It's no secret that the climate in most parts of Russia is harsh. However, this does not stop our gardeners, because the vegetables from their beds are tastier and much healthier than the store. And in order to get record harvests not only in the south of the country, but also in the Urals and in Siberia, we grow many crops in greenhouses.
Due to the large labor costs for the construction of greenhouse and greenhouse structures, every centimeter of this land is valued by gardeners by weight of gold, and here it is very important not to allow agrotechnical errors.
Variety matters, so when selecting plants for your greenhouse, pay attention to the varietal characteristics. Oversight of varietal compatibility is the first mistake of gardeners. There is a popular belief that if a tomato is suitable for open ground, then it will grow well in a closed one. This is completely wrong, because breeders are testing and cultivating varieties for certain conditions.
For example, an outdoor tomato in a greenhouse can be affected by diseases (it can get sick and infect its neighbors), stretch fairly and build up a large amount of green mass, while not giving a good harvest. It is the same with cucumber: you should not experiment with bee pollinating hybrids in greenhouse conditions. And in general, I recommend planting only superbug hybrids in greenhouses.
The second mistake is the wrong selection of cultures in the formation of ridges. After all, plants are like people, if a person is surrounded by a good company, then everything in life also goes well. Often, competent joint planting can significantly increase yields, simplify care for them, and to some extent create protection against diseases and pests.
Well, now let's talk about specifics. Cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers and eggplants are considered to be the main crops in greenhouses. These four vegetables most often we plant in greenhouses and greenhouses. But as they say, a holy place is never empty! Not only what a gardener is able to hold in order not to occupy the last free corner. All the land must be in business! That stretch hands to plant a neighbor to the tomatoes or peppers. And it’s good if they are harmless radishes or lettuce that can peacefully coexist with any garden plants. But there are more serious cultures that overwhelm their neighbors in the garden. So the migrants are not always good.
Indoor ground is a limited space in every sense. So you have to think twice before planting a particular vegetable in a greenhouse or greenhouse. And sometimes even give up some cultures, because the place may not be enough for everyone.
Tomato compatibility in greenhouse
For the growth of this culture is suitable moderate air temperature. Tomato loves when the greenhouse is well ventilated, loves fertilizer. Plants need to be watered often, but only at the root. In the company of tomatoes, you can plant early white cabbage, for example * Miracle ultra early F1 ′, ‘Express F1‘ Nakhodka ’. Her seedlings can be planted in mid-April and at the very beginning of summer, you can get heads of juicy, crispy, sweetish cabbage for the first vitamin salads - such a neighborhood doesn’t hurt, and the harvest will please.
At the feet of tomatoes, you can place varieties of leafy or headed cabbages, a good mixture of varieties of ‘Bright vitamin A’. Good companions - onions (if you grow it on the feather) and parsley (on the greens). Also in the company to the tomato you can plant a watermelon. But when planting a tomato with green crops, remember that he does not like the neighborhood with dill and fennel!
By the way, such a familiar greenhouse tandem, like tomatoes and cucumbers, doesn’t bode well for good. So, growing them in the same greenhouse, it is advisable to spread the plants either to different beds (tomatoes on one side, cucumbers on the other), or - if there is no such possibility - plant them in different corners and divide the planting by a pair of rows of peppers.
Compatibility of cucumbers in the greenhouse
You can make any planting next to cucumbers only if you grow them on a trellis. Then cucumbers will be comfortable, and plenty of room for neighbors.
You can substitute any green crops (dill, parsley, basil, fennel, etc.), leafy and headed cabbage. Also, if a cucumber has a lot of free space at its feet, white cabbage can be planted there - no such harm will bring such a neighborhood.
Very strange, but very good neighborhood of cucumber and radish. Of course, not a little gardener would think of growing this root crop in a greenhouse, but the fact remains: this partnership helps protect cucumbers from leaf beetles and spider mites.
Compatibility of pepper in the greenhouse
All solanaceous (tomatoes, eggplants, peppers) get along well, but for
Better harvest, they still should be spread to different parts of the greenhouse or sown in separate groups. As for plants from other families, next to the pepper (and spicy, and sweet), you can safely plant basil and lovage. There will be no harm from these crops. Also a good companion is a bow.
Compatibility of eggplant in the greenhouse Eggplants are very compact plants, so it’s best not to plant anyone near them so as not to thicken and shade them. But if the place is worth its weight in gold, then this vegetable crop will perfectly live with onions. You can also plant a melon nearby. Neighborhood with tomatoes, eggplant is also not contraindicated.
