General information

Guinea fowl breeds: description and features


Meat Bird. This is a great choice for breeding in the household. Individuals are ideally adapted for living in the conditions of the Siberian climate and are recommended for breeding in Russia. The following features are characteristic of the speckled gray rock:

  • elongated body,
  • no feathers on the head
  • dark pink beak,
  • bright scarlet earrings
  • there is a growth of blue on the head,
  • round wings with a good span,
  • the tail is small, directed down,
  • on the neck is a grayish-blue plumage,
  • gray paws,
  • the wingspan is noticeable on the wingspan,
  • blotches of white are present all over the body.

Adult female weighs 1.6 kg, male - 1.8 kg. Adult birds are difficult to distinguish from each other. Only on close inspection it is clear that males have a slightly larger head than females.

Gray-speckled bird is not very popular among razvodchiki, despite the fact that it is not picky in terms of nutrition and maintenance. Guinea fowl meat is tasty and healthy. Egg production of about 90 eggs per year, each weighing 45 g.

You can feed the bird feed, fresh grass and wet mash. Be sure to add to the diet of fish oil, saturating the body with useful vitamins. Guinea fowl gain weight more actively if there is a comfortable and deep bedding. An important condition is the availability of free space. Per 1 m2 is not more than 10 individuals.

White guinea fowl

Birds are hardy to home conditions, unpretentious. Breed of an egg orientation. White guinea fowls are adapted to life in the cold regions of the country, easily tolerate an unfavorable and harsh climate.

It has the following characteristics:

  • rich gray beak
  • tarsus pale pink shade
  • whitish frosted plumage, which is a distinctive feature of the breed,
  • small head,
  • volume earrings
  • no feathers on the neck.

An adult male weighs 1.6-1.8 kg, and a female weighs 2 kg. One bird is able to give 100-110 eggs per year. Siberian whites can easily adapt to frost, quickly gaining weight. They have a calm and friendly character. The breed is characterized by the light color of the carcass, as it has a bluish tint in other varieties. Guinea fowl can survive in any conditions of detention. They get along well with other inhabitants of the poultry yard. In food unpretentious, can live on the paddocks, in the cells and in closed premises.

Guinea fowls cream (suede)

In appearance guinea fowl resemble white Siberian. Differ in body weight and skin color. The focus of the meat, refers to the broiler breeds. Breeding of the breed was random, there was a mutation of speckled gray individuals.

  • small size
  • small head,
  • whitish plumage with pigment spots.

The adult female weighs 1.6-1.7 kg, the male 1.5-1.6 kg. In the year the bird gives 70-80 eggs, the weight of each 45 g. The shell can be of a different shade, it depends on the feeding. It is possible to breed this breed in any region as its representatives quickly adapt for climatic features. Birds rarely get sick, unpretentious and have a good appetite.

Guinea fowl blue

To meet these birds at home is rare. But if you decide to purchase blue guinea fowls, then they will become a real decoration of the courtyard. Egg poultry orientation. In the year one bird gives up to 150 eggs. Their structure is durable, the color is different, depending on the feeding. Brown birds appear in the light, and they become blue only after the first shedding.

Representatives of the breed have the following characteristics:

  • gray plumage, with a blue tint.
  • neck and sternum lilac,
  • tail with whitish spots.

Guinea fowls are well tolerated by frost, so you can even keep them in the northern areas. Differs in resistance to diseases and fastidiousness to food. In artificial nests birds do not give eggs. Layers make nests on the runs, under bushes or in the grass. You can keep blue guinea fowls with other poultry, they quickly pacify the pugnacious fellows. The basis of nutrition - wet or dry mash.

Guinea Fowl Zagorsk White-breasted

This breed has an interesting feather color:

  • gray splashes on the back and wings,
  • monochromatic color of feathers on the sternum and neck,
  • feather structure fluffy.

Breed of an egg orientation, as in a year the layer gives 120-140 eggs, 50 g weighs one. An adult male weighs 1.7-1.9 kg, the female weighs 1.6-1.8 kg.

The bird of this species is hardy and perfectly tolerates low temperature readings. This will allow to breed it in any region of Russia. For gardeners, they are useful in that they willingly eat the main pest of the potato, the Colorado potato beetle.

In the diet should be fresh greens. Guinea fowls will feel comfortable in an ordinary chicken coop, a special chicken house will not be required for them. On 1 m2 can be located 2 individuals.

