Solid sheet plates are quite large. The petals of the flowers are large, as a rule, they are purple, but there are also white, they have long marigolds. Straight sepals at the base of the sacciform. The fruit is a large pod oblate from the backs, round or elliptical in shape, it has flat leaves, and it sits on the stem that is 1.5 cm in length. One pod contains several flat double-row seeds with leathery wings.
How to plant in open ground
Lunar one-year is considered, in fact, a biennial plant. The fact is that in the first year of growth, it only forms leaves collected in a rosette. Formation of flowering shoots from him is observed only in the second year of life. After the seed ripens, the plant’s life cycle comes to an end.
The annual lunik is a light-loving plant, therefore, for its planting one should choose an open and well-lit area, it is possible to plant it in light shading. Perennial lunik opposite can not be grown on a sunny plot, it is suitable more than a penumbra or shade. The annual species have no particular soil preferences. But for planting perennial species, only a moist, loose soil is suitable, which should be well fertilized, for this purpose humus is introduced into it (from 1 to 4 kilograms per square meter), and also lime for digging to a depth of about 0.2 m.
Both species of lunar, which cultivate gardeners, can be very easily propagated by cuttings, and even seeds. Seeds of the annual species can, if desired, be sown directly in open soil at the beginning of the spring period. In lunar annual seed color is dark brown, and in the diameter they reach 0.5–0.6 cm. Sowing should be done in previously made grooves, while between seeds it is necessary to observe a distance of 0.3–0.35 m, in this case seedlings do not need thinning. The first shoots, as a rule, appear after 7 days. In the last days of August, leaflets should already be formed in the plants, and if desired, they can be transplanted to a new permanent place. If you grow a one-year-old species through seedlings, then its flowering will begin in the year of planting in open soil. Sowing seeds for seedlings should be made in March, and they should be planted in open soil in the last days of May, but only after the return spring frosts are left behind.
Seeds of perennial should be sown before winter or in spring time immediately in open soil, choose for this you need a plot, located in the shade. If the sowing is planned for spring, then the seeds will need to be stratified, for this purpose placing them on the shelf of the refrigerator intended for vegetables for 6 weeks. The first seedlings will seem only in May, after which they will need to be thinned, keeping a distance of at least 0.3 m between the bushes. By the end of the summer period, the plants will have already developed 2 pairs of true leaf plates. Only such a moonflower will bloom massively next season. You also need to be prepared for the fact that in the autumn, starting from the second year of growth, the bushes can produce quite abundant self-seeding.
Care for the moon in the garden
It is necessary to care for both the perennial and the annual species of a lunnik almost equally, so the bushes need to be watered, weeded, fed, loosened the surface of the soil, protected from pests and diseases if necessary. And it is also necessary to pick off the flowers that started to fade and prepare the bushes for winter, if necessary.
How to water
Watering the bushes is necessary moderately, due to excessively strong soil moisture on the roots of the plant may develop rot. However, during the period of prolonged drought, watering should be frequent and abundant. After the perennial species has completed ripening, all watering should be stopped. Watering is recommended to be carried out either early in the morning, or after the daytime heat subsides (after about 16 hours). Water should be used only settled and tepid. Bushes react negatively to wet foliage.
Long-term view of the lunar is recommended to feed. Feeding is carried out systematically 1 every 4 weeks from spring to the second half of the summer period. Organic and complex mineral fertilizers are suitable for lunik.
Lunar after flowering
The annual look of a lunnik differs in rather high resistance to frosts. Since in fact this species is biennial, it should be covered for the first wintering. To do this, the area is mulched with a thick layer, using organic matter, and on top of it is covered with fir spruce branches.
When growing a perennial species in the southern regions, it may need shelter for the winter only if weather forecasters predict a very cold and little snowy winter period. In mid-latitudes and in areas with colder winters, a lunar hibernation should be covered.
Diseases and pests
Lunar has a rather high resistance to various diseases and pests. But if it is grown in conditions unfavorable for the growth of this crop, then the aphid, cruciferous flea or cabbage butterfly can settle on the bushes. As soon as pests are noticed on the bushes, they should be treated with an insecticidal preparation. There should be at least two sprays, and the distance between them should be 1–1.5 weeks.
