The feasibility of building a basement in the garage is obvious, since it is a convenient place to store vegetables and fruits. If you install racks in it - it will become a reliable storage for conservation, and placing a workbench and shelves with tools in it will turn it into a workshop. However, the basement can be used not only for business purposes, but also as a recreation area, if you organize a billiard room or a bar in it.
When building a basement in the garage, it is necessary to provide for the following construction points:
- High-quality insulation of the basement from moisture. To avoid penetration into the groundwater, it is necessary first of all to establish their level and use suitable waterproofing materials.
- Under certain conditions, the condition of the soil using only waterproofing is not enough. In this case, the installation of a drainage system is required.
- To maintain an acceptable air temperature and create a favorable microclimate in the cellar, a ventilation system will be required. If this is neglected, then the walls in the room after a while will be covered with mold and other fungal formations. As a result, the finishing material will lose its original appearance, and in the worst case, it will collapse. Vegetables, fruits and other foodstuffs stored in the basement in such conditions will quickly deteriorate and become unsuitable for eating.
- In the case of using the basement as a recreation area or workshop, you should take care of the quality insulation of the walls, floor and ceiling. This will remove dampness, prevent the appearance of fungi and the destruction of the finishing material. The important point in this case will be the use of fireproof materials.
Given the diversity of the use of this building, highlighted the positive and negative criteria for its construction:
- the basement or cellar will become a storage for food, freeing up useful space in the garage. Only the conditions of the basement can reliably preserve the preservation and vegetables for many months,
- with appropriate decoration of the walls of the floor and ceiling, in the basement you can equip a recreation area,
- this building will not require the allocation of additional space on your site, since, in fact, is the zero floor of your garage,
- building a cellar or basement can be considered as a profitable investment for the further sale of the garage. A construction with an equipped basement or cellar is much more expensive,
- the basement is reliably protected by the base of the garage and its roof from precipitation and temperature changes.
- in the case of improper selection of materials for construction or waterproofing inappropriate to the soil, the cellar can turn into a damp mold of mold, and in the worst case into a well with standing water,
- when building a cellar or basement in a built garage, it is not possible to use special equipment. Dig the pit and take out the land will have to manually. In this regard, additional assistance will be required, and accordingly, there will be extra costs,
- in case of high content or high groundwater level, additional waterproofing materials will be required, which will affect the costs.
Preparatory stage: future construction drawings, dimensions, depth
Before embarking on the land works, it is necessary to draw up the corresponding schemes and drawings of the future construction. At this stage of construction, it is very important to know whether gas or water pipes run under the garage. The depth of the basement can reach up to 2.5–3.5 m, and this is below the level of technical communications. When determining the depth of the pit, an additional 30 to 40 cm should be distinguished, since this thickness will be taken by sand, gravel, and a screed from a concrete mix.
It is also important to know the level of groundwater at the required depth, since the type of material for construction depends on it.
In determining the size of the future basement in the garage should be borne in mind that the pit must be dug not less than 35 cm from the inner walls. Otherwise, the earth will “float”, because of which deep cracks will appear on the walls of the garage, which can lead to the destruction of the building.
Calculation and advice on the choice of materials for finishing
The choice of materials for the construction of the basement is directly dependent on the quality of the soil under the garage. With increased soil moisture or a high location of groundwater, the basement walls must be constructed of monolithic concrete slabs.
The most popular materials used in the construction of basements or cellars are:
- Asbestos cement sheets.
- Concrete plates.
Each of the listed materials is selected in accordance with the properties of the soil on the site being built.
If the soil is dry and not heaving, then for the walls can be used lightweight material, such as asbestos cement roofing slate. In the case of the use of this material it is placed in several layers. Between each of them have a batten of wooden slats. As a bonding agent used bitumen mastic or a mixture of casein glue with cement M400.
This material has standard sizes in the form of rectangular sheets:
- 3.6x1.5x8 or 3.6x1.5x10,
- 3x1.5x8 or 3x1.5x10,
- 2.5x1.2x6, 2.5x1.2x8 or 2.5x1.2x10.
Each sheet is labeled in accordance with GOST. When purchasing this material, you can see the corresponding inscription, for example: “LP-NP-3,6x1.5x8 GOST 17125–96”. This marking means that you have acquired a flat sheet that is not subject to pressing, 360 cm long, 150 cm wide, 8 mm thick, manufactured according to GOST No. 17125–96.
During the construction of the basement walls consist of layers in which from 2 to 4 asbestos cement sheets. The following parameters of the future basement will be taken as a basis: length - 300 cm, width - 250 cm, height (depth) - 280 cm.
To determine the required amount of this material should be folded length and width of the basement perimeter: 300 + 250 + 300 + 250 = 1100 cm or 11 meters.