White guinea fowl

This is an egg breed of guinea fowl.. In a year it can produce 105-110 eggs. The carcasses are white in color, which makes their presentation more attractive.

The appearance of the Volga Guinea Fowl, the following:

  • torso and legs are shortish,
  • small head
  • beak pink,
  • earrings pinkish
  • feather color can be white or cream with the presence of dark patches.

They are unpretentious to the conditions of detention and perfectly tolerate climatic conditions. True, such a guinea fowl is predisposed to a cold climate, so it is not recommended to display the Volga, in hot regions. The basis of the diet is 130-150 g of bird feed or grain mixture. It is desirable that the composition was diverse. Excellent grain feed for guinea fowls - crushed corn. Greens must be in the diet, but only freshly chopped.

From the foregoing, I would like to single out two main breeds, in which the highest productivity indices are white Siberian and Zagorsk white-breast. They are not picky in their content, quickly adapt to different climate conditions, nutrition, and do not cause trouble to the owner.

Well, and more importantly, the productive qualities of the wild guinea fowl are much less than at home, if we talk about egg production. Meat of the feathered may be too tough - for an amateur. So breeding may not be appropriate. Therefore, more often they are brought in for decorative purposes or for the selection of new species.

Of the most well-known breeds of wild guinea fowl, several of the most prominent are distinguished: Griffon, Curly, Indykovaya, Crested, Kisochkovaya guinea fowl.

Do guinea fowls rush

Tsar's chicken differs from its nearest “uncrowned” relative by its appearance, but its egg-laying indicators correspond approximately to the similar characteristics of meat-laying hens. However, the productivity of guinea fowls is greatly influenced by various factors, which will be discussed below.

In order to carry an egg, the guinea fowl may well do without a male. But the eggs, of course, will be unfertilized, they will not give offspring.

In the natural habitat of the guinea fowl rush only in the warm season, do not forget that the homeland of these birds is one of the hottest regions of the planet. As soon as it starts to get cold, the egg production gradually falls and eventually stops altogether.

By artificially increasing daylight and increasing the temperature in the house, eggs (smaller and in smaller quantities) can be obtained in winter.

Features egg laying guinea fowl

In the natural habitat - in the South-West of Africa - puberty of royal chickens occurs earlier than in colder climates.

However, it is possible to speed up the onset of puberty, and, consequently, the timing of the onset of egg-laying in the following ways:

  • use feeds enriched with essential amino acids
  • provide high temperature in the birds' dwelling (create conditions close to the natural habitat in the wild), while not forgetting about normal ventilation,
  • artificially increase daylight hours to 15 hours.
In the event that a breeder, selling chicks, does not speak about the timing of the onset of egg production, most likely, the guinea fowls were not fed with high protein feeds to accelerate the period of puberty. In this case, the poultry farmer must be prepared for the late onset of egg production.

At what age do begin to sweep

At home, laying guinea eggs begin at the age of 7–9 months. It is difficult to call a more accurate time, since it is greatly influenced by such factors as:

  • feeding,
  • conditions of detention,
  • lighting, etc.
Puberty of males occurs somewhat later than their same age, so that males do not have the opportunity to fertilize the eggs of females of their own age.

These birds have a growing type of laying: at the very beginning of the egg-laying period, the females rush 1 time in 2 days, and then the indicators increase to 3–6 eggs in a row. For 8–12 weeks, productivity increases, and then for some time the rates fall. After 2–6 months, egg production figures return to their previous level.

You should not be scared - the bird's body is restored, accumulates the necessary substances, vitamins and minerals.

In order to find out what life stage the bird is in, whether it is rushing at this time or not, it is enough to touch the pelvic area of ​​the guinea fowl. If the female rushes, her pelvic bones are divorced, the stomach is large and soft. As the goose grows and grows older, the egg production decreases by 10–20%, but at the same time, the eggs themselves increase in size. It's all about anatomy: a young bird is not physically able to carry an egg as large as an older one. But later eggs are excellent incubation materials, unlike young ones.

The productivity of guinea fowls

The main indicators of the productivity of royal chickens:

  • male weight - 1.5–1.6 kg,
  • female weight is 1.6–1.7 kg,
  • the mass of chicks (10 weeks) - 780–850 g,
  • egg production - 70–120 pieces and above,
  • egg weight - 42–47 g

What does egg production depend on?

The productivity of these birds is influenced by a large number of different factors, among which are the following:

  • genetics,
  • conditions of detention,
  • climatic conditions
  • feeding,
  • daylight duration.

Mention should also be made of the geographical factor. According to some data, in such countries as Hungary, France, Canada, Algeria, and the United Kingdom, the egg production rate of this species —125-180 pieces per year is considered the norm. And among the record-laying hens there are such prolific individuals that give up to 3 hundred eggs annually.

From conditions of detention

The main points that should be paid attention to when creating suitable conditions of detention for guinea fowls:

  1. For normal life per 1 square. m of living space should be placed no more than 4-5 birds.
  2. The house should be warm enough. Increased humidity is unacceptable, especially in the spring, during the period of snow melting.
  3. Duration of daylight hours (it can be increased artificially with the help of additional lighting) directly affects productivity.
  4. It should create a comfortable environment for the birds - roost, feeders, drinkers, good litter.
  5. It is necessary to ensure sufficient walking, including during the winter period, if the air temperature is not lower than –9 ° С.
  6. The quality and quantity of food, the availability of fresh water have a direct impact on the performance indicators of birds.

Color plays a significant role in the egg production of these birds. Depending on the color, productivity indicators change as follows:

  • gray guinea fowl - 70–90 pieces,
  • blue - 80–100 pieces,
  • whites - 90–119 pieces.

Why do not rush guinea fowl

There are cases when layers, up to a certain pore, which are distinguished by high productivity, suddenly begin to rush less. Before panicking and inviting a veterinarian to the birds, the owner should pay attention to the factors that reduce egg production rates:

  1. Low temperature in the hen house. It is necessary to take care of the warming of the shed, to ensure the air temperature is +12 ° C and higher, it is extremely rare that it can be lowered briefly to +6 ° C.
  2. Guinea fowl can stop nosing because it is going to hatch eggs. It is necessary to leave a couple of birds on the eggs, the rest should be carried.
  3. Poor sanitary condition of the dwelling, litter from the floor is not removed. It is necessary to regularly clean the room, carefully remove wastes, change litter. In winter, fresh litter is placed on top of the old one for additional thermal insulation.
  4. Lack of fresh water, or the water does not change often enough. Clean water is necessary for birds, including for the normal assimilation of nutrients, especially if feed is used for feeding. Do not forget to monitor the availability and condition of drinking water.
  5. Low nutritional value of feed. It is necessary to improve the nutritional quality of feed, first of all take care of feed with a high content of valuable amino acids - this diet contributes to high productivity.
  6. These birds are very shy and stress-dependent. The cause of stress can be a change of feed, fear. Even changing to a more rigid litter can make itself felt. From this it follows that the birds need to ensure the most comfortable conditions of detention and in the future to try to comply with them.
One of the conditions for increasing the egg production of guinea fowls is favorable conditions in the room of Guinea fowl eggs - a product that is unique due to its hypoallergenic qualities, it is suitable for those who are contraindicated in chicken protein.

Thanks to the gland, which is contained in sufficiently large quantities in the composition, the product is also excellent for feeding people with low hemoglobin levels - during pregnancy or with anemia. And due to the low calorie content of the royal chickens eggs can be called dietary.

When does egg laying start?

The sexual maturity of guinea fowls is not tied to the time of year. It may occur in the cold season, but full egg-laying will begin only with the onset of spring. Maturation of females in practice falls on the 6-9th month.

The timing is influenced by such factors:

  • how comfortable conditions are created for the bird,
  • how nutritious and varied diet
  • poultry lighting and other factors.

The start of egg-laying depends on the combination of factors affecting puberty - it usually occurs in the first or second half of spring.

Guinea fowl - poultry, which under favorable conditions is characterized by high egg productivity. With proper maintenance and feeding, the “royal bird” can become a profitable business.

Males are late with maturation, it occurs in their 10-11 months. Therefore, peer males cannot fertilize females that reach sexual maturity 3-4 months earlier. If young hens already rush, and there are no sexually mature males in the house, the eggs will be unfertilized - not suitable for breeding.

Age dependence

Egg production, as the guinea fowl ages, decreases, and the size of the eggs, on the contrary, increases. The dependence of the weight of eggs on the age of the hens - in table 1.

The life of the hen

It happens, the weight of eggs decreases, and the number grows. But this is rare in the life of guinea fowls. In addition, farmers do not hold hens for more than 2–3 years.

