Of all the fruit trees, only the apple tree is perhaps the longest story, starting from the time of Adam and Eve. Today, no garden can do without this culture. Apples containing a unique complex of microelements (iron, manganese, copper, etc.), sugars, vitamins, organic acids, etc., are considered to be one of the most useful fruits. And the presence of many varieties of apple trees makes it possible not only to use them for processing - for making jams, compotes, juices, drying, etc., but also to eat them fresh almost all year round. When ensuring proper planting and care, among other fruit trees, it is the apple tree that is characterized by the highest yield, decorative effect and adaptability to any climatic conditions. Moreover, the combination of these qualities makes it possible for cottagers in some cases to limit themselves on the site to copies exclusively of this sustainable culture and for the production of fruits (fruitful varieties) and for the original decoration of the garden (ornamental varieties).
When choosing a variety of apple trees, several points should be taken into account, including the purpose of planting, the terms of fruiting (terms of consumption), the size of the plot, etc. For decorating the garden, it is better to choose highly decorative varieties (bush and tree forms) that will not yield to even all known sakura. Fruits of decorative apple trees are small and rarely used for processing, but with their original coloring they can decorate the garden until frost. The most interesting varieties: “Nora” with scarlet fruits, Apple tree of Nedzwiecki (low, dwarf), “Royalties” and “Macamik” - with purple, “Golden Hornet” and “Butterball” - with rich yellow, “Lemoinei” - with burgundy and others
If the apple is planted to produce crops, it is recommended to purchase high-yielding varieties in the nurseries, preferably zoned, winter-hardy and disease-resistant. Considering that the apple tree is a cross-pollinated crop, it is better to plant at least two simultaneously flowering specimens (varieties), and to ensure year-round harvest on the table - at least 2 summer trees, 2 - 3 autumn and 2 - 5 winter varieties. The fruits of summer apples (varieties “Bely poured”, “Medunitsa”, “Mantet”, “Ottawa”, “Aroma de Vares”, “Papirovka”, etc.) ripen early, until the end of August, and are stored for a maximum of a week, therefore they are processed or eaten as quickly as possible. Apples of the autumn ripening period (apple varieties "Cinnamon Striped", "Borovinka", "Melba", "Korean Woman", "Glory to the Victors", "Akane", "Kids Orange Red", "Oryol Striped", etc.) are harvested from the beginning September and store 2 - 3 weeks, which makes it possible to stretch the terms of their fresh consumption. The longest, until the spring of next year, only the fruits of winter apple trees (varieties “Moscow Winter”, “Antonovka”, “Bogatyr”, “Aport”, “Lobo”, “Welsey”, “Golden Delicious”, “ Pink Lady ”,“ Elise ”and others), who, as a rule, decorate the tables of summer residents to new harvests.
Planting apple trees
In large areas where it is possible to lay a large or medium garden, it is possible to plant medium and tall apple trees grafted on a seed (strong-growing) stock. They live and bear fruit for about 60 years, reaching a height of 7 - 8 meters without pruning, so they are planted according to the 5 × 5 m scheme. In small and medium-sized gardens, it is better to plant medium-sized apple trees on a semi-dwarf and dwarf rootstock according to the 4 × 4 and 3 × scheme 3 m respectively. Compared with vigorous, such apples have a slightly smaller crop and grow lower (semi-dwarf - up to 4 - 5 m, dwarf - up to 2 - 2.5 m), but their more dense planting makes it possible to compensate for the level of yield per one hundred square meters. As for life expectancy, such apples are still inferior to vigorous - 30–40 years for semi-dwarfs and 15–20 years for dwarfs - the garden requires earlier rejuvenation. The planting of recently popular apple-shaped apple trees (spur varieties), which allow to have full-fledged yields due to compacted planting (0.5 × 2 or 1 × 1 m) in small areas, are strongly not recommended for beginners, as these apple trees require very careful maintenance. and attention from the gardener.
Before buying a sapling, the summer resident must determine the level of groundwater in the area, since all varieties (forms) of apple trees, falling into them by roots, develop poorly, give low yields, lose winter-resistance and may die over time. The root system of vigorous apple trees can go down 2.5 m deep and it is desirable to plant them where the groundwater is located below 3-meter depth. Saplings on a semi-dwarf stock can be planted in areas with a level higher than 2.5 meters, and in cases of nearby (above 1.5 m) groundwater it is strongly recommended to plant only columnar apples and varieties on a dwarf rootstock. It is possible to determine the type of stock in a sapling with ACS: the roots of vigorous are similar to an inverted crown distributed evenly from the trunk, and the dwarf usually has a clearly pronounced central root growing to the side and several smaller thin roots. Pay attention: healthy 1 - 2-year-old saplings should have elastic branches and roots when buying, as well as a clearly grafted bark site, the two-year-old sapling does not differ much from the one-year-old, but it will start to bear fruit soon after planting.