Lunik is not recommended to be grown in those areas where representatives of the Cruciferous family grew, for example: cabbage, daikon, mustard, horseradish, radish, radish, rutabaga, etc. If there is stagnant fluids in the soil, this can cause the development of a fungal disease . Affected bushes must be treated with a solution of a fungicide, with the mandatory re-treatment carried out after 1.5 weeks. Before proceeding with the treatment, remove from the bush all the infected parts that must be destroyed.
If the bushes provide proper care, as well as follow all the agrotechnical rules of this culture, they will be powerful and healthy, and any ailment will bypass them.
Lunar annual (Lunaria annua)
This species comes from the south-eastern regions of Western Europe. Gardeners cultivate it as a biennial. The height of the bush is about 0.6 m. The alternate coarse hairy leaf plates have a wide-ovoid shape, they can be pedunculated or sedentary. The final brush consists of flowers, painted in purple, purple or white. When the plant ottsvetet, the formation of flat seed pods, which have an oval shape, is observed in the bush; apparently, they are similar to pearl-colored coins. In the boxes are seeds that ripen by September. Popular varieties:
- Perple. The color of flowers is purple.
- Alba. The flowers are painted white.
- Variegata. The color of the flowers is lilac-pink, and the leaf plates are motley.
- Mansted Perple. Fragrant flowers have a lilac color.
Lunaria reviving (Lunaria rediviva)
This perennial plant in nature is found in the deciduous forests of northern and central Europe, and also in the Balkans. This species was introduced into North America. This species is the oldest plant and is representative of the flora of the Tertiary period. To date, there is a gradual extinction. The height of the bush is about 100 cm. Straight shoots in the upper part are branched, and their surface is covered with a small pile. The upper leaf plates are alternately seated and have an oval shape, the lower ones are oppositely spaced, heart-shaped and serrated along the hem. Panicle-shaped inflorescences consist of fragrant flowers of violet color, reaching 40 mm in diameter. The fruit is an oval-lanceolate pod that reaches 50 mm in length and has a spike at both ends. Cultivated since 1597
Landing and care for the moon (in short)
- Bloom: from the second season, from May to mid-June. In August, may bloom again.
- Landing: sowing seeds in the ground - in late spring or early (middle) of summer.
- Lighting: biennial varieties grow better in bright sun, although cultivation in partial shade is acceptable. Perennials are afraid of the sun, and it is better to sow them in partial shade or even in the shade.
- The soil: for biennial plants any will be suitable, for perennials, friable, moist limestone fertilized with humus is preferable.
- Watering: moderate and regular, in drought - plentiful and frequent. Perennial plants stop watering as soon as their fruits ripen. Soil moistening is made early in the morning or after 4 pm.
- Top dressing: perennials feed once a month from spring to mid-summer with organic or mineral solutions. Annual varieties do not need fertilizing.
- Reproduction: seeds, perennials can be propagated by cuttings.
- Pests: cruciferous flea, aphid and cabbage moths.
- Diseases: fungal infections.
Moonflower - description
The leaves at the moon are large, whole. Petals of flowers are large, with long marigolds, sometimes white, but more often lilac, sepals straight, sacculate at the base. The lunar fruit is a large elliptical or roundish, flattened from the side of the backs of the follicle with flat leaves, sitting on the stem up to 15 mm long. There are several seeds in the pod, they are also flat, double-rowed, with a leathery wing.
Landing lunik in the ground.
Lunar annual is actually a biennial plant, in the first year forming only a rosette of leaves. It forms the flowering sprout in the second year, and after the lunar seeds of the first year ripen, it finishes its life cycle. This plant needs bright sunlight, so it is grown in open space, in extreme cases, in light penumbra, while the perennial lunar is afraid of sunlight, therefore it must be sown in partial shade or even in the shade. As for the composition of the soil, the annual has an undemanding to it, and the perennial, more capricious in this respect, requires a loose, moist and well-fertilized soil with the addition of humus (3-4 kg / m²) and lime, which contribute to the digging depth 20 cm
Both lunar cultivated species successfully propagate by the seed method, and the perennial lunik can also be propagated by grafting.
To grow annual lunnik, you can sow it directly into the ground in early spring. Lunium seeds of one-year dark brown color and reach a diameter of 5-6 mm. They are laid out in the furrow at a distance of 30-35 cm from each other, so that in the future there is no need to thin out the shoots that may appear in a week. At the end of August, seedlings that have formed a rosette of leaves can be transplanted to another place. If you want to see the flowering of the annual lunik already in the year of planting, use the seedling method of cultivation: sow the seeds for seedlings in March, and at the end of May, when the weather is warm and the threat of return frost is over, transplant the seedlings into the open ground.