On average, the guinea fowl brings 130 eggs per year. The range of egg production is quite wide - from 70 to 190 pieces per year. Record holder able to carry up to three hundred eggs.

Season dependence

Guinea fowl egg production depends on the season:

  1. A stable egg-carrying rate lasts, under favorable conditions, from March to November.
  2. In the northern regions, laying hens do not begin to lay eggs before May.
  3. In the process of egg-laying, violations of its rate can be observed. It can fade and resume again. Periods of oscillation - 2-3 months.

Month of egg production are presented in table 2.

When occurs, months

The egg productivity favorably affects:

  • summer duration
  • the number of sunny days
  • the duration of the period during which juicy food is available.

The warmer the climate in the area of ​​their residence, the higher the fertility, hatching of offspring and productivity of guinea fowls.

If the chicken coop is equipped with special settings that regulate the temperature, lighting features, the hens will be carried continuously for 9 months.

Why do guinea fowls stop running?

Often, beginning poultry farmers are faced with the fact that guinea fowls stop laying eggs, although the laying season is supposed to continue. The problem most often lies in adverse conditions of detention:

  • It's cold in the house. If the barn is not insulated, and the temperature drops below + 12 ° C, the hens will “strike”.
  • Non-compliance with health regulations. If the floor of the house is dirty, guinea fowls refuse to trot. It is necessary to clean the house more often, change litter and ventilate the room.
  • Drinking water is dirty. To please the hens, the water in the drinking bowls needs to be changed regularly - so that it is fresh. If this is not done, food eaten by birds will be poorly absorbed. This is especially important if the bird eats compound feed.
  • Poor nutrition. In the cold, the fowl lack the insects they love so much. If you do not compensate for their lack of protein mixtures, egg production will fall. Lack of greenery also adversely affects the number of eggs laid - you need to fill it with roots and vegetable waste. В теплое время нехватка питательных веществ может наблюдаться при отсутствии кальцийсодержащих добавок, дрожжей, костной муки, рыбьего жира, кисломолочных продуктов, бобовых и зерновых.
  • Стресс. Цесарки очень пугливые птицы.To break the egg-laying, it is enough to scare them or change the feed. It happens that even replacing the type of litter can bring them out of balance.

In winter, it is recommended to give the guinea flesh finely chopped needles - this is a generous source of vitamin C. But it is strictly forbidden to give the needles to needles in the spring when the trees grow. At this time, the needles in the needles too high concentration of essential oils that can harm guinea fowls.

Do I need a hen?

Usually, all eggs laid by guinea fowls are collected by farmers. If the female sits on the eggs, then it stops laying the eggs until the next season - this is absolutely not profitable. In addition, guinea fowls are so easily frightened, and their maternal instinct is so weakly expressed that the probability that they will safely land the chicks is small.

However, with the creation of favorable conditions for incubation, and especially with the pair keeping of birds, the guinea fowl may incubate and later take care of it. Hatching lasts 26-28 days.

Disadvantages of natural elimination:

  • Guinea fowl can "change your mind." She will leave eggs and go about her business. As a result, will have to urgently look for a hen.
  • While the guinea fowl is sitting, or “thinking” - whether the hatching eggs or not, the farmer loses egg productivity, since the guinea fowl does not rush during the brooding period.

In order to successfully breed, without losing the pace of flock egg production, farmers prefer to use incubators for breeding guinea fowl.

Preparation for incubation:

  1. Gather eggs laid by guinea fowls older than one year. They, unlike chickens, have a more pointed tip. The shell color is brown, speckled eggs often come across. Collect eggs after the 20th day from the start of the egg-laying. If you take earlier - it is likely that they will be worthless. The optimal egg retention time is 6-7 days. The weight of the fertilized egg - from 40 g.
  2. Each egg is treated with iodine, potassium permanganate or quartz lamp.
  3. Check for suitability by mechanical means. When tapping each other, eggs should not crack and make rattles.

For incubation, do not take eggs of marble shade - they are often "empty". It is believed that the specks on the shell - a sign of poor quality germ.

How does the breed and color of plumage affect egg production?

The egg production of guinea fowl is influenced by the characteristics of the breed - productivity, frost resistance, demands on the content. Breed guinea fowls for the sake of meat, so it is advantageous to start broiler breeds. Now the best is considered the French broiler chicken - it has high egg production, large eggs and high meat productivity (up to 3.5 kg). The dependence of egg production on the breed - in table 3.