Terms of planting apple trees depend on the characteristics of the variety (winter hardiness) and the climatic conditions of the area. In the autumn, starting from the last decade of September and ending 3 weeks before the frost (mid-October), they are recommended to be planted in the south and in those areas of the middle belt where there is a fairly high level of snow cover in winter. In the northern regions with mild frosty winters, planting apple trees, especially winter varieties on dwarf rootstocks and columnar forms, is better to move to spring (the last decade of April). Spring planting is strongly recommended in cases of planting seedlings on the ridge, which is used in areas with close bedding (1 m) of groundwater.
It is advisable to prepare pits for apple trees (100x100x70 cm) a month before planting so that the fertilizers applied to them partially decompose and the soil should settle tightly. The excavated soil is thoroughly mixed - a fertile top layer with a lower infertile one - and fertilizers are added to the third part: humus (3 buckets), wood ash (10 tablespoons), superphosphate (1 cup) and potassium sulfate (4 tablespoons). The bottom of the pit is loosened to the depth of the bayonet and pour out the fertilized soil mixture, after which the upper half of the pit is filled with fertile soil without fertilizers. The pit prepared in this way is watered and the soil is filled after it has partially settled. Pay attention: if a planting hole is dug just before planting (American gardeners plant apple trees exactly like this), then fertilizers are not introduced into it, but only add new fertile soil in layers, alternating them with layers dug out of the ground pit (layers are approximately 15 cm thick) .
For planting on ridges, a 3 × 3.5 m plot is prepared for each seedling: they dig it to a depth of 25–30 cm, sprinkle a fertilizer over the surface of a fertilizer (compost) and 2 tablespoons of potassium sulfate and superphosphate for each square meter level them with rakes. Fertilized soil is sprinkled on top with a layer (60 - 70 cm) of fertile land without fertilizers, in which in 2 - 3 weeks and seedlings are planted. With this method of planting apple trees for removal of groundwater, it is recommended to additionally dig out grooves in between rows (along the crown perimeter).
Attention should be paid to the fact that all apple trees for the first 2 years should be tied to a peg (2-2.5 cm in diameter) that will support the sapling and partially shade it from the south side. It is better to make a peg from linden or hazel so that the part in the ground will rot over time. For dwarf forms, which should be grown up tied up until the end of the tree’s life, it is advisable to take an oak stake, about 1.8 m high and 5 cm in diameter. Before planting, apple trees are slaughtered in the center of the pit (planting bed) so that 60 - 80 cm, and a seedling on the north side is planted nearby, keeping a distance of 15 cm between the stem and stake. After the procedure, the eight-seedling is tied to the stake with soft string, the tension of which is periodically checked and loosened as the apple tree thickens.
When planting an apple tree, it is necessary to control the level of penetration of the root collar, which should be 5–10 cm (10–15 cm in the case of a freshly dug hole) above ground level. Gently straightened roots of a seedling during the procedure are evenly covered with soil, periodically compacting it. For better contact of the roots with the ground, the seedling after planting is plentifully watered (3 to 4 buckets of water) and sprinkle the soil when the root collar is exposed. A good survival rate also provides planting apples in the dirt - in the previously spilled planting pits with further filling of the soil without compaction. After planting and watering, the near-trunk circles are recommended to be ground with about 5 cm of soil or humus, and the next watering should be done a maximum of a week later.
In the first 2 - 3 years care for young apples is to remove weeds and regular watering. Many gardeners are advised to keep tree trunks of apple trees under black steam, but in the middle of summer, planting in side rows of siderats for planting them in the soil will not be superfluous - the leaf mass will fall apart in the autumn and winter and will release nutrients for the trees in the spring. The pristvolnye circles of adult apple trees are usually tinned (they form natural or artificial lawns), and the grass 10–15 cm high is regularly mown and left as mulch. But as the grass quickly drains the soil, apple trees in such gardens need more frequent watering. Young summer trees are watered about once a month over the summer, spending 3 to 4 buckets of water on each tree, but on sandy soils and especially in dry summer, the amount of watering increases even to 1 to 2 times a week. The volume of water consumed for an adult apple is approximately calculated by age - an average bucket of water for each year (for example, for a 6-year-old tree, the norm is 6 buckets). Adult fruiting apple trees need a minimum of 4 abundant watering: before bud break, 3 weeks after flowering, 3 to 4 weeks before harvesting and after full harvest during the leaf fall. Watering during harvest is extremely undesirable, as it causes excessive pouring and cracking of fruits and negatively affect their keeping quality during storage.
The first five years after planting, young trees for the winter are tied with spruce branches, reeds, strips of parchment to protect them from hares and mice, and with the onset of frost mulch near-trunk circles are mulching with manure, and in areas with little snowy winters they spud earth to a height of 15-20 cm.