For the walls a layer of three sheets will be used, therefore: 11 · 3 = 33 m
However, it should be noted that the height of the sheet is 150 cm, and the height of the basement is 280 cm. Accordingly, the height will fit a little less than two sheets of material. In this regard, you need to double the resulting value: 33 · 2 = 66 meters.
Now, using the obtained value, we will calculate how much total asbestos cement slate sheets will be required. To do this, the total number of meters of material divided by the length of one sheet: 66: 3.6 = 18.33 sheets.
Walls of concrete must be made at least 15 cm thick. For their manufacture will require concrete mix, reinforcing rods for reinforcement and wooden boards or boards for formwork.
To calculate how much concrete mix will be required for walls and floors, one needs to recall the geometry lessons, namely the formula for finding the volume of a cube. This formula is as follows: V = a · h · b, where a is the length, h is the height, b is the width of the basement. For convenience of calculations we will do the calculations on each wall separately, and the results will be added.
We calculate the volume of concrete for two walls along the length of the building: In our case, the parameter - b is equal to 15 cm. We substitute the values: 3 · 2.8 · 0.15 = 1.26 m³. We double this value, since in the basement there are two similar walls: 1.26 · 2 = 2.52 m³ of concrete will be required for two walls along the length of the structure.
Let's make the same calculation on the basement width walls: 2.5 · 2.8 · 0.15 = 1.05 m³. Double the value: 1.05 · 2 = 2.1 m³
We will perform calculations to determine the volume of concrete for the floor: 3 · 2.5 · 0.15 = 1.125 m³
Now you need to add the obtained values to get the total volume of the concrete mix: 2.52 + 2.1 + 1.125 = 5.745 m³.
To make the walls and the floor more durable, they are reinforced with a metal grill. For this, reinforcement rods with a diameter of 0.8 cm are used. The length and width of the cells in the grid is 15 cm. To calculate the total amount of reinforcement, you need to know how many rods will fit, with intervals of 15 cm, along the width and length of the walls and floor. For convenience, calculations will be made separately for each surface.
We count on a wall having a length of 300 cm. To do this, divide the length of the wall by 15. We substitute the values: 300: 15 = 20 pieces. For two such walls: 20 · 2 = 40 pieces. Find out how long the running meters of material. To do this, multiply the resulting value by the height of the building: 40 · 2.8 = 112 meters of reinforcement, it will be required for two walls along the basement length.
We count for two smaller walls: 250: 15 = 16.6 pieces. For two walls: 16.6 · 2 = 33.2 pieces. We calculate the running meters: 33.2 · 2.8 = 92.96 m.
Now we calculate the total number: 112 + 92.96 = 204.96, rounded up to 205 linear meters of rods, will be required for the reinforcement of the four basement walls.
In the same way, we calculate the required number of reinforcement for the basement floor: 300: 15 = 20 pieces in length, and: 250: 15 = 16.6 pieces in width. We add these values: 20 + 16.6 = 36.6 pieces. Now we find the running meters: 20 · 250 = 5000 cm. Also: 16.6 · 300 = 4980 cm. Add the values to get the total length of the reinforcement for the basement floor: 5000 + 4980 = 9980 cm or 99 m 80 cm, round it to 100 m.
Having obtained all the necessary values, it is easy to calculate the total number of meters of reinforcement for the walls and basement floor: 205 + 100 = 305 meters.
For the construction of basements, it is best to use a solid brick red. This material has proven itself in the construction of such structures. The use of white or silicate bricks for this purpose is not recommended, as this material absorbs moisture well. High-quality waterproofing in this case is required. The use of foam blocks and gas blocks is also impractical, since this material is very fragile, requiring mandatory internal and external finishing with a waterproofing and insulation layer.
Standard red solid brick has a size of 250x120x65 mm.
During the construction of basements, different types of brick laying are used, but the simplest and most reliable methods are: half brick, one brick and one and a half bricks.
If the depth of the basement is more than 300 cm, then it is better to use a brick and a half brick. Thus, the walls will be much stronger, and over the decades will remain intact.
Knowing the parameters of this material and future construction, you can make the calculation of the required number of bricks. For convenience, calculations will be carried out on each wall separately, after which the results will be summarized. The calculation will be made for the walls lined with a brick and a half.
First you need to figure out how many rows of bricks fit the height of the structure. To do this, the height of the basement should be divided by the height of the bonded face of the brick: 300: 6.5 = 46.15 rows.
Now we’ll find out how many bricks fit in the same row across the width of the wall equal to 300 cm. To do this, the length of such a wall should be divided by the width of the bonded face of the brick: 300: 12 = 25 pieces. You also need to count the amount of material in the masonry located perpendicular to the bonded side of two bricks. Visually, two bricks account for one, therefore: 25: 2 = 12.5 pieces. Fold the bricks of this masonry for one row of a wall 300 cm long: 25 + 12.5 = 37.5 pieces.