Perennial lunar is sown on a shady area in September or early spring, but spring sowing should be preceded by a half-month scarification of seed in the vegetable box of the refrigerator. Shoots will appear only in spring, by May, and they need to be thinned out, so that the distance between the seedlings will be at least 30 cm, and by the end of the summer the plant will develop two pairs of leaves. Mass flowering of the lunar perennial you will see only next year, and by the fall of the second year of life the plant can produce abundant self-seeding.
Pests and lunar diseases
It is extremely resistant to diseases and pests, but under adverse conditions it affects the cruciferous flea, aphids and the cabbage butterfly. At the first signs of the presence of insects, the plant should be treated with an insecticide solution at least twice with an interval of 7-10 days. Do not grow lunik in the area where its related plants have grown - cabbage, daikon, mustard, horseradish, radish, radish, rutabaga and other cultures of the Cruciferous family.
As a result of stagnation in the ground of water, a lunik can infect a fungal infection, which at the first alarming symptoms should be destroyed by double treatment with an interval of 10 days with a solution of a fungicide preparation. Before spraying, the affected specimens or parts of the plant must be removed and burned.
We remind you that such problems usually arise due to violations of agricultural culture and insufficient or improper care. A healthy plant is extremely rarely affected by pests or microorganisms.
What does a coin plant look like?
Not very tall, up to a meter tall, the stem is surrounded by foliage. The leaves are different in shape. Closer to the ground, they look like inverted hearts, higher up they become like straight hearts. Between the lower and upper leaves and above are beautiful small four-leaf flowers, which later become fruits.
Moon flowers are fragrant, they grow in buds, their color is purple. Flowers appear mainly in the second year after planting, which is why one of the varieties is called two years old. But if you plant seedlings at home, the flowering can be obtained in the first year of life.
Yellow moonflower on photo:
The fruit of the plant is a flattened ellipse, closer to the shape of a circle, especially in the one-year variety. The size of the average order of 3-4 centimeters. The color of the fruit is silver-transparent, which served for such an original name.
Two different types of one flower
There are two varieties of Lunar, planting and caring for them are different:
- One-year Lunik. In our climate, it is rather a two-year flower. Since when landing in the spring in the ground - the first flowering occurs only in the second year after planting. It is followed by fruiting and the life cycle ends. Beautiful round fruits with silver tint remain in memory. They are able to stand all winter in a dry form, pleasing the eye in home compositions of dead wood.
- Perennial, or lunik coming to liferequiring special conditions for location on the site, this view will delight you constantly. It is enough to properly prepare the soil once and plant it, so that later on, sometimes giving it time, to get a beautiful garden decoration.
How to breed Lunar
This plant is a cruciferous, and its reproduction on the site is produced by seed or vegetatively. In the summer, you can see how moths that fly on the Lunar circle spin in their beautiful dance, making a pollination of flowers.
After receiving the fruit, the seeds are selected the largest, brown in color, they are seated in the soil in the spring, at a distance of 30-40 centimeters from each other. With a more dense arrangement, the flowers will be smaller, the number of fruits will also be reduced, and the overall appearance will be spoiled.
Growing from seed at home is quite simple and does not require special skills. And after planting the seeds at the end of winter, you can get home strong sprouts, which will give flowering in the first year of the plant. Unfortunately, the same year will be his last, when it comes to the one-year version.
If it is necessary to propagate the plant, without waiting for its fruiting - just cut a few shoots, place them in water, before the formation of roots, and then you can safely plant them in the ground.
A perennial plant propagates, as a rule, by self-sowing. The main thing is to root and sow it in the right place, on the pre-fertilized soil, and all that remains in terms of care is weeding, and periodic fertilizer.
Photos of the general appearance of the plant
Care and features
The plant is unpretentious and does not require much effort in its content. But some features it has. The approach differs according to the type:
- An annual plant is sown in medium-shaded or open areas, interspersed with other flowers and herbs, the living space of a Lunnik of the order of a decimeter. This should be taken into account when sowing. Additional watering is usually not required.
- The long-term option is to be planted in shaded places and make sure that the soil is moist, but not too much, otherwise the root system may rot and the plant may die. Under natural conditions, this species chooses ravines and lowlands, growing along the banks of rivers in the shade of trees. Similar conditions need to be created on the site, it should be planted in the pre-fertilized soil.