In the second year after planting in early spring, young trees begin to form crowns. To do this, cut off branches and excessively growing vertical branches that appear in the shtamba area, remove some of the last year's growth (about a third shorten shoots more than 60 cm long), thus limiting the growth of apple trees in height and stimulating the growth of branches to the side. In the future, during annual pruning, part of last year’s and more mature branches should be removed in order to stimulate active branching and the formation of flower buds on young shoots, cut branches that grow vertically, crown inside and down, sick and damaged. A properly formed crown of an adult tree should have several tiers with 3–4 shoots uniformly distributed in space, growing in a close to horizontal position, and the branches in the lower tiers should be slightly longer than the taller ones. The wounds that form in the cut-off areas must necessarily be smeared with garden pitch or painted with iron red lead. Note that when pruning annually and correctly, apple trees begin to give birth earlier, regularly bear fruit, their frost resistance and longevity increase. However, ornamental apple trees, as a rule, do not need strong pruning: pruning involves only sanitary thinning - removing inward-growing and intersecting, damaged and dry branches.
So that fruiting does not cause the exhaustion of apples, the first two years they should cut off all the flowers, and in subsequent years to regulate the load, as overloaded, too abundantly fruiting trees for the next year, as a rule, "rest" and give a meager harvest. On young trees, it is recommended to thin out the ovary, leaving 1-2 fruits in each bundle, otherwise apples may grow underdeveloped or with low taste. In adults, abundantly fruiting apple trees, the weight of large fruits can break off branches, so they are provided with props or stretch marks in advance, but they must use thick rubber as a gasket so that the ropes do not form wounds on the bark of the branches.
For normal growth and fruiting apple trees, it is desirable to regularly feed. In early spring, young apple trees are root-fed with a solution of urea (2 tbsp. Per 10 liters of water), in May -June - foliar liquid “Humate sodium” or “Ideal” liquid (a tablespoon per bucket of water), and in September - root potassium phosphate dressing (2 tablespoons of superphosphate per bucket of water).
This is a very strong perennial tree, it has well developed roots. It has a brown bark and a crown in the shape of a pyramid. Branches closer to the trunk are parallel to the ground, their ends rise up. The leaves are small, they have jagged edges. The harvest of the apple tree gives already in the fourth year.
In May, white small flowers appear on the apple tree. The ovary develops during the summer period. Ripening of apples occurs in early September. The fruits are not too large and of the same size, the weight of one is up to 50 g. The fruits are very beautiful: they are cream-colored with red stripes. It tastes sweet and sour, slightly astringent and very juicy. The apples have a unique aroma.
The height of an adult plant can reach 15 meters, but it can be arranged in the form of a bush several meters high. The variety does not belong to self-pollinating, it is necessary that it be pollinated by pollen of nearby trees. The best pollinator is considered to be Uralskoye Bulk.
Apple trees are very resistant to various diseases. They are not affected by rot and scab, they are not afraid of any pests, only the codling moth can harm them. In order to protect trees from it, you need to remove fallen fruits, grass under the apple trees in time, and also properly care for the trees.
Although the apples are too small, up to 80 kg can be collected from one apple tree. And in the most productive years, you can collect almost a hundredweight. Productivity from year to year becomes more. As a result of constant work on this variety, it was possible to ensure that negative climatic conditions do not affect the development of the fruit.
For storage, take fruits with intact sandpaper and place them in places with high humidity, poured into boxes or boxes. They are well tolerated transportation, as very strong. However, apples do not lie for a long time, they should be quickly processed.
You can cook jam, jam, prepare juice, jams and jellies.
Selection of seedlings
It is best to purchase seedlings in specialized nurseries or garden farms. When buying in the market or ordering online, you need to inquire about the reliability of the seller. Do not miss the opportunity to consult with an experienced gardener.
When buying, you need to pay attention to the age of the seedlings. The best option is to buy two-year-olds, they quickly take root and grow. Age is very easy to determine. Biennial tree has small twigs. Roots must live, without extraneous formations. To check this, it is necessary to tear the skin a little bit, under it they should be green.
Planting is carried out either in April, when the soil is wet enough, or in October, when the foliage will fall, but you need to catch up to frost. It is very important to have near trees that will pollinate this variety.
The soil should not be highly moist, with a low content of groundwater. Planting seedlings in heavy ground is unacceptable. Most suitable light loam. The trees love light, and they do not need to be planted in shady places. Well, if they are protected from cold winds.
Prepare for planting begin in 14 days. The top layer of soil is cleaned of vegetation and roots. Dig a hole 1 meter deep and wide. Its size can vary depending on the root system, which is soaked in water for several hours. The prepared pit is filled with humus by two thirds, using organic matter. If the soil is sandy, then a small amount of clay is placed on the bottom.
Fertilizers containing nitrogen and lime cannot be used, as they can damage the roots. Внесенные питательные вещества нужно хорошо утрамбовать. Деревце опускают в яму таким образом, чтобы корневая шейка была немножко над поверхностью почвы. Корни хорошо расправляют и засыпают оставшимся субстратом. Деревце подвязывают к колышку.
Чтобы яблони быстро росли, нужно добавить доломитовой муки, золы, фосфорные и калийные удобрения и хорошо полить.
Так как корни очень развитые, то междурядья между растениями нужно оставлять до семи метров.
The climate does not have much effect on the cultivation of apples, the main thing is compliance with agrotechnical measures. Proper care will prevent many negative aspects and will allow to achieve high yield of fruits.
Watering is carried out once a month, pouring up to five buckets of water under one tree. When the soil is very dry, it is done several times a week. It is undesirable to water trees when harvesting occurs, as this may harm the fruit.
Land between the rows, as well as in near-barrel circles, must be weeded. Landing on the slopes need to plant grass. Fallen leaves and dry grass are used for the mulching procedure to retain moisture in the soil. If weeds have appeared, then it is necessary to fight them, and to loosen the ground in order to provide the roots with access to air.
One-year-old tree should not be fed. Fertilization is expected from the second year of development. In the spring they bring organic matter, and in the fall mineral fertilizers. Mature trees are fertilized three times per season. During the first feeding, 500 grams of urea is scattered around the trees. The second is carried out after flowering.
For it is dissolved in two buckets of water:
- 100 g of superphosphate,
- slightly less than 100 grams of potassium sulfate,
- 50 g of urea.
The third dressing is carried out after fruiting with the use of nitrophoska.
By mid-autumn, feeding is stopped to prepare the plant for winter.
Although this apple variety is resistant to pests and diseases, it is still necessary to take measures for protection and prevention. The causes of the disease can be weed, fallen and rotting fruit. Therefore, it is important to clean the garden in time, as well as digging near-barrel circles and remove the old bark from the tree. If you intend to use fallen leaves as fertilizer, then you need to bury them in the ground or collect in separate pits.
A special type of care is pruning trees. The lack of pruning will lead to the growth of the crown, will cause problems when collecting apples. It is forming and sanitary.
Crohn formed only in the second year of the plant. Pruning branches and shoots, which are strongly branched at the top. Usually, a part of the growth of the previous year is cut off. This procedure is carried out before bud break. The wounds left after pruning need to be smeared with garden pitch. After this event, the trees get more light and start producing more crops.
Sanitary pruning comes down to the removal of old and sick branches, which also has a beneficial effect on the harvest.
This procedure will rejuvenate the old tree.
Features of fruiting
If the tree is properly maintained, it will bear fruit almost every year. Care must be taken not to form many ovaries. The extras need to be cut off, because next year because of this, the harvest may be small.
Although this apple tree is frost resistant, you still need to cover it for the winter. It is necessary to close the trunks of young trees, and the circle around the root should be covered with humus or use mulch, which is suitable peat.
Reproduction of apple trees
You can increase the number of apple trees in three ways.
- Seeds. From them you can get a new variety or a good stock.
- Layering. It is used when you need to get another tree from one sapling. For this fall, apple trees are planted with a slope. In the spring, the seedling should be tilted to the ground and fixed, covered with earth, and watered. For the winter you need to wrap well with covering material from frost. Already next spring, the tree can be planted in a new place.
- Vaccinations. This method involves the cultivation or purchase of stock. For example, the Uralets apple tree is planted to Ranet Purple.
Wild varieties are also suitable, as they are very resistant to low temperatures and various types of pathogenic bacteria.
"Bulk Ural". A medium-sized apple tree with a drooping crown. This allows you to form a weeping tree, on the ends of the branches which grow apples. The fruits are very juicy and sweet, during ripening, they become yellow with pinkish patches.
"Assistant Ural". The apple tree is very strong, it has a powerful crown. The tree is extremely resistant to diseases and low temperatures. It gives fruits of a milky color with red sides, which are kept very little.
"Handsome Uralets." This variety has a pyramid-shaped crown. The variety is similar to Uralets, but has improved qualities. The tree is very strong, it has a high yield. Its fruits weigh more than 100 g, but are not stored for a long time.
Variety "Uralets" suitable for breeding on any plot. For example, when grown in the Moscow region gives great yields. Although temperature fluctuations occur in this area, apple trees tolerate the winter period well due to its cold resistance.
Gardeners leave mostly positive reviews about the variety. They like that it is unpretentious, tolerates frosts, resistant to pests. However, people note that the fruits can not be stored for a long time.
You will learn more about the Uralets apple from the following video.