Now it is easy to determine the total amount of material for the entire wall. To do this, multiply the obtained value by the number of rows: 37.5 · 46.15 = 1730.6 pieces. Since there are two such walls, then we double this number: 3,461.2 bricks.
In the same way, we calculate the number of the remaining walls: 250: 12 = 20.8 pieces. We consider perpendicular bricks in masonry: 20.8: 2 = 10.4 pieces. We add up the values: 20.8 + 10.4 = 31.2 bricks in one row of one wall 250 cm wide. Now we consider the total number of bricks for this wall: 31.2 · 46.15 = 1439.88 pieces. We double the value, since there are two such walls: 1439.88 · 2 = 2879.76.
Now it is not difficult to calculate how many bricks will be required to build a basement with brick and a half: 2879.76 + 3461.2 = 6340.96 bricks
If a log house is used, its diameter is measured. Using this parameter, the calculation is performed depending on the location of the material vertically or horizontally. For convenience, the total value of the material in running meters is calculated.
This material is an excellent insulant. He is not afraid of moisture, non-toxic. If we compare the thermal insulation properties of polystyrene, then 10 cm of this material is similar to 100 cm of a concrete wall.
To calculate the amount of foam needed to insulate the walls and ceiling of the cellar, you need to use the geometric formula for finding the area of the figures - S = a · b, where a is the length, b is the width (in our case, the basement height is 280 cm).
For convenience, the calculation will be performed on each wall separately, and the results will be added to obtain a total value.
Determine the area of a wall with a length of 300 cm. For this: 3 · 2.8 = 8.4 m². Multiply this value by two, since there are two such walls: 8.4 · 2 = 16.8 m².
We perform the same actions with other walls: 2.5 · 2.8 = 7m². Multiply: 7 · 2 = 14 m².
Now we calculate the basement ceiling area: 3 · 2.5 = 7.5 m².
The obtained values make it possible to calculate the total area of the walls and ceiling of the basement. To do this, it is necessary to add the calculation results: 16.8 + 14 + 7.5 = 38.3 m² foam will be required to warm the basement.
When building a basement or cellar in your garage, you will need the following tools:
- Bayonet and shovel.
- Building level.
- Buckets and car for the export of land.
- Concrete mixer.
- Sleeve for feeding the mixture.
- Electric drill or hammer drill.
- Screwdriver for assembling formwork.
- Pump for pumping water (if necessary).
How to dig and build a capital basement - step by step instructions
- Any land works must be preceded by accurate markup. The foundation pit for the future basement is no exception. To do this, using a measuring tape, you must determine the shape and size of the pit. In our case, its width and length will be equal to 300x250 cm. In order to observe the accuracy of the shape of the future structure in the process of digging up the land, it is necessary to use stakes with stretched cords in the marking. This will provide a perfectly flat excavation line.
Manhole and ladder
The selected design of the stairs to the basement or cellar must, above all, meet several criteria:
- Reliability. For the manufacture of this facility will require quality materials. The most popular and proven time are stairs made of metal, concrete and wood. However, it should be noted that each of these materials requires additional processing or strengthening. Constructions of wood must be treated with varnish, antifungal impregnations and antiseptic solutions. Metal products require the application of anti-corrosion layer and painting, and concrete stairs - reinforcement reinforcement.
- Convenience in operation. Of course, one of the most convenient options is a single-step staircase with wide steps. However, it is advisable to install such a structure in rooms at least 400 cm in length with an average ceiling height. Therefore, for smaller basements suitable lightweight versions of structures, in the form of crossbars welded to two racks. The staircase should not interfere and occupy a lot of usable space.
- Aesthetics. This criterion is appropriate when organizing a recreation area in the basement. In this regard, the staircase in such a place will be an integral part of the interior, creating a special atmosphere of the room. For such cases, preference is often given to spiral staircases.
In order to create the stairs to the basement, you will need to make drawings and design diagrams.
A relatively inexpensive option is to make designs from wood. The best option for the stairs will be a slope of 45 degrees. However, designs with a steeper slope are permissible. The optimal width of the steps is in the range of 80 to 90 cm, with a tread width of 30 cm. The minimum thickness of the boards for the steps should not be less than 20 mm. The optimum height of the feet is from 20 to 25 cm.
The procedure for the manufacture of wooden stairs:
- First of all, you need to make a support that will hold the design of the stairs.
- Then transverse edges are made, which will mark the edges of steps.
- Then, the transverse planks are installed on the frame of the stairs, which, in essence, are steps.
- Sand, paint and varnish the finished structure
To make a ladder of metal you need:
- Cut the channels into the desired fragments.
- Treat all parts with an anti-corrosion compound.
- In accordance with the drawing or diagram, weld the structure.
- To install a metal ladder, you must dig a ditch 50 cm deep. Tamper it with the bottom and fill it with gravel.