Long road to popularity
In any living organism, be it a plant or an animal, nature has laid a certain genetic code defining its properties and requirements for the environment.
Carried out for many decades breeding work with seed material has allowed to change and improve the appearance and taste of vegetables.
But it is very rarely given the opportunity to change their requirements for the growing environment, although some plants can adapt to changing conditions in nature with the help of mutation processes.
Hot india with high humidity - cucumber homeland. In the wild, it still grows in those places.
Images of cucumber found on the frescoes of ancient Egypt and Greek temples. The vegetable known in so old times in other countries in Russia was first mentioned in printed sources in the 16th century.
The cucumber came to us presumably from East Asia, but in a most surprising way it came to taste and became a truly national product.
Grow abundant crops of cucumbers in most parts of the country - in greenhouses and on the ground. And then with love and diligence prepare cucumbers for eating all year round.
Wild tomatoes were first discovered in South america during the expedition of Christopher Columbus, and their seeds were brought to Europe because of the decorative bushes. At home, tomato thickets were found on dry and ventilated mountain slopes. The climate of those places was ideal for tomatoes - mild, moderate, with occasional heavy rains. Round-the-clock temperature ranged from 20 to 25 degrees Celsius.
Tomato seeds came to Russia under Catherine II, but only in the early 19th century they were grown in the southern regions of the country as edible culture and get good yields.
In the photo below you can see cucumbers and tomatoes in one polycarbonate greenhouse:
If the garden is only one greenhouse, but I really want to get the harvest of those and other favorite vegetables, then the desire to experiment often wins. Desperate gardeners and gardeners boldly divide the greenhouse area into two adjacent zones and plant on one tomato, on the other - cucumber seedlings. And what is the compatibility of cucumbers and tomatoes in one greenhouse? Let's try to answer this question.
During the summer, both cultures in the polycarbonate greenhouse receive the same care and grow in one microclimate with the same conditions. With much effort, the hosts do not remain without a crop, but it is not necessary to call it abundant.
The reason for this is all the same genetics, requiring different conditions for each type of vegetables close to those in which their distant wild relatives once grew.
For cucumbers optimal conditions for favorable growth will be a hot atmosphere, with high humidity, up to 90-100%.
Drafts are detrimental to this culture. Moreover, wet "bath" procedures greatly increase the yield of cucumbers. To do this, in warm weather, the bushes are well shed under the root and on top of the leaves, plentifully poured walkways and walls of the greenhouse.
Then the doors are tightly closed and maintain this mode for 1-1.5 hours, after which the greenhouse is opened for ventilation. The leaves of cucumbers are very large, such procedures allow them to safely cope with the evaporation of moisture, preventing drying.
Tomatoes feel better in another microclimate. Like their relatives in the wild, they prefer low humidity, from 40 to 60%. Very fond of airing.
Watering enough tomatoes on average 2 times a week. In a too humid environment, the pollen in the flowers stick together, the fruits in the hands are not tied. The consequence of high humidity in the greenhouse is always the appearance of fungal and bacterial diseases of tomatoes.
The yield of vegetables decreases, the taste of fruits deteriorates, cracks appear on them.
With such different requirements, any compromise will indicate a situation when both sides lose, therefore it is worth trying to change the conditions by means of arranging separate zones in capital greenhouses.
We divide living space: growing cucumbers and tomatoes in one greenhouse
Split greenhouse in two parts can partitions from slate, polyethylene curtains, plywood. In the far "room" where the window is located, cucumbers are planted. Here they will be protected from drafts, it will be possible to provide them with high humidity.
On the square near the door of the greenhouse will be planting tomatoes. It is possible, keeping the door constantly open, to maintain a relatively low humidity and the desired temperature in the greenhouse.
Now you can treat tomato bushes with good dressings, which they love very much. This is especially true for tall varieties of tomatoes.
Gherkins in the personal "room" abundant water procedures and high humidity are provided without much damage to neighbors. And tomatoes - generous watering with warm water, strictly under the root, avoiding contact with the leaves.
For lovers of the process, working with plants, planting tomatoes in a greenhouse and cucumbers, will bring pleasure even in the case when the harvest of vegetables will not be huge.
The most important thing - in any way in the basket there will be pimply green cucumbers and poured raspberry tomatoes.
