When growing crops in the garden to improve their growth and development, it is necessary to periodically add minerals. One of the popular fertilizers is double superphosphate. It is valued for its high performance, unique composition and universal purpose. When using the nutrient mixture in accordance with the instructions for use, the planted plants enter into the fruiting phase more quickly, and the fruits have improved taste and product qualities.
Description and chemical composition
For the normal life of plant organisms need macronutrients and trace elements. The difference between them is in the volume of use: the first group should be introduced a lot, and the second - a little. Phosphorus belongs to the macro elements and is present in the composition of nucleic acids. This component allows the plantings to make energy reserves and further apply it. If it is in short supply, the crops that are grown lose their nutrition, their growth stops. As a result, the gardener loses the harvest.
To achieve a positive effect from fertilizer, it is necessary to know what double superphosphate is and what features of its use. Nutrient mixture belongs to the category of inorganic (mineral) compounds. It is made of phosphorite treated with phosphoric acid, which is obtained from sulfuric acid, apatite, phosphorite. The chemical formula is Ca (H2PO4) 2H2O. The composition of the double phosphate is water soluble calcium monophosphate. Due to the small amount of ballast substances consumption is quite economical. The drug differs from simple superphosphate in sulfur content (6%), phosphorus (45-55%), nitrogen (13-18%). There is no gypsum in the mineral fertilizer.
The highly concentrated mixture is marketed as light gray granules, but is found in powder form. It is used through land distribution either in early spring or in autumn. Throughout the growing season, watering of garden plantings should be carried out 1-2 times. Apply the drug equally effectively on all types of soil, including sour.
Advantages and disadvantages of fertilizer
Among the main advantageous characteristics of mineral fertilizers note:
- The absence in its composition of components harmful to human health and plant organisms.
- The ability to dissolve well in water that does not clog the ground.
- Relatively low cost.
- Convenient packaging.
- Does not cause difficulties in the preparation of the solution and during its use.
- The possibility of long-term storage due to the non-caking of the granules.
- Saturation of plants necessary for normal growth and development elements.
Despite the whole list of advantages, double superphosphate fertilizer also has weaknesses:
- In case of improper use, the probability of acidification or salinization of the soil is high.
- The presence of a quick effect, which requires the addition of a granular composition, is once again depleted.
- When applying an excessive amount of the nutrient mixture, the condition of the plants deteriorates.
Scope of application
Double superphosphate is actively used in order to provide crops with the necessary amount of phosphorus and sulfur. This is especially necessary for legumes, cruciferous and cereals, since they have an intensive growth rate. Mineral fertilizer after making it into the soil has a variety of beneficial effects:
- increases the growth rate of seedlings
- slows the aging process of adult plants,
- contributes to the qualitative formation of cabbage heads,
- increases the taste and product characteristics of fruits,
- reduces the concentration of nitrates,
- raises immunity of plantings against various diseases and harmful insects.
Top dressing with double superphosphate promotes a better formation of the root system of plantations, which makes them more resistant to negative environmental factors.
What plants is suitable fertilizer
Such crops as radish, radish and beets, phosphorus is needed in minimal doses. Insensitive to this component are peppers, parsley, eggplant, onions, currants, gooseberries. Considering that the last two cultures are representatives of perennial shrubs with sour berries, which are not so actively gaining sugar, there is no need to feed them every season. The procedure is enough to do 1 time in 4 years.
But cucumbers, cabbage, carrots, tomatoes, beans, pumpkins are in dire need of phosphorus. Fruit trees and shrubs also belong to this category: raspberries, strawberries, grapes, cherries, apples, pears. Concentrated fertilizer to avoid negative effects on plant organisms should be made in strict accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
The agrochemical is ideal for enriching the neutral alkaline soil with nutrients. In a land with increased acidity, phosphorus oxide reacts, resulting in the formation of iron and aluminum phosphates. These elements of the plant can not assimilate, therefore, it is recommended to use double superphosphate in the household plot, which has an easily accessible form. In such cases, the soil is pre-acidified by the use of wood ash or slaked lime. Given that the deoxidation process lasts about 30 days, this manipulation should be done in advance.
Another important condition is the use of high-quality feedings that you should choose from proven manufacturers. To reduce the cost of agrochemical, some firms add various impurities that form phosphates.
Instructions for use
Unlike other varieties, double superphosphate is more efficiently used before planting - in early spring, the main thing is that the land should be pretreated with a cultivator. If there is a tiller this process can be simplified. If you contribute later, phosphorus may not have time to digest the soil. According to the instructions for use should follow the following recommendations:
- For processing the vegetable plot and flower beds with greens, the fertilizer is distributed at the rate of 35-40 g / sq. m. For poor soils in the same area add another 10-12 g.