- Install the bottom of the metal structure to the bottom of the pit.
- Pour the pit of concrete mix.
The ladder is made of concrete as follows:
- For the manufacture of a monolithic concrete structure it is necessary to make a formwork. This construction is assembled from wooden boards and plywood. To do this, you need to use waterproof OSB sheets with a thickness of at least 20 cm and boards with a section of 5x150 mm. The lower part of the design must be strengthened stops. As such, you can use pipes, channels or bars.
- Then the flanging of the structure is performed.This will prevent the spreading of the mixture from the formwork and give the structure a complete look. The joints of the boards need to cover with a mixture of sand and cement brand M500.
- After that proceed to the reinforcement. To do this, use valves with a diameter of 10 to 12 mm. A metal grid is made of it. The frame of the reinforcement have along the entire length of the base structure. For each stage, crates are also made. The intersections of the armature are connected with wire.
- Pour the concrete into the installed framework of the batten. The metal crate must be completely covered with the mixture. It should be noted that it is necessary to fill the structure with concrete all at once. If you do this with a break in the day - the ladder can crack.
- Now you need to wait until the mixture hardens. After two or three days you need to remove the formwork steps and cover them with polyethylene. This will help the concrete to solidify evenly.
How to strengthen and how to finish the walls
The strongest option is the walls of concrete. Since the space for action in the garage is limited, you have to make the walls of the slabs right inside the basement. For this use formwork. For additional strength, its slabs are reinforced with a metal grid.
If the walls of the basement are built of bricks, then during the laying, between each row reinforcement is laid. For greater reliability of the construction, laying is done in several bricks.
When asbestos-cement sheets are used for the construction of walls, then for their greater strength the walls use several layers of them. Between each sheet requires a small gap. To do this, lay the bars with a section of 3x5 cm. The joints and the space between the sheets is poured with bitumen.
It should be added that the space between the wall and the ground can be strengthened with clay, which is tamped. As a result, not just compacted primer is obtained, but a reliable waterproofing layer.
If the basement walls are made of planks, then the whole structure is reinforced with struts. They are located on the edges of the basement. Thus, they rest against the walls, holding them, and at the same time do not clutter up the useful space.
How to make a floor in the basement
To insulate the floor from moisture, it will be necessary to dig a ditch 30-40 cm deeper. This is necessary to create a drainage layer that will help the moisture not to linger at the bottom of the floor.
To do this, align the bottom of the pit. Then pour wet sand there, which needs to be compacted before a uniform layer of 15 cm is formed. Pour gravel on top of the sand cushion to create a layer of similar thickness.
On top of the gravel spread ruberoid in two layers.
The joints of the layers must be displaced relative to each other by 15–20 cm. The gap can be filled with bitumen.
From bars of diameters of 12 cm to make a grid with square cells ranging in size from 10 to 15 cm. Fasten the intersections of metal rods with wire.
To make the concrete slab stronger, you can make another one of the same grating, which is located not some elevation relative to the first frame.
Pour the concrete so that the metal frame is completely hidden under the layer of the mixture. After a day, cover the concrete with polyethylene, for uniform hardening.
How to make ventilation / exhaust
Ventilation in the basement is a small hole in the basement of the garage, providing air circulation. This process of air movement is natural and forced.
The budget method will be the organization of natural ventilation. To make it, you need two pipes - supply and exhaust. One end of each pipe can be located outside the roof or wall of the garage.
Another way to install the supply pipe is in the basement of the garage.
The intake pipe should rise above the basement floor by 10–15 cm, and the exhaust pipe - under the ceiling of the room, at a distance of 10–15 cm.
The top of each pipe can be closed with a net to prevent the entry of debris and insects. You can also make sash for each pipe. This will help regulate the flow of air. The disadvantage of the natural ventilation system is that it is not functional in the winter.
If you equip the ventilation system with electric fans, the air circulation will not depend on the pressure difference and weather conditions. You will be able to regulate the microclimate in the basement.
What and how to insulate from the inside
Insulation of the basement is an important stage of construction. If this is not done, then the room will be very cold, especially in winter. As a result, you will get iced canned and frozen vegetables.
The most popular and reliable insulation is foam. This material is not subject to rotting and moisture.
However, this heater must be properly installed on the walls and ceiling, as if improper use of foam, condensation forms in the room. To do this, you need to attach insulation from the outside of the basement wall. In this case, the dew point will be located outside the wall. If you can not strengthen the foam in this way, then you need to make a wooden crate on the inside of the basement. Above it, secure the vapor barrier membrane. On it to fix the plates of insulation. It should be borne in mind that the thickness of this material should be at least 5 cm.
Should I close the basement and what?
For the basement is necessary to install the roof or in this case the ceiling. This is important, since humid air will rise in the garage room, causing the metal parts of the car, racks and tools to corrode.
