In winter, the bees need to create conditions for wintering. For this purpose, special facilities are built into which hives are transferred. Such a construction is called omshanik or zimovnik. Before constructing a winter house, it is necessary to study the features of the room, diagrams and drawings. Only in this case Omshanik will come out durable and easy to use.
What is omshanik
It is necessary to build omshanik so that the bees overwinter comfortably, since it is here that the hives need to be transferred. In the event that a beekeeper wants to build a winter house on his own, you need to carefully study all the requirements that are necessary for construction.
Designs are made:
Omshanik for bees
Regardless of what exactly the structure will be, it is necessary to maintain the desired temperature and humidity.
The main requirements for the construction of the wintering on their own are:
- Properly chosen place in