun, which before the haircut were hidden under long branches.
Planted in a row of Tui will replace the fence. If you cut a fence under a rectangular shape, it looks completely different. When planning to grow a hedge from thuja Brabant, seedlings should be driven in at a distance of about 1 m from each other, because at the base the crown will be quite wide. Over time, the crowns of the trees will close, and such a fence will cover the site from prying eyes with a dense green curtain and serve as a wonderful decoration.
To form a plant begin when it has reached the desired height. Pruning tui Brabant - the most time-consuming part in the care of the plant. The haircut is carried out with a sharp pruner, which will not be able to dent in the place of the cut. To prevent the tree from weakening, one-third of the shoot should be sheared off.
Thuja Brabant, like all conifers, will delight the whole year with lush greenery, purify the air, enriching it with oxygen. Another advantage - decorative. Combining with each other different types of thuja with other bushes and flowers, you can give the site a unique, unique shape.
Characteristics and features of thuja "Brabant"
Thuja "Brabant" from the cypress family is considered a "giant" among its relatives. It also features a lush crown. The needles themselves resemble scales up to 0.4 cm in size, growing vertically. They are tightly pressed to escape.
Once every 2-3 years, the needles fall along with the twigs. Cones of thuja "Brabant" small, up to 12 mm, are egg-shaped. They consist of thin plates with two flattened seeds. Seeds - yellow with two wings.During the year, western thuja grows up to 30 cm in height and up to 10 cm in width. It has a sound wood, quite strong, without resin ducts, with a delicate aroma, not subject to putrefactive processes. The root system of the thuja "Brabant" is very compact.
This variety loves the sun, but can easily grow in the shade. It feels good near groundwater and in highly humid areas. And adult individuals with a perfectly formed root system tolerate drought and frost normally. Thuja "Brabant" easily takes root in urban environments. The original form of the crown has led to the use of western thuja in landscape design, among single and group plantings.
How to choose healthy seedlings when buying
Thuja saplings "Brabant" is best to buy already acclimatized. Each plant should be in a separate container with fertilizers. Thanks to this approach, seedlings do not need to dig, damaging the root system. After landing in the ground, they will take root.It is better to acquire thuja seedlings at the end of May or in June, at which time you will not be able to give the dead plant instance to a living one. Healthy seedlings are easy to distinguish by the juicy, not dried up needles of green. Brown or yellow - a sign of a sick plant. The tips of the roots of a healthy seedling are white in color and from 1 to 3 mm thick. The soil in which the seedling grows should be wet. It is best to buy plants up to 20 cm high to 1 m.
Best time to land
Thuja can be planted from spring to autumn inclusive, and seedlings best take root in April - May. In these months it is worth using cheap seedlings. Then, throughout the summer, you can do container seedlings. Most likely, all your plants will take root. But it is better to feel, to hurt less and to grow more actively spring specimens.
The choice of location and soil for planting
The ideal soil for Tui is moist and light. If you plant the plant in dry and clayey soil, it is likely to dry and turn yellow. Thuja does not like shade and wind, but you shouldn’t leave it alone with the scorching sun either. The best option would be a place protected from the wind with enough light and shade.
Soil preparation before planting
Before planting, dig pits measuring 60 × 60 × 80 cm. If the soil is damp and heavy, drainage should be made of small stones, broken bricks, large pebbles or crushed stone with a layer of 20-30 cm. Nutritional mixture for thuja consists of soil, sand and peat (1: 2: 2). If you plant a plant in spring or early summer, pour 200 g of complex fertilizers into each hole. If you plant in late summer or autumn, add 250 g of superphosphate.
Planting rules seedlings
It is very important to observe the distance between the thuja during planting. They distribute seedlings of thuja "Brabant" at a distance of 0.5 to 3 m. The optimum depth of landing is from 60 to 80 cm. Drainage - 15 - 20 cm.
Directly to the landing, you can proceed after the preparatory work. Place the root system of thuja "Brabant" on the nutrient mixture in such a way that the neck of the seedling is at ground level. Pour the roots with the mixture and lightly tamp. These are general rules for the western Brabant thuja. But if you decide to plant a thuja "Brabant" in the fall, then you should know some of the features for this time of year.
- You need to meet the deadlines: seedlings with open roots "interred" from early September to early October, and grown in a container - until the end of October.
- When planting in the fall do not apply any dressing, except those that stimulate the growth of roots.
- It is advisable to use mulch to insulate the roots.
- It is necessary to protect the crown of a young plant from the scorching sun and frost.
Watering, loosening and soil mulchingAfter planting, pour plenty of water on each seedling. Then mulch the tree trunk circle of each tree with a layer of 10 cm. Mulch helps to keep moisture in the soil longer, does not allow it to overheat, does not allow weeds to grow, and when decomposed it supplies the root system with nutrients. In winter, the mulch protects the roots of thuja from freezing and does not allow the soil to thicken.
Peat, bark of coniferous plants, leaf humus and compost are suitable for mulch. In the first month after planting, it is necessary to water plentifully with thuja every day, since young shoots wither from the lack of moisture, and the crown thins.
Fertilizer for thuja "Brabant" is not much different from feeding for other varieties of this plant.
If the thuja is planted in spring or early summer, then in September you need to think about feeding plants phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. In the following years, thuja is fed in the early spring with a dry fertilizer “Kemira Universal” or a hydro complex. The procedure is repeated in two weeks. In the autumn, the plant should be fertilized with phosphorus-potassium mixtures.
Hedge and use in landscape design
Beginning gardeners often wonder: how fast is thuja Brabant growing and is it suitable for hedges? This sort of Tui grows much faster than others, it is resistant to urban conditions, so it is often used in landscape design and the creation of living walls. Thuja "Brabant" is wonderfully combined with cypress, eastern spruce, hemlock, European larch, globular and open junipers, globular and ovoid pines, microbiota, delicate larches and many other plants, allowing you to create interesting compositions. In landscape design there are two types of hedges: free-growing and short-haired. For Tui "Brabant", a shorn form is best suited. If you are interested in the question: how to trim a thuja for a hedge, then it is best to do it twice a year - in March and August. By interlacing the branches, the plants will create a dense wall.
How to deal with pests and diseases
Thuja western "Brabant", like all plants, has a list of their diseases.
Fungus.It can be diagnosed when brown shoots appear on the tree. If you notice such branches, they need to be removed so that the fungus does not spread to the healthy parts of the plant.Dummy.It is diagnosed when yellow spots appear on the trunk of the tree. If the plant is not treated in time, the spots will grow and the thuja will die. Use drugs "Karbofos" or "Rogor".
If the plant begins to turn yellow for no apparent reason - it may be a fungus of the roots. "Fundazol" will help you to cope with this problem. No less dangerous for Tui two pests.
Thuja moth. Tiny butterflies begin to fly in early May. To diagnose thuja damage by this pest is quite simple: the leaves turn brown and the tip dries out. To prevent the appearance of moths will help processing wood "Cypermetrin."
Tuevaya aphid- very dangerous pest. Dark brown bugs live on the bottom of the shoots. To destroy the pest, use "karbofos".
Description of Tui Brabant
The tree grows rapidly, surpassing the speed of Smaragd’s thuja in speed, and behind this indicator only larch. But, unlike her, the thuja Brabant remains evergreen, as it does not shed its leaf cover for the winter. In height, this species of thuja grows up to 20 m, and the diameter of the crown is up to 4 m. The trunk of the tree has a reddish-brown color, often exfoliates, the cone-shaped branchy crown descends to the ground. This form of Brabant allows you to form beautiful geometric shapes from plants. Lonely growing Tue can give a spherical shape, a strict cone or a pyramid, and from a plant in a row, get a fence in the form of a large rectangle.
Thuja needles have a green color, sometimes with yellowish tips. Unlike similar plants, it does not change color with the onset of cold weather, which is a rare and valuable property.
This type of thuja belongs to the cypress family and is a real giant among fellow tribesmen. Scaly needles up to 0.5 cm in size occupy an upright position, firmly pressed to escape. Every 2-3 years the needles are updated along with the twigs. Oval-shaped cones, up to 12 mm in size, are a set of plates with two flattened sunflower seeds attached to them. Each seed has two wings, allowing it to move over long distances under the influence of the wind.
For the year, thuja adds in size: 25–30 cm in height, 8–10 cm in width. Brabant has a compact root system. The trunk of the tree is durable, resistant to rottenness, with a gentle pleasant smell.
Light-loving plantHe likes to be in sunny places, although the shadow is not an obstacle to his growth. Close groundwater and highly moist soil has a beneficial effect on thuja.
Adults, formed plants are quite tolerant of dry weather and frosty winters.
Easily taking the desired shape, the crown allows you to use Brabant in landscape design as a single-planted plants, and group compositions.
Tuya Brabant - landing and care
When buying saplings of Tui Brabant one should pay attention to the fact that they have already passed acclimatization and occupy a separate container with the presence of fertilizers. This allows you not to damage the roots, as in the case of digging up plants, and then the thuja will take root. Fresh seedlings are distinguished by bright, juicy and green needles, as well as strong, light roots, having a thickness of 1-3 mm. Shoots of brown and yellow - a sign of a diseased plant. For successful survival, acquired plant size should be in the range of 20-100 cm.