In this case, for the basement you can make a concrete ceiling with a hatch. To do this, you need to make a foundation and formwork for pouring concrete. Wooden bars are used as bearing elements of such a base. On top of them have OSB sheets or moisture-resistant plywood, with a thickness of at least 20 mm. Bottom bars will prop racks formwork.
When this construction is assembled, you can begin to manufacture metal sheathing. For this, reinforcing bars with a diameter of 12 mm are used. The size of the structure is 300x250 cm, with a cell width of 15x15 cm. It is necessary to make two similar frames. The joints of the rods fasten with wire. The first grid is placed on top of plywood at a distance of 5 cm from its surface. The second set on 5 cm above the first. Now everything is ready for pouring concrete.
It is necessary to pour the mixture immediately for the entire ceiling so that the reinforcement cage is completely immersed in concrete. A day after pouring, the concrete should be covered with plastic film.
There is a less costly method - the use of wood for the manufacture of the basement ceiling or cellar. For this purpose it is convenient to use flooring from boards not less than 5 cm thick. Wood does not conduct heat well, so it is well suited for this purpose. However, before using wooden parts, it is necessary to treat with antiseptic and antifungal impregnations.
Having laid a boardwalk, it is necessary to warm it. For this, a foam plastic and a vapor barrier will be used. Joints between the foam plates can be blown out with mounting foam or covered with bitumen.
The choice of materials for the construction of the cellar
First select the appropriate materials. The walls can be built from reinforced concrete slabs, solid concrete, high-quality red brick, wild stone. It is better not to use silicate brick and slag concrete for building the walls of the cellar.
Cellar in the garage
Pour basement basement of concrete based on cement brand M400. Floor screed is made using cement-sand mixture. The same solution can be used for plastering walls.
Classic basement layout
Collect formwork from solid boards. Roofing material is optimally suitable for waterproofing surfaces.
Option of a garage with a cellar
Draft cellar in the garage
First of all you need to equip the basement of the cellar.
First step. Dig a pit. Choose the size at your discretion in accordance with the required dimensions of the basement room.
The second step. Pour the bottom of the pit with a 3 cm layer of rubble. Instead of rubble, you can use broken bricks.
The third step. Pour a 5-8 cm layer of concrete over the backfill. Allow the concrete to dry and proceed to the next step.
Fourth step. Lay a double layer of roofing material on the base. Lay the material so that it is approximately 15 cm beyond the walls. Molded resin is perfect for attaching roofing material.
Fifth step. Collect formwork and fill the solution in one step. Additionally, it is recommended to equip the drainage system.
Device walls and ceiling
The order of wall construction depends on what kind of material you decide to use. For example, it is better to lay out bricks by the simplest technology. The main thing is that the walls were strictly vertical. Do not forget to carefully rub the seams between the bricks. Lime is suitable for painting finished walls.
An even simpler version of the device walls - the construction of monolithic structures of concrete.
First step. Assemble the formwork from even solid boards.
The second step. Drive metal rods around the basement perimeter and attach formwork to them.
The third step. Prepare a concrete solution and fill the walls.
For maximum time saving, you can buy ready-made reinforced concrete slabs and make walls of them. After installation, the slab must be covered with resin and insulated with mineral wool. Finishing finish at its discretion, the optimal finishing material - wooden lining.
The floor of the cellar make of reinforced concrete.
First step. Align the base and backfill. First, fill in about a 15-centimeter layer of gravel, after - a 5-centimeter layer of sifted sand. Tamper each layer carefully.
The second step. Set beacons with a height equal to the thickness of the screed. The optimal thickness value was given earlier.
The third step. Prepare concrete solution and fill the floor.
How to make a cellar floor
You want to save time - lay the finished concrete slab. Also, such a plate can be made independently, but you have to spend time on the installation of formwork, rebar installation and other related work. In this case, laying the floor will need to be done before installing the cellar floor.
Without quality waterproofing from the cellar in the garage will be more headache than good. The room will be underground, so the requirements for moisture protection are significantly increased compared to the above-ground buildings.
External waterproofing of walls, floor
Special attention should be paid to the walls. For the device of high-quality waterproofing it will be enough to coat the walls with hot bitumen. In the case, if your site is very wet soil, moisture protection is best to equip the pasting method using roofing material.
High-quality waterproofing of the walls and floor of the cellar
On top of the ruberoid, build a compacted clay lock. It is best to use greasy material.
Special attention should be paid to the situation when the floor level of the cellar is located below the groundwater flow point. In such cases, should be equipped with high-quality underground waterproofing. This is a multi-layer construction of roofing material. To enhance the waterproof properties under the base of the floor you need to lay a mixture of gravel and greasy clay.
Natural air exchange is the simplest option, the implementation of which does not require large expenditures and efforts.
First step. Prepare pipes for intake and exhaust devices.