- For feeding of corn, the nutrient consumption is 120-170 kg per 1 ha.
- To saturate the vital elements of grain crops will require 120-130 kg per 1 ha. Summer - 170 kg per 1 ha.
- For adult fruit trees, 500 g of substance are added to the near-stem circle, followed by digging up the earth.
- To maintain seedlings under the root use 3 g of agrochemical.
- To enrich the soil in greenhouses, on warm beds, fertilizer is applied taking into account 100 g / m 2.
- For feeding potatoes the dosage is 3-5 kg per 100 m 2.
Compatibility with other fertilizers
The most positive result is obtained from the simultaneous use of double superphosphate and potassium compounds. It is also effective to combine with a nitrogen-potassium mixture. As for restrictions, the granulated agrochemical should not be combined with lime, chalk and dolomite flour. Good interaction is observed with the combined use of double superphosphate with sodium, ammonium, calcium nitrate, ammonium sulphate.
When working with agrochemicals, you should follow the safety rules so that neither the superphosphate solution nor its dry granules get on the mucous membrane of the eyes, skin, or stomach. In case of accidental contact with skin, eyes should be washed with plenty of water.
Double superphosphate is indeed a highly effective mineral fertilizer. As a result of its use, planting takes on a healthy appearance, while the fruits have improved taste. The main thing is to apply the nutrient mixture in accordance with the instructions.
Double superphosphate - where can it be applied?
Proper concentration and timely application of supplements will not harm human health, will not lead to the accumulation of nitrates in the soil. But the benefits for the harvest will be many, and it becomes noticeable at the stage of planting seedlings in the ground.
- Intensive growth and green mass gain depend on the intake of phosphorus to the plant. With a shortage of this element, the stem becomes weak and unable to resist diseases and pests. Energy exchanges in plant cells provide phosphorus, and from the soil it can receive only 1% of the required dose. Therefore, the introduction of double superphosphate solves this problem and ensures intensive growth of the seedling.
- But the need for phosphorus does not end at the seedling stage, the addition continues throughout the growing season. If there is a shortage of this element, there is a change in the color of the leaves; they acquire a purple hue on the underside. Ovary, though formed, but it falls off.
- However, the answer to the question of why double superphosphate is needed does not end only with agricultural needs. In industry, it is taken as the basis for the production of chemical raw materials that contain phosphorus.
How to dissolve double superphosphate in water?
Phosphorus is difficult to dissolve in water. But if you change its state of aggregation, it penetrates to the roots of plants incredibly quickly. You can get a solution of double superphosphate by mixing the granules with boiling water or very hot water. On the package there is always information on how to breed double superphosphate for feeding one or another culture. There are two universal options for the preparation of liquid fertilizer.
- For three liters of water there are 20 tablespoons of powder. Then, in ten liters of water, only 150 g of the obtained white liquid is diluted. 20 g of nitrogenous fertilizer and about half a liter of wood ash are added to it. It is important to combine phosphorus with nitrogen in order to assimilate fertilizer. Without nitrogen, the plant will not be able to absorb phosphorus.
- Biobacteria can be used instead of water. Phytosporin solutions of the “Humate” type are used. The granules and the preparation are mixed and dissolved in hot water. After a day of infusion, you can use fertilizer.
How to make double superphosphate in the spring?
After harvesting in the fall you can begin feeding. But many gardeners prefer spring soil preparation. This is done before the planting works, so that the soil has time to master phosphorus.
- It is convenient to carry out the introduction of double superphosphate seeder, because the product has the form of granules.
- The so-called “under the plow” application has clear advantages: the granules are not washed away by rainwater and remain in the seed bed.
- You can simply scatter the granules on the site. But this method has a clear disadvantage - the fertilizer will be far from the root system of the seedling.
The benefits of superphosphate in the garden
Without phosphorus, normal plant growth is impossible. Superphosphate allows you to get a bountiful harvest of tasty vegetables.
In the natural form of phosphorus contains little and its reserves in the soil quickly depleted. Therefore, phosphate mineral fertilizers are applied annually - this is an indispensable element of agricultural engineering of any crops on any soil.
Often, even with good care and abundant organic matter, plants on the site look unimportant. On their leaves appear purple spots, which indicates a lack of phosphorus. Typically, this symptom appears after a sharp cooling, as in cold weather, the roots no longer absorb phosphorus.
If after the temperature of the air has risen, the plants have lost their violet hue, then phosphorus is enough in the soil. If this does not happen, fertilizing is required.
Phosphate fertilizers are produced from minerals of natural origin, mainly from phosphate rock. Some volumes of tukas are obtained by treating with acid tomash-slag - waste generated during the production of steel.
Phosphate fertilizers are produced by many countries of the former Soviet Union:
In Russia, phosphate fertilizers produce 15 enterprises. The largest is Ammophos LLC in the Vologda region, the city of Cherepovets. It accounts for at least 40% of all phosphate fertilizers produced in the country.
Simple, granular and double superphosphates contain phosphorus in the form of water soluble monocalcium phosphate. Fertilizer can be used on all types of soil by any method of application. Its shelf life is unlimited.
Table: Types of Superphosphate
Gray powder, can agglomerate in humid atmosphere.
Prepare from simple superphosphate, rolling powder into gray granules. They do not stick together. Contains magnesium, calcium and sulfur. It is dissolved in water, slowly and evenly releases active ingredients.
Contains 6% sulfur and 2% nitrogen. Granules of gray color are obtained by processing phosphorus-containing minerals with sulfuric acid. Fertilizer contains the most phosphorus in an instant form that can be easily absorbed by plants.
Contains nitrogen, calcium, potassium and sulfur. Useful for growing cabbage and cruciferous crops. Does not acidify the soil, because contains ammonia to neutralize the decomposition of superphosphate
Application rate of double superphosphate
- In the spring or autumn when digging beds - 15-20 grams. on apt. m. fertile and 25-30 grams. on apt. m. badlands.
- In rows when sowing and planting seedlings - 2-3 gr. for one pas. m. or 1 c. into the hole, mix with the ground.
- Top dressing during the growing season - 20-30 grams. on 10 square meters. m., make dry or dissolved in 10 liters. water.
- Fertilizer garden in the spring for digging or feeding after flowering - 15 gr. in sq. m.
- Greenhouses and greenhouses - 20-25 gr. on apt. m. in the fall under the digging.
- teaspoon - 5 grams,
- tablespoon - 16 gr,
- matchbox - 22 gr.
Superphosphate is poorly soluble in water, as it contains gypsum. In order to quickly get the fertilizer to the roots, it is better to draw the hood out of it:
- Fill in 20 st. l granules of three liters of boiling water - phosphorus will turn into easily digestible discrete form.
- Put the container in a warm place and mix it from time to time. The dissolution of the granules will occur within 24 hours. Finished hood has a white color.
The working solution must be diluted before placing it on the bed:
- Add 150 ml of suspension in 10 l. water.
- Add 20 grams. any nitrogen fertilizer and 0.5 liters. wood ash.
Phosphate-nitrogen fertilizers are suitable for spring root feeding. Nitrogen will quickly go to the roots, and phosphorus will act gradually over several months. Thus, the extract of superphosphate - an ideal feeding of fruit, berry and vegetable plants with a long aftereffect.
Superphosphate for seedlings
Young plants suffering from phosphorus deficiency are common. Often an element is missing from plants planted in open ground too early. In cold weather, it cannot be absorbed from the soil. To fill the shortage, carry out root dressing extract with superphosphate extract prepared according to the recipe given above.
When growing seedlings in greenhouses, superphosphate is added when digging at a dosage of 3 tablespoons per square meter. When growing seedlings at home, it is fed at least once a hood.
Phosphorus starvation of tomatoes is expressed in staining the lower surface of the leaves in purple color. At first, specks appear on the leaf blades, then the color changes completely, and the veins become purple-red.
Young tomatoes consume little phosphorus, but they are needed to build a powerful root system. Therefore, superphosphate must be added to the soil intended for sowing seeds.
Phosphate dressing at this stage provides strength seedlings and the growth of a large number of roots. The dosage of fertilizer for growing tomato seedlings is three tablespoons of granules per 10 liters of substrate.
Under one plant during planting make about 20 grams. phosphorus. Top dressing evenly placed in the root zone of the soil at a depth of 20-25 cm
Tomatoes use almost all the phosphorus to form fruits. Therefore, superphosphate contribute not only in the spring, but until the very end of the flowering of tomatoes. Top-dressing of tomatoes in the greenhouse is carried out in the same dosage and in the same way as in open ground.
When superphosphate can harm
Dust superphosphate can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and tearing. When pouring granules, it is better to use personal protective equipment: respirators and goggles.
Superphosphate is very slowly absorbed by plants. After its introduction, symptoms of phosphorus overdose never occur. If there is a lot of phosphorus in the soil, the plants will signal the symptoms:
- intercostal chlorosis,
- new leaves are forming abnormally thin,
- the tips of the leaves burn out, become brown,
- internodes shorten,
- yield drops,
- lower leaves curl and blotch.
Fertilizer fire and explosion proof. Not a poison. It is stored indoors or in special areas inaccessible to pets.
Ca(H2PO4)2x H2O- 2CaSABOUT4 x 2H2Calcium monohydrate dihydroorthophosphate. From the chemical formula, it follows that in addition to phosphorus, the substance includes calcium and sulfur. In contrast to simple superphosphate, these additives are not compound ballast. Поэтому его действие, как удобрение намного эффективнее и экономнее.
По материалам книги О. А. Петросян «Удобрения и подкормки. Полезные советы»Двойной суперфосфат относится к азотно-фосфорным удобрениям
Фосфор — основное действующее вещество, ради которого производится удобрение. Его процентное содержание в веществе – 43-46%. Besides it, there is nitrogen - and in small quantities:
- calcium sulfate
- monomagnesium phosphate,
- Sulfur, iron, aluminum and other trace elements.
It has the same effect on plants as simple superphosphate, but it is used to a lesser extent.
Phosphorus-containing substances accompany plants, starting from planting and at all stages of vegetative development.
Double superphosphate used:
- For survival all crops when planting. In this case, fertilizer accelerates the growth of hairy roots, which absorb nutrients from the soil. What determines the rooting of plants.
- In the current care of established plants, phosphorus responsible for the synthesis of chlorophyll and other pigments. Its shortage is reflected in the color and size of the leaves and flowers. To ensure the full development of the ground mass in the spring, phosphorus is carried out during the budding period and after the regrowth of young stems and leaves.
- Without phosphorus, the formation of glucose, sucrose, starch, etc in fruits is impossible. For the formation of these complex compounds, fertilizer is used after flowering, and at the beginning of the formation and ripening of fruits.
- After harvesting you need to take care of the fate of perennial and woody plants in the coming year. In other words, strengthen plant tissue, especially the root system. To this end, phosphorus-containing fertilizers are added to the soil in the fall in conjunction with potassium salts. So the plants are prepared for a safe winter.
Considering the multifaceted influence of an element on plants, it is worthwhile to consider in more detail the features of using double superphosphate during different periods of growing plants.
General recommendations for the use of fertilizer before planting the plant and with further care
As part of the double superphosphate phosphorus oxide is contained in a water-soluble form. This is important when caring for plants, because it provides a full access of the nutrient to the tissue. It should be noted that the substance dissolves in water slowly. For example, nitrogen fertilizers combine better with water and act much faster.
Double superphosphate is better to make in advance. For different purposes, the fertilizer is used with different application rates. Most often, this dosage is recommended:
· 55-70 g / m² - on cultivated lands with repeated crop rotation.
· 30 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm - 20 - 25 g,
· 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm - 30 - 35 g,
· 1 mx 1 mx 1 m - 40 - 50 g
For garden crops
Since the fertilizer in the soil is dissolved slowly, it is better to apply it in advance. To prepare the garden, it is better to do it in the fall. During the winter, the powder (or granules) under the action of ground moisture will dissolve to the maximum, and the bed will be ready for spring planting.
The introduction of superphosphate in the fall:
- The plot, which is planned garden, cleaned of all plant residues,
- Evenly spread fertilizer over the entire area,
- They are loosened to a depth of 5–10 cm. If the granules are left on the surface, they will dissolve even more slowly and unevenly. From this concentration of fertilizer can be point and in the future, can harm plants.
In the spring, it is better to add 10 g of top dressing to each hole when planting seedlings of tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplants, peppers, cabbage. For potatoes, the rate is doubled.
When planting, the powder (or granules) should be thoroughly mixed with the soil and ensure that the fertilizer does not come into contact with the open root seedling system or tubers.
If double superphosphate was not used in the fall, then in the spring it should be added no later than 2 weeks before planting, preferably a month.
Tip # 1.To fertilizer brought as much benefit, in the spring it is made as soon as possible. The optimal period is determined by the state of the soil after the snow melts, when the earth remains wet, but no longer wet, you can walk on it and your feet do not bind.
When planting trees and shrubs
For woody plants to take root, as best as possible, double superphosphate is mixed with the fertile mixture in which the plants are planted.The sequence of planting trees and shrubs with the introduction of double superphosphate is described in the table.
It is recommended to do this in the following sequence:
· Double superphosphate - 20 - 25 g,
· Potassium chloride - 10 - 15 g,
· Humus or compost - 1 bucket.
In the less fertile land add all the same, only the amount increased by 1.5 times.
Important!When planting trees, nitrogen fertilizers are never applied (see → types of nitrogen fertilizers, application). Also, together with superphosphate, ammonium nitrate, urea, as well as calciferous substances such as lime, chalk, dolomite, etc. are not used. When interacting with them, substances inaccessible to plants are formed in the soil. At best, nothing will happen and the cultures will not receive additional feeding. Then it will be lost time, financial costs and wasted labor. Worse, if new compounds harm the plants, until their death.