Caring for roses in the fall includes pruning, dressing and preparation of bushes for the winter period. Each type of roses requires a special approach and in each case, care for them is different from the other.
Roses for the winter need to be cut in order to simplify the process of sheltering these plants, especially miniature, polyanthus, hybrid tea varieties and Floribunda roses, which are often quite high in 2 meters.
There are several types of pruning:
- Short - shoots are pruned to 5-15 centimeters from the surface of the earth. 2-3 buds remain on the stem near the ground. Such pruning is well tolerated by densely branching polyanthus roses.
Cascading roses in the first year after planting are pruned to 15 centimeters, and further, pruning becomes more moderate.
- Medium - shoots are shortened to 30-40 centimeters. There are 5 kidneys left on them. This pruning is applied to hybrid tea, Floribunda, Remontant, Pernetsian roses.
- Long - pruning of the tips of the shoots. 8-10 buds remain on cut stalks with a length of 0.7-1 meters. So park, climbing small-flowered, Bengal, Old English rose bushes are shortened.
- In climbing large-flowered and shrub roses, perennial shoots are cut by 1/3 to enhance the growth of young branches.
- Groundcover roses require only sanitary pruning.
- Shrubs with small flowers can not be cut at all, the plants have enough nipping points.
When pruning, shoots are shortened with a pruner. The cut is made 5 millimeters higher from the kidney growing on the outside of the stele. All cuts are made at an angle of 45 degrees. Weakened, damaged, not properly growing, curves, dry shoots and light not formed shoots are removed completely. Slices are treated with any antiseptic or wood ash powder.
If the plants are not pruned, their growth points are pinned. While nipping, the buds and young, poorly developed shoots break out, but are not completely removed. Then they simply dry out and can be removed completely.
After the autumn pruning of roses, plants need additional feeding. It is produced a fortnight after the removal of excess shoots. At the same time, one should not forget that from the beginning of flowering and until the end of the season nitrogen is excluded from the composition of dressings, which accelerates the growth of green mass.
For feeding, take 10 grams of potassium sulfate, 10 grams of magnesium sulfate, 25 grams of superphosphate and 2.5 grams of boric acid per bucket of water. The solution, the plants are added to the root. Top dressing is carried out after watering the bush. Means enough for 3-4 square meters of landings. For foliar feeding, 15 grams of potassium monophosphate and 15 grams of superphosphate per 3 buckets of water are used.
A week after making the feedings, the tops of the shoots are pinched, for faster lignification of the stems.
Preparing for winter by region
When the air temperature is below 0 degrees, the sap flow in the upper part of the rose bushes stops and the plants fall asleep. With warming, the sap flow in roses resumes and with a new cold snap, the moisture on the stems freezes, and the ice that appears breaks the stems. Places of rupture are affected by microorganisms that cause diseases.
To prevent this from happening, experienced gardeners try to prevent this situation and prepare flower beds with roses for the winter hut before the onset of cold weather. In each region, preparation for the winter takes place at a specific time that cannot be missed.
In outskirts of Moscow
Preparation of rose bushes for winter in the Moscow region begins in mid-September - early October. First, fertilizers are added to the bushes, then watering and digging the land around the plants stops. Leaves are removed on the stems, pruned, roots are covered. When frost occurs, the bushes are covered with a protective cover.
Shelter bushes made in October. Terms may move, depending on weather conditions of the current year.
In the Urals, the preparation of rose bushes for winter falls at the end of August - the beginning of September. The final cover of roses is held no later than the beginning of October. By this time, the plants are fully prepared for winter.
In Siberia, roses are prepared for winter, based on the weather forecast. Preparation begins in August. In September, the plants are covered with protective materials before the onset of spring. Snow in this region is an additional shelter from the cold, which additionally retains heat inside the covering materials that protect the bushes.
In the Leningrad region
In the Leningrad region, the preparation of roses for wintering begins from the first days of September.
- In early autumn, flowers are cut and dry buds break off.