The second step. Make a hole near the ceiling for laying a chimney. The end of the hood should be 40-50 cm above the roof of the garage. Through this pipe warm air will escape from your cellar.
The third step. At a height of 7-10 cm from the floor level, prepare a hole for mounting the intake pipe. This pipe should also go outside, at a height of about 30 cm above the ground.
At the ends of the pipes install protective metal mesh. They will not allow rodents, insects and other pests to enter the cellar.
To regulate the intensity of air exchange, the openings of the ventilation pipes are equipped with flaps.
The disadvantage of natural ventilation is that it works more or less efficiently only in cold weather. In the summer, when the temperature in the room and in the street is practically the same as in the basement, the ventilation is unsatisfactory. Therefore, a much more efficient and rational option is to install a forced ventilation system.
Arrangement of such an air duct is performed in the same manner as the installation of natural ventilation. The only difference is that the system includes fans of the required power, thanks to which the cellar will be ventilated at any time of the year.
Forced ventilation is independent of the weather outside, therefore it is the most efficient and preferred.
Thermal insulation work
The garage of the garage needs high-quality insulation. Without thermal insulation, all other works on the arrangement of the premises simply go down the drain.
For insulation cellar garage is well suited polystyrene foam. The plates of this material must be fixed on the outside of the cellar at the stage of arranging the foundation. Modern polystyrene foam does not rot, does not miss the water and serves for quite some time.
Give preference to the material brand PSB-S-25. The optimum insulation thickness is 50 mm. Expanded polystyrene will help maintain the temperature in the cellar at a stable level.
Internal warming can also be performed using polystyrene foam. It is important that the insulation was exactly two-sided. If you warm the room exclusively from the inside, condensation will begin to form on its walls, which is not best reflected in the microclimate in the cellar and the safety of the objects in it.
In matters of floor insulation, everything is not so clear. The most convenient option - the use of expanded clay backfill. You simply mount the frame of the rails on the floor, fall asleep clay and pour over the screed.
Warm the cellar ceiling. Without thermal insulation, the same condensate will begin to form on the surface.
First step. At a height of about 15 cm from the surface of the ceiling, fix the pipes with a diameter of 2.5 cm. Follow the step of about 60 cm. You can fasten the pipes to the walls or the ceiling as you prefer.
The second step. Fix the reinforcement bars at right angles to the pipes. Maintain a step of about 30 cm. Tie the elements with soft steel wire at the joints.
The third step. Paint the frame elements with waterproof paint.
Fourth step. Place plastic bags tightly filled with straw in the frame cells. Bags should be laid without gaps, as closely as possible to each other.
Fifth step. Fix plastic wrap over the frame, and then finish the trim with waterproof plywood, galvanized metal sheets or other suitable material to choose from.
Insulation of the walls of the cellar outside
Try to carry out all the work on the arrangement of the cellar as responsibly and efficiently as possible. From this directly depends on the life of the room and everything that will be in it.
In the end you will only install the ladder and the hatch cover. Shelves and racks arrange at its discretion. Dry the room and disinfect it before storing anything in the cellar. To do this, you can use the old-fashioned budget method - burn 10 tablets of dry alcohol in the cellar.
Do I need a cellar in the garage
Many owners of their own garage are wondering whether to equip a basement under it. They believe that this is fraught with considerable difficulties and requires a major overhaul of a building or the construction of a new structure.
In a modern metropolis, a garage is a place that can be equipped for storing canned food and other food supplies. Despite the presence of a refrigerator in most apartments, it is in the cellar that the safety of potatoes and pickles is ensured.
The main advantage of the cellar, equipped under the garage is to maintain the optimum temperature even in severe frost. If the pit is deepened by 2–3 meters, the cellar will not freeze, regardless of the weather.
Among other advantages:
- The possibility of storing stocks for the winter. Not everyone has the opportunity to equip the basement in the house or business premises. However, anyone can make a cellar for storing food in the garage.
- The ease of construction. You do not need specific building knowledge and skills, professional tools and equipment. Enough to comply with the basic requirements of technology.
- In the presence of a separate garage, you can equip the basement of any desired size. It is enough to follow the simple principle: the larger the family, the larger the cellar. For four people, 8 square meters will be enough.
The main disadvantages of the cellar, located in the garage, are two: the exhaust gases from the car get inside, and the basement damp comes out. Обе эти проблемы решаемы.
При обустройстве подвала в гараже, вы можете выбирать из нескольких основных вариантов. Различие между ними — величина заглубления.
- Полузаглубленный погреб. The building can be constructively combined with an ordinary viewing pit. Another variant of the ground structure is the use of a special container made of plastic. It digs into the ground and can be used for temporary storage of food.
- Semi-recessed pit. It has its own walls, laid out of cinder block or brick. Depth - up to a meter. When building you need to take into account some of the nuances. So, at high occurrence of groundwater, moisture-bearing cores are first tamped with several layers of clay, then waterproofing of the walls and basement floor is carried out.