When disembarking a Tui Brabant, certain rules must be observed:
- The best time to land is April - May. Высаживать саженцы можно с весны по осень, и с большой долей вероятности выживут все растения, но весенние экземпляры обеспечат более активный рост и отсутствие болезней.
- Выбирая желанный под посадку туи участок, следует учитывать, что растение предпочитает лёгкую и увлажнённую почву. В тяжёлом или сухом грунте туя будет чахнуть, и желтеть. It is important to place Brabant in a place where the balance between light and shadow will be observed, and the impact of the wind on it will not become critical. If the plant is planned to be planted near the buildings, then it will be correct to locate the thuja to the east or west of them, thus, the combination of sunlight and shade will be optimal.
- When preparing the soil for planting, it is necessary to dig holes measuring 60 x 60 cm in length and width and 80 cm in depth. If the soil is dense and heavy, then a drainage thickness of 20 cm should be laid at the bottom of the pit, using broken brick, large crushed stone or pebbles. As a nutrient mixture, you can use the following proportion: 1 part of the earth and two parts of sand and peat, respectively. When planting in the spring, complex fertilizers in the amount of 200 g are added to the pit, in summer and autumn - superphosphate (250 g).
- If the Tui will form a composition in the future, then when disembarking it is important to observe the necessary distance between the seedlings. They should be in the range of 0.5–3 m from each other.
- After completing all the preparatory procedures, it is necessary to put the thuja in such a way that the neck of the seedlings is located at the ground level, and the roots are filled with the prepared mixture, and then loosely packed into the seedlings.
These are the general recommendations for planting both the western Brabant thuja, and Smaragd and other varieties of the family. If it was decided to plant the plants in the autumn, then you need to meet this until October. You can extend the landing until Novemberif the base was in a container. In the fall, you should only use top dressing that stimulates root growth, and you can use mulch to warm them. The crown of the young plant must be protected from the coming cold weather.
Growing Tui Brabant
To Thuja Grows Healthy and beautiful it is necessary to provide her with appropriate care, which is not an easy task for owners, because all the necessary work must be organized in time: feeding, mulching, timely watering, correct pruning and cutting.
Loosening, soil mulching and watering
After planting seedlings should they should be poured abundantly, after which the soil should be ground with a diameter of 10–15 cm from the trunk, so the soil will not dry out and overheat, and the mulch, gradually overheating, will supply the plant with nutrients. In winter, the roots of the thuja will be protected from frost, and the earth will not be compacted. For mulching, you can use peat, bark, shavings, compost, rotted leaves. The most important and stressful to care for are the first months after planting. At this time, it is recommended to water the plant every day, which will allow the roots and young shoots to protect themselves from a lack of moisture. It will be useful to periodically loosen the ground near the plant to a depth of 10–15 cm.
For Brabant, as well as for all members of the family, the timely application of fertilizers is of great importance. In the case of spring planting, it is recommended to feed it with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers in September, and in the beginning of spring to bring in the Kemira Universal fertilizer. After two weeks, the event is repeated, and autumn is again time for phosphorus-potassium mixtures. This procedure should be repeated from year to year..
Trimming and haircut
Sanitary pruning of western tui is usually done in June, when they get rid of diseased and damaged branches, if possible, cutting them off by no more than 1/3. But the haircut plants in order to give it the desired shape, it is carried out twice a year: in early spring and early autumn. For this procedure, use a secateur, and if the amount of work is large - special garden equipment.
Preparing for the winter
During the period of preparation for the cold, the crown of the thuja Brabant is tied with a rope, the plant becomes more compact and it is easier to bear the effects of snow and wind. Young trees can be covered with spruce leaves, nonwoven covering material or kraft paper.
Plant Care - it is not easy, but interesting, and the result of this work is often the pride of gardeners.
Diseases and pests
Tuyu Brabant, like other plants, does not bypass the side of the disease. The following is a description of the main diseases and pests:
- Fungal diseases. A sign of fungal diseases are brown shoots appearing on a tree. It is necessary to immediately remove and burn such branches so as not to transfer the fungus to other parts of this or neighboring plants. A diseased tree should be processed at intervals of two weeks with a 0.2% solution of "Fundazole" until mid-autumn. In order to prevent the fungus, you can drip limestone to the roots of the thuja.