- In mid-September, the bushes are fertilized with potash-magnesium supplements.
- By the end of September, yellowing leaves break off on a bush.
- Then pruning bushes.
- With the onset of stable frosts, the plants are covered with any covering material.
Features of preparation for the winter of different types of roses
Shelter plants for the winter, after all the preparatory activities carried out at an air temperature of 5 degrees cold.
The land around the bushes is cleared of debris. On the bushes break the leaves. The branches of roses are removed from the supports, are bound and processed with a fungicide preparation. A sheet of roofing felt, foam or spruce branches is placed under the scourge to protect the shoots from rotting. A layer of sand or earth is poured on top.
Shoots bend over. When frost comes, the top of the rose is covered with roofing felt, the edges are fixed so that the shelter is not carried away by the wind.
A more reliable and time-consuming option of sheltering climbing roses for cold regions is the shield method. For him, they take 2 wooden or plywood boards, up to 0.9 meters wide and a length equal to the length of the bush. The design is installed on top of the fixed branches. Wedges are driven into the ground to fix the roof against displacement. From above the film stretches or spruce branches.
Also for the shelter, you can use the method of tying bushes. In this case, the shoots are covered with spruce branches and spunbond. The shelter is pressed down to the ground with boards, bricks and a tarpaulin.
When preparing these roses, first the leaves are cut from the bottom of the bushes. When pruning stems, 25-30 centimeters are removed from the total length. The lower part of the stems and the soil around the plants is treated with a 3% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux mixture. The land around the bush is covered with a 15-cm layer of sand. Sand protects against freezing of the roots.
Shoots are trimmed and treated with any pesticides. After that, they can be filled with any insulating materials, such as peat, compost, dry soil. For shelter you can use high peat. Peat will keep the temperature constant and protect the bush from moisture. From above, the shelter is covered with specially prepared wooden shields or fir branches. Lapnik additionally protects the bushes from rodents.
Hybrid tea varieties require gentle pruning of 10 centimeters. A protective frame is built above the shortened shoots of roses.
At the first frosts, the rest of the leaves and the underexposed stems are removed on plants. Frames are formed from boards, plywood or shields. They are covered with agrofibre. The ends are free. When setting frosty weather, they close.
On top of the covering material is a film that will protect the bushes from snow and moisture. The edges of the film below are fixed with bricks or boards. This method of shelter bushes is not used on too wet soils, as in this case moisture will accumulate inside the shelter, which will harm the plants.
Cold-resistant park varieties are practically not cut off. Before wintering, for better flowering, all strong gains are shortened by 5-10 centimeters. In addition, damaged and dry stems are removed.
Before the onset of the first frosts, the bushes pile up to 15-20 centimeters with peat or earth.
Stems bend down to the ground. On top of it is formed a frame of lapnik or boards, which is covered with a layer of kraft paper, burlap or spunbond, which will protect the bush from temperature extremes.
Ground cover roses require shelter if the region has frosty and little snowy winters. With a large layer of snow, the bushes winter well without any extras.
In another embodiment, to cover the roses above the bush, it is possible to form a frame of arcs, and from above to pull the agrofibre and the film with holes for air circulation.
When you create a structure, you must make sure that it is stable and will withstand wind gusts and weight of precipitation.
How to prepare roses for winter: video
How to slow down the growing season
For a good winter, the plant must accumulate nutrients in the fall and go into a state of rest. A decrease in temperature and a reduction in daylight hours will signal a winter coming for the rose, and changes in autumn care and preparation for winter will help rebuild biological processes. August - the month in which the preparation of roses for the winter season begins.
Since August, they stop making nitrogen fertilizers that help abundant flowering, instead they make root dressing with potassium-phosphorus additives. This is another important nuance in how to care for roses in the fall.
During this period, it is recommended to conduct 2 dressings.
For the first in 10 liters of water dissolve:
- boric acid - 2, 5 g (can be replaced by brown - 3.5 g),
- potassium sulfate - 10 g,
- superphosphate - 25 g.