- Recessed cellar. This is the most common way of arranging a basement in a garage. Depth - up to three meters.
When choosing the depth of the basement should take into account the flow of groundwater. The base of the basement is laid at least half a meter away from the source of high humidity.
Dimensions are approximate. If necessary, the hood is equipped with a tap to remove condensate.
The recessed cellar is being built in major garages. Before the implementation of such a project, it is necessary to carry out some preliminary work. Their essence is as follows:
- Before building a basement, it is necessary to make sure that this project is technically possible. The soil of any large city is literally crammed with numerous communications, and it is rarely possible to rush in to the desired depth from the first time. To minimize costs and determine the possibility of building a cellar, you can invite a specialist or use the project documentation developed during the construction of a garage building.
- The foundation must be protected from undermining by groundwater. If possible, this should be foreseen during the construction of the garage, having equipped a circular drainage system. Otherwise - carefully waterproof the basement.
Selection of materials
During the construction of the cellar you will need a set of tools and building materials.
When building walls, you can use:
- Concrete plates.
- Slag and brick.
- Natural stone.
Concrete slabs can be used only if you build a garage from scratch and equip the cellar before building walls and ceilings. In addition, you will need a team of professional installers who have a powerful lifting tool available, for example, a mobile crane.
It is not recommended to build cellar walls of silicate bricks or slag concrete. These materials have a high water absorption.
To fill the base with your own hands, you can use ready-made concrete M-100 or mortar made by yourself. This will require a standard set of components:
The resulting solution is used for the preparation of screed, and for finishing walls during plastering.
For the formwork you will need a trim board. The number is determined individually and depends on the size of the basement. For waterproofing the premises, you can use ordinary roofing felt.
In itself, the construction of the cellar is not a difficult task. However, certain knowledge and skills are required.
When self-erecting a small basement in the garage will not need sophisticated professional equipment. Enough to get a standard set of tools. Some of them are interchangeable.
- Spatula, trowel.
- Electric drill with a set of drills.
- Screwdriver or a set of screwdrivers.
- Measuring tools: building level, plumb, tape measure, metal ruler.
Instructions for making a basement with your own hands
Ideally, the cellar should be planned during the construction phase of the garage. This will facilitate a number of works. If the construction of the basement is carried out in an already manufactured garage, first of all it is necessary to dismantle the concrete floor. The screed is removed over the entire area of the future cellar. The work is carried out either with a pneumatic jackhammer or in the old manner, with the help of chisels and sledge hammers.
Basement arrangement in the garage
For city dwellers living in multi-storey buildings, the only storehouse of the crop grown in the country and harvested conservation is a garage with a cellar. Not always during the construction of the garage settles the cellar. You can organize a place to store stocks in one of the following options:
- make a small pit 80-120 cm deep for storing a limited number of products,
- build a full-fledged cellar in the garage with your own hands, allowing you to ensure the safety of the entire grown crop.
Consider the construction of the basement in the garage room, for the arrangement of which it is necessary to perform a set of special events:
- Perform design work.
We are building a garage with a cellar, but before starting work we need to decide which type will be most acceptable.
- Remove existing floor.
- Remove the soil to a depth of 1.9–2.4 m.
- Concreted foundation.
- Build walls around the perimeter of the pit.
- Pour the floor.
- To form the ceiling.
- Run finish.
- Provide air circulation.
A serious task is the issues of insulation and waterproofing, which must be thought out before starting work. It is also necessary to pay attention to the level of location of the aquifers, which determines the materials used for construction and waterproofing methods.
Drawing up a plan and selection of materials
At the planning stage, it is necessary to determine the size of the cellar in the garage, which depends on the following factors:
- the volume of the grown crop
- the area of the garage room
- groundwater level
- location of underground communications.
Construction of a cellar in the garage with your own hands begins with the correct determination of its dimensions.
- The length is 2.4–2.6 m,
- Width 1.8–2.2 m,
- Depth to 2.5 m.
When developing the cellar drawing, pay attention to the following points:
- a distance of more than 50 cm from the walls will provide an opportunity to perform lateral waterproofing and use the foundation of the building as walls,
- the floor in the cellar should be located more than 30 cm above the lower level of the strip foundation so as not to disturb the stability of the structure,
- to enter the basement, you can equip concrete steps or use a traditional staircase,
- the hatch to the basement should provide ease of access, maintain tightness,
- the depth of the basement of the cellar should exceed the groundwater level by at least 0.5 m.
When planning construction activities, you should choose the right material for the construction of the basement. In this case, pay attention not only to the cost, but also on performance. The material used:
- Reinforced concrete slabs, allowing to perform work for a limited time.
- Red brick, which must be well burned and protected from moisture.
- Monolithic concrete, traditionally used in construction.