- Dummy. Harmful plants, clinging to the leaves and stems of both adult insects and larvae. The main danger lies in the super-fast reproduction of pests that within a few days can cover considerable space. The diagnosis of this disease can be made by starting to appear on the tree trunk yellow spots. It is necessary to come to the aid of the plant in time, using “Rogos” or “Carbofor” for spraying.
- Thuja moth. The beginning of May is the time of the mass departure of these small butterflies. If they chose tuyu as their place of residence, then this can be determined by the death of the upper parts of the shoots and the needles that receive the brown color. To avoid moth dispersal, the plant should be treated twice (at weekly intervals) in the middle of summer with substances containing pyrethroids, for example, Cypermetrin.
- Tuevaya aphid. These pests colonies settle on the back side of the shoots. Sucking insects can damage the needles, which at the same time begins to turn yellow and fall off, thereby disrupting the decorativeness of plants. A way to combat tuyu smolder is the treatment of Brabant "Karbofos."
The use of thuya in landscape design
The use of this tree in landscape design is diverse, and often depends on the personal preferences of gardeners. Highlight the most popular solutions:
- Thuja is a fast-growing plant, so the decision to create a hedge of several members of the family will be fully justified.
- Urban conditions with increased gas pollution are not a hindrance to plant cultivation. Therefore, the described type of Tui can be successfully used in landscape design of both parks and squares, and personal plots.
- Thuja goes well with other members of the family, for example, with Smaragd, as well as other cypress trees, some species of pines, larches and even some plants. In combination with other trees and shrubs, thuja allows you to create very interesting and original compositions.
- You can make a real landscape art work out of a lonely tree of thuja, giving it the most unusual forms.
- Trees planted in a row can make a picturesque hedge. Moreover, both cut plants and free-growing plants are used, but neatly cut forms are more suitable for Tui Brabant. Intertwined with each other, the branches of the trees form a solid green wall, opaque to prying eyes.
With proper care thuja withIt is useful for many years to please the owners with a luxurious and stylish look, both as a single plant and as part of a composition.
Touya Brabant care
For Tui Brabant does not need special care, the tree perfectly adapts to the growing conditions. Particular attention should be paid in the first months after landing in open ground. Requires regular watering (enough times a week). One tree needs about 10 liters of water, and in hot dry weather irrigation is carried out every 3-4 days at the rate of 15 liters per tree.
When the soil dries out a little after moistening, it should be loosened. The roots of the western thuja are located close to the surface, so do not bury the instrument by more than 10 cm. You can spend the mulching with peat, bark, wood chips or compost. A layer of mulch 7 cm.
Young trees or thuja shrubs (the first two years of life) must be sheltered, protected from severe frosts and bright sunlight. To do this, using spruce branches or kraft paper. An adult plant will not need this procedure. But do not forget to tie up the branches so that they do not break under the weight of snow.
With the onset of spring, mineral fertilizing of thuja is carried out. You can use complex fertilizers for coniferous plants. It is necessary to conduct an inspection and remove damaged, dry or diseased shoots.
For 2-3 years of life, western thuja can be pruned. For this purpose, suitable garden pruner, powerful, leaving no damage to the sections. With the right choice of tool, the cut-off place will soon drag on and will not interfere with tree development. Pruning is best done at the beginning of summer, when all the branches and buds are formed. Re-hairstyle takes place in early autumn.
Regular pruning of the shoots will form a dense crown. Such a procedure will give the plant an aesthetic look so that the thuja becomes a real decoration, both in the garden and in the city flowerbed, especially when growing a hedge.
The cuttings remaining after trimming 10–15 cm in length do not need to be thrown away. They can be dipped in a glass of water, where they quickly take root. Such a plant should be transplanted into a pot, and in the second year boldly planted in open ground. For the prevention and treatment of fungicides used for conifers, for example, Fitosporin, Alirin, Gamair, Bordeaux mixture proved to be a good idea.
Poor care for Tua Brabant often leads to the appearance of a fungal disease:
- root decay,
- trunk rot.
Such lesions in the early stages are almost imperceptible, so it is necessary to inspect the plant more often. If there is a non-characteristic bloom on the trunk and branches, or the needles have changed their color, you should immediately begin treating the tree.
Among western pest thuya most common:
- spider mite,
- false shield,
- Tuya beetle.
It is necessary to regularly treat Tui Brabant with insecticides, for example, Fufanon, Aktara, Decis Pro. To prevent the appearance of spider mites, you can spray it with water.
Endurance, frost resistance and unpretentiousness of the plant to the growing conditions have made thuja Brabant a favorite of landscape designers. Thanks to compliance in shearing shrubs and trees of this type give a variety of forms, which only have enough gardener's imagination.