Location on the site
Lunar is now widely used in landscape design, with its unpretentiousness and natural beauty, this flower deserves a place in the overall range of other landscape plants. Here are the possible locations of Lunnik on the site:
- Such a plant looks best when grouped, but do not forget that the distance between individual shoots during planting should not be less than 30 centimeters, otherwise the plant will be pale, there will be few flowers, and in general the general appearance of such planting will be depressing.
- Он будет хорошо смотреться на так называемом мавританском газоне, в окружении трав, такой газон не скашивают и он образует подушку из трав и растений, радуя глаз своих владельцев.
- If a gravel garden is planned, in which the ground is covered by the specified material, the plant will fit perfectly, Lunaria will be planted in groups, wormwood, barley, thyme, aster, dagil, tansy, feather grass and other plants may become nearby. This garden is practically free from weeds, and these plants feel great,
- You can actively use it in the design of flower beds or small flower beds. Such compositions are suitable for those who come to the site is not often, as it does not require special care. Surrounded by other unpretentious plants, such as bells, daisies and forget-me-nots, the Silver Ruble will be a great addition to the overall composition. It is also possible to use cinquefoil and hydrangeas, lupins, barberries and other plants. It is best to protect such compositions from the wind, using special garden supports, or reinforced plastic material,
- A perennial plant will decorate lowland and shaded areas of the site. It is also better to plant it in separate groups, further conducting periodic weeding and fertilizer.
Lunar use after fruiting
In the autumn, after flowering, the beautiful fruits of Lunnik will decorate any part. If you want to save them for the winter - it is necessary to cut the coins along with the shoots and dry out from about two weeks in a warm and dry room, perhaps in the attic will be the best place for this.
Such blanks will be useful in the cold season, to create compositions from Lunnik and other dried flowers. Such compositions are very beautiful in the interior and I will delight you with their original look until the very spring.
We can say that Lunnik is extremely unpretentious, and at the same time amazing plant. Its fruits, resembling the full moon, or silver coin, are original and attract a lot of attention.
And simplicity in the care made the plant one of the favorites of numerous landscape designers. And today, despite the fact that Lunnik is listed in the Red Book and it remains in nature very well, he feels great on many, many sites, the owners of which once could not resist the mysterious beauty of this moon plant.
Flowers are large, lilac, lilac, purple or whitish, gathered on the tops of the shoots in paniculate inflorescences, they are fragrant.
After flowering, an elliptical-shaped fruit pod appears, seeds are visible through a transparent partition. Seed germination persists for 3 years.
The small genus includes only four species, and only two of them are cultivated. They have their own characteristics of reproduction, differ in the requirements for the composition of the soil and lighting, we will look at everything in more detail.
Lunaria or lunik is grown in gardens and in backyards, used for landscaping parks, squares. The plant with original fruits is becoming increasingly popular not only among flower lovers, but also among landscape designers. His alluring mystery does not leave indifferent.
When to sow lunar into the ground
- Lunium seeds of one-year-old are sown in open ground in May, but then only next year will bloom.
- By the way, the seeds are distinguished by their excellent germination, so when sowing in the open ground, you can immediately safely retreat 40 cm between seedlings.
- For flowering this season, grow seedlings.
How to plant a seed lunar from seedlings
Sow lunar seedlings in March in cold greenhouses or at home on the windowsill. For sowing, select high-quality seeds - with a diameter of about 6 mm, dark brown.
- Fill the boxes or cassettes for seedlings with loose nutrient soil (it is best to use a universal substrate for growing seedlings), cover the seeds to a depth of 1-1.5 cm, pour it well.
- Cover the top with glass or plastic film, but air daily.
- Required diffused lighting, air temperature in the range of 20-25 ° C and moderate watering.
- Friendly shoots will appear after a week, then the shelter should be removed.
- At the stage of forming a pair of true leaves, spread out in separate containers.
Replant the seedlings in open ground at the end of April, make the lune holes the size of the root system with an earthen ball and carefully roll over. The distance between the plants is 40 cm.
Lunar or lunik in landscape design
Lunaria or lunik has a number of remarkable advantages: originality of appearance, unpretentiousness in care, the ability to grow well in the shade.
Most often it is planted in groups or mixed in mixborders with other perennial crops. Do not plant bushes too close, in cramped plant poorly developed and little blooms.