So, is it possible to plant cucumbers and tomatoes in the greenhouse? The answer to the question of how to plant, when to plant, as well as deciding what method of cultivation of cucumbers and tomatoes in the greenhouse to choose, it will be joint or not, remains the right of every gardener. If fussing in the garden is more desirable than being able to bigger harvest - experiments are just for you!
Who is good with tomato?
Vegetable - like a man. In good company and he is good. But how to determine what will suit tomato in a closed limited area. What can be planted and grown in a greenhouse with tomatoes?
Is he - pretty capricious culture and not easy to care. In the greenhouse, he will always be the owner. Therefore, the culture for the neighborhood with him should be selected similar in terms of growing conditions.
Consider the two most popular crops for growing in the greenhouse - tomatoes and cucumbers. In one greenhouse they do not belong, only as a last resort and under certain conditions. The difference in the conditions that they need:
If possible, it is better to take out cucumbers in open ground on a man-made garden bed under a film, they will get accustomed perfectly there and give a harvest. Tomatoes are best left in the greenhouse.
Another greenhouse culture, especially in Siberia and the northern regions - sweet pepper. They are with tomato refer to one type - Solanaceae. Greenhouse compatible, since their growing conditions are similar.
But there is one in their cohabitation the problem is the microclimate in the greenhouse. Tomatoes like warm, but dry air, that is, the temperature for them should be high, but with good air movement. And pepper, on the contrary, loves heat and moisture to match cucumbers.
Some gardeners still grow peppers on the same bed with tomatoes.
At the same time, a “chess” scheme is practiced, which provides sufficient light access for both cultures.
Pepper is helpful presence of tomatoes in the neighborhood. The substances contained in them scare away aphids, which pepper loves very much.
Radish, onion and garlic
This neighborhood will benefit all cultures.. Onions with tomatoes are planted only that which is grown on greens. With this neighborhood need to provide enough light radish, onion and garlic.
Strawberries (strawberries) coexist well with tomatoes in the same room (greenhouse). Both cultures do not like high humidity, they constant airing is required in order to avoid infection with fungal diseases. Besides, draft contributes to pollination of that and other cultures.
Strawberry Bushes alternate with planting tomatoes according to the scheme 60 x 45 cm. Wherein strawberry nutrition should be no less than 30 x 15 cm on the bush.
Each vegetable has its own "apartment"
For those who are still trying to grow poorly compatible vegetables in one greenhouse, there is a way out. it space organization. What can you plant tomatoes in the greenhouse? The most "greenhouse" plants are tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers and eggplants. Their compatibility leaves much to be desired, so they should separate from each other.
If the greenhouse has two entrances from opposite sidesit is easier to place cultures in it. With its sufficient width, three rows are made. Tomatoes are planted in the middle - this part of the greenhouse is best ventilated. Pepper is placed on the north side, cucumbers or eggplants on the southern garden. Although it is better to exclude cucumbers.
If there is one door in the greenhouse, and on the opposite side only a window, crops can be arranged in the following order: tomatoes are planted near the doors, they must be separated from the rest of the area either by film, or slate or plywood. The best material is film.
Then cucumbers are planted, followed by eggplants - both vegetables are very thermophilic and in the middle they will be fine. And last but not least - peppers are planted near the window, they prefer a cooler atmosphere.
Locating not very compatible crops in one greenhouse need to be prepared for some decrease in yield each of the cultures.
Today, manufacturers of greenhouses offer various designs, in particular, their internal. With the help of partitions-modules, you can create separate rooms with the desired microclimate in them that will allow to combine "incompatible" in one greenhouse and not to think about what to plant tomatoes with.
What greenhouses are needed?
In summer, light film greenhouses will be ideal. The more solid structures include unheated greenhouse, which is covered with polycarbonate or glass. For growing all year round capital greenhouses with a heating system are used. Co-planting vegetables in a greenhouse that is covered with polycarbonate is the most practical option.
During planting it is necessary to know that the requirements for temperature and humidity parameters may vary.
Drip irrigation can provide optimal soil moisture. A large number of cultures prefer only warm water, which makes it impossible to directly connect to the water supply. It is required to use a storage tank where moisture will be warmed.
For year-round greenhouses, it is important to use the backlight. Additional fluorescent lamps are used for vegetables in need of bright light. A design with two input blocks from opposite ends of the structure is considered to be convenient. Such a layout will provide the possibility of placing crops that have different requirements for air humidity and temperature, which greatly facilitates the care of plants.