- water - 10 liters,
- superphosphate and potassium sulfate - 15 and 16 g, respectively.
Copper Oxide Treatment
Treatment with a fungicide is carried out before hilling, in dry, warm weather, following all precautions. Previously, at a height of 40-50 cm, all the leaves are removed from the plant.
Copper oxychloride is sprayed to disinfect the bark and prevent many shrub diseases. The most famous of them are scab and powdery mildew.
Shrubs pile up before the first frost, since the movement of the juices in the plant has not stopped yet and the stem may crack from frost. A hill 30-40 cm high is piled around the stem. The mixture for hilling should be dry, it consists of ground with the addition of sand, sawdust, before hilling the ground around the root can be slightly powdered with ashes.
Trimming for the winter
Pruning and removal of leaves carried out in late October.
Processing of roses in the fall before shelter for the winter combines 2 types of pruning:
- Sanitary - cutting off the leaves and pruning of winter-dying parts of the plant.
- Pruning to form a crown of shrubs.
- evaporation of moisture from the leaves, which depletes the plants and increases the humidity inside the shelter,
- their rotting on a bush in a shelter and infecting with the rot of the whole plant.
Formative pruning is carried out depending on the variety and is divided into 3 types:
- Short pruning - leave shoots with a pair of buds. Perform this type of pruning infrequently. Cascade shtambovye species are shortly cut only in the first year, the length of the shoots after such pruning is 15-18 cm.
- Medium - 35–40 cm, 5–6 buds are left; they are performed on hybrid tea, polyanthus and floribunda roses, grandiflora, and remontant varieties.
- Long pruning - leave no less than 10 buds, slightly shortening the shoot. Apply to old English, shrubby and climbing roses.
Shoots climbing roses cut to 30% of the length, except for small-colored species, which pinch the growth point. Climbing varieties bloom on last year's shoots, because of this they can not be too pruned. Only old perennial shoots are shortened to 30 cm, to stimulate the growth of young stems.
Weak, not mature and sick shoots are completely cut off.
3-5 mature escapes are left trying to observe symmetry and such principles:
- Pruning is carried out in dry and clear weather.
- For thicker stems, use a hacksaw to prevent the wood from cracking.
- Sections are performed at an angle for dripping moisture.
- The cut core must be white.
- The cut is made above the swollen buds 5 mm higher, so that the shoots growing from them do not intersect in the future.
- After finishing pruning, remove all the leaves, carefully walking along the stem from the bottom up with a hand in a thick glove.
How to cover roses
To create an air-dry shelter of roses for the winter you need:
- covering material.
- Plastic film - it is durable, but you need to leave the ventilation holes, as under it the roses can melt.
- Sacking, thick rags, old jackets and coats - these improvised materials are cheap, but not very convenient.
- Agrofibres, spanbond, lutrasil - this is a special synthetic material, well pass moisture and air, you can buy any required footage, will last several seasons, are convenient to use.
Also, roses for the winter are wrapped with burlap or heavy paper and harbor without frame:
This method is suitable for low bushes and cold-resistant varieties.
Using air-dry shelter to preserve
In the shelter of roses exposed to 2 hazards:
- Rodents - for prevention in the tunnels are spreading the poison from rodents.
- Vypleivanie - without access to air and at high humidity shoots choking and they are affected by pathogens.
For this reason, roses are covered directly, having sustained them for 2 weeks at an air temperature of less than 2-5 ° C below 0. This also will not allow rodents to start in shelters.
The stems of roses gently bend down to the ground and laid on the material spread below. If necessary, the stems pin to the ground with metal brackets. The base of the stem should be well spud.
A covering material is laid over the frame. Agrofibre, spanbond, lutrasil folded in 2-3 layers. Applying polyethylene, leave holes for air. The material is pressed to the ground with boards and bricks.
If dry snow falls, you can pour it over the cover for additional insulation.