- Natural stone, allowing at low cost to build a solid wall.
When the required depth is reached the bottom level and tamp
It is not recommended to use cellular concretes characterized by increased hygroscopicity. Planning to build a basement in the garage with your own hands, prepare everything you need for construction:
- concrete for pouring basement on the basis of cement, sifted sand and gravel,
- sand-cement composition for pouring screed and plaster,
- material for building walls, purchased in the required quantity,
- wood or plywood used as a material for the manufacture of formwork,
- shovels and buckets necessary for soil extraction, a wheelbarrow for soil transportation,
- construction level, tape measure and trowel used when working,
- scrap, jackhammer, sledgehammer and grinder to remove the existing garage floor.
Carry out the construction of the foundation, following the sequence of operations:
- Mark the basement contour on the floor.
- Remove the previously installed concrete base of the floor.
- Remove the soil to the required depth.
- If necessary, build a drainage system.
- Plan the bottom, ensure the verticality of the side walls.
After complete hardening of concrete, proceed to waterproofing.
After the final curing of the base proceed to the construction of walls around the perimeter of the pit
The specifics of the work depends on the material used:
- walls made of brick, stone or concrete blocks are made on dry soils using standard masonry methods. It is important to ensure the verticality of the side surfaces, wipe the seams carefully,
- concreting monolithic walls effectively on wet soils, requires the construction of solid formwork. The rigidity of the structure is provided by steel brackets.
The construction of concrete walls involves the erection of sectional formwork with a gradual build-up of 30–40 cm of shield construction. Pouring concrete brand M400 is made in layers. Ensuring strength is achieved through the use of reinforcement. Shields are built up to achieve the required height. The dismantling of the formwork is made after the concrete has cured.
Laying method depends on the material used.
As a material for the floor can be used:
- concrete. Allows you to create a solid foundation that is resistant to soil movement. Construction is labor intensive, increased costs,
- clay. The use of affordable and environmentally friendly material allows you to quickly form a base at minimum cost. Backfill of pre-dried clay is made in two thick layers with laying between them rolled roofing material for waterproofing,
- priming. The base is formed by planning the ground followed by bedding and tamping of a gravel-sand cushion. It is possible to equip a soil floor only at deeply located aquifers.
Consider concreting the floor. Fill to a pre-prepared base:
- Level the floor surface, sand it, compact it.
- Pour a layer of gravel up to 10 cm thick, tamp.
- Install the reinforcement cage by wire 1 mm diameter steel bars.
- Pour a 10-centimeter layer of expanded clay to ensure thermal insulation.
- Fill the floor with a concrete screed, plan the surface.
Before performing work on the formation of the overlap is necessary to ensure the drying of concrete.
The best option for the manufacture of floors in the garage is the use of reinforced concrete
The use of reinforced concrete slabs simplifies the process of forming the ceiling. Perform the work according to the following algorithm:
- Purchase a plate of the required size.
- Complete a hole in the reinforced concrete slab for the future hatch.
- Make sure the support surface is horizontal.
- Lower the slab using the load handler.
- Cement the joints around the perimeter.
- Coat the plate with resin, cover it with plaster inside the basement.
As the overlap of the basement, you can use a self-filled one-piece slab with a reinforcement cage. The construction of such a ceiling has its own nuances:
- it is necessary to assemble and install the formwork, ensuring its tightness and high strength,
- it is necessary to mount a support structure capable of providing immobility of the formwork filled with concrete,
- It is important to seal the formwork, to properly reinforce.
Self-casting monolithic overlap allows you to form a reliable base. This eliminates the need to dismantle the roof of the garage to install the finished concrete slab. After installing the ceiling, you need to worry about installing the stairs and mounting the hatch.
Ceiling arrangement in the garage cellar
Internal work on waterproofing and finishing the basement
Erecting a garage with a basement with your own hands, you should responsibly approach the implementation of the internal waterproofing works. You can avoid dampness in the following way:
- coat the walls and floor with molten bitumen. This is a budget solution to protect the premises from moisture,
- glue waterproofing materials to the walls, for example, roofing felt. It is necessary to produce sticking with two layers
- process the surface penetrating waterproofing compounds. The material is applied in a layer of 1.5–2 mm, penetrates through the capillaries into a concrete mass, crystallizes, hermetically filling voids.
For applying protective compounds, use a wide brush. The walls of the basement can be whitewashed, making it difficult to develop microorganisms and mold.
Ventilation in the cellar
Construction of the ventilation system of a garage room with a cellar is done by one of the following methods:
- Creating a system of natural air circulation. The installation of the supply line is carried out at a distance of 10–15 cm from the floor level. The chimney starts at the basement ceiling and ends 50 cm above the roof level.
Independent construction of the garage of the garage implies the availability of relevant knowledge and skills. If you have construction experience, you can easily make a basement with your own hands, and it will serve you for many years.