Advantages and disadvantages of co-location
Combining crops will help ensure a rational distribution of vegetables in the greenhouse. The following advantages are distinguished:
- Saving scarce space.
- The system of vents and drip irrigation provides individual regulation of humidity and temperature.
- For demanding and particularly capricious crops suitable indoor ground.
- Reduced lighting and heating costs, which increase with the use of several greenhouses.
The mixed plantings in the greenhouse have some disadvantages:
- There is a danger in the thickening of the landings.
- The likelihood of pollinating.
- In a small greenhouse it is difficult to create conditions that will be optimal for all types of vegetables.
- Plants can be affected by pests that are typical of other crops.
What crops are allowed to grow together?
If we consider the compatibility of plants in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, one culture stands out, which becomes the base one. Usually, cucumbers or tomatoes are emitted as a base crop, and other vegetables are planted on them.
Good and bad companions of vegetables:
К самому сложному варианту относится совместное размещение огурцов и томатов. Данные овощные культуры имеют разную совместимость при посадке в теплице, что изменяет требования к работе.
Высокую влажность воздуха помидоры просто не выносят. They require moderate watering, preferably with mineral phosphorus and potassium based supplements. Cucumbers need high humidity. If there is a lack of water, they stop growing, and the fruits become bitter and small. Organic fertilizers are used as feedings: bird droppings or divorced mullein.
It is necessary to think in advance about the location of vegetables in the greenhouse. When planning to grow tomatoes and cucumbers in the same greenhouse, you need to dilute them on opposite sides. These units must have separate entrances. If the second door is missing, the cucumbers are planted in the warmest furthest end. Tomatoes should be placed at the entrance to create fresh air and coolness for vegetables.Mixed planting of crops in one greenhouse must be thought out in advance, after examining the proximity of plants.
For distribution of plants in the greenhouse, for example, tomatoes and cucumbers in one greenhouse, a separating plastic or plywood partition is constructed.
A thick curtain made of a screen of oilcloth or plastic film, which is stretched on a wooden frame, can help. With the help of insulation increases the level of humidity in the area of growing cucumbers, which will greatly affect the yield.
Together with tomatoes, you can grow other types of nightshade: eggplant and peppers. They are very demanding of moisture, and fresh air is loved by as many tomatoes. Top dressings at these cultures are similar.
It is important to know about the possibility of pollination. Therefore, no bitter and sweet peppers are placed nearby. If a pollination occurs, sweet fruits will taste bitter, and sharp flavors will disappear from the sharp ones.
Vegetables with a long growing season can be placed next to early ripening crops: radishes, cabbage, green onions, herbs, leaf lettuce. These plants are conveniently placed on the edge of the ridges, so that when harvesting, do not disturb the eggplants, tomatoes and cucumbers. After cutting the cabbage and digging up the radish, new seedlings can be added to the vacated places.
Together with cucumbers in the greenhouse it is good to grow melon crops: melons, watermelons, pumpkins. You can plant different varieties of squash and squash. They are conveniently located on the sides of the cucumber bushes located in the center.
Growing herbs does not only increase the profitability of the greenhouse, but also allows you to repel insect pests. Especially effective in this role are various types of parsley, mint, and celery. Naked slugs can attract green salad. It makes no sense to grow it next to particularly sensitive varieties of pests.
Terms of care for greenhouse cohabitation
For vegetables that live in the same greenhouse, you need special attention to care. Replacement of topsoil is carried out annually. It is necessary to spill soil before planting with a solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate. They fertilize the soil with humus; wood ash and a small dose of mineral fertilizer (potassium, sulfate, superphosphate) are applied for it.
For growing seedlings in the greenhouse should immediately allocate a separate plot. During transplantation to a permanent place of seedlings, it is necessary to check that they are completely healthy.
If pest larvae or various signs of disease are detected, the seedlings are first treated, and then moved to the greenhouse.
Early ripe hybrids are suitable for co-location. They are distinguished by yield and disease resistance. Young plantings can be treated for prophylaxis with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. During the planting increase, spraying with phytosporin or other non-toxic types of bio-preparations is performed.
Plants growing in the same greenhouse may not reduce yields and feel good. It is necessary to closely monitor their condition, and if problems arise, then take action on time. Based on the experience gained, you can make adjustments for the next year.
What greenhouses are needed?
In summer, light film greenhouses will be ideal. More solid option - unheated greenhouses covered with glass or polycarbonate. For year-round cultivation suitable capital greenhouses with a heating system. Joint planting of vegetables in a polycarbonate greenhouse, today, is considered the most practical.
For optimum soil moisture, drip irrigation is recommended. Most cultures prefers warm watertherefore, it is impossible to connect directly to the water supply system, you need a storage tank in which the moisture will be warm.
In the year-round greenhouse required lighting. Vegetables in need of bright light will require additional fluorescent lamps. Very convenient if the design will have two input blocks in opposite ends designs. This layout will help to place crops with different requirements for temperature and humidity and will facilitate the care of plants.
Pros and cons of co-location
Combining crops in one greenhouse has a number undoubted advantages. Among them:
- saving scarce space
- opportunity reduce heating and lighting costsincreasing at operation of several greenhouses,
- closed ground is suitable for particularly capricious and demanding crops,
- drip irrigation system and air vents gives the opportunity to individually adjust the temperature and humidity level.
Mixed planting in the greenhouse, andThere are some disadvantages:
- the possibility of pollinating,
- plants may be affected by pests typical of other crops,
- in small greenhouses it is difficult to create conditions that are optimal for each type of vegetables,
- there is a risk of thickening landings.
What crops can be grown together?
What can be grown in the same greenhouse at the same time? Most often, one of the cultures is basic. These are usually tomatoes or cucumbers, to which other vegetables are planted. The fact that it is better to plant with tomatoes or cucumbers, read on our website
Tomatoes do not tolerate high humidity air, they need moderate watering, prefer mineral supplements based on potassium and phosphorus. Cucumbers need high humidity, because of a lack of water, they stop growing, the fruits become small and bitter. Organic fertilizer is preferred as fertilizer: divorced mullein or bird droppings.
Location in the greenhouse of vegetables, you need to think in advance. If you plan to plant cucumbers and tomatoes in one greenhouse, it is important to separate them in opposite directions. It is desirable that the blocks had separate entrances. If there is no second door, the cucumbers are planted in the warmest furthest end. Tomatoes are located at the entrance vestibule, this will provide the coolness and fresh air necessary for vegetables.
How to distribute plants in the greenhouse? In a small greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers can be split plywood partitionplastic or other material.
A thick plastic film curtain or a screen made of oilcloth stretched over a wooden frame will also help. Isolation will increase the humidity level in the cucumber zone, which will positively affect the yield.
What else can be planted together in the same greenhouse? Next to the tomatoes you can plant other solanaceous: peppers and eggplants (read on our website an article about the compatibility of eggplants with other crops when planted in a greenhouse). They are more demanding of moisture, but not less than tomatoes like fresh air. The preferences for feeding with these cultures are also similar.
It is important to consider the possibility of pollination. Because of this danger it is undesirable to place sweet and bitter peppers nearby. After pereopyleniya sweet fruits will taste bitter, the sharp ones will lose the piquancy of taste. On the compatibility of peppers with other cultures, you can specify on the website.
What crops can be planted in the same greenhouse? Early-ripening crops will become neighbors of vegetables with a long growing season: white cabbage, lettuce, spicy herbs, green onions, radishes. These plants convenient to plant along the edge of the ridges, to harvest, without disturbing cucumbers, tomatoes and eggplants. After digging up the radish or cutting the cabbage to a vacant place, you can plant a new portion of seedlings.
Spices not only increase the profitability of greenhouses, but also scare away insects. In this role, different types of parsley, celery, mint are especially effective. A green salad, on the other hand, can attract naked slugs. You should not plant it next to varieties that are particularly susceptible to pests.
Neighborhood (compatibility) of vegetables in the greenhouse: see tables for consideration below.
Hothouse cohabitation: care rules
Vegetables living in the same greenhouse need special attention. The topsoil is replaced annually; before planting, the soil is shed with a solution of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate. The soil is fertilized with humusWood ash and a small dose of mineral fertilizer (superphosphate, potassium sulfate) are introduced into it.
If seedlings are grown in the greenhouse, for her it is better to select a separate section. When transplanting seedlings to a permanent place of residence, it is important to make sure that they are completely healthy.
For co-location more suitable early ripe hybrids. They are fruitful, resistant to disease. For prophylaxis young landings process a weak solution of potassium permanganate is sprayed with phytosporin or other non-toxic bio-preparations during planting growth.
Plants planted in one greenhouse may feel very good and not reduce yields. It is important to closely monitor their condition.in time to take action in case of problems. Next year, you can make adjustments to the landing, taking into account the experience gained.
Useful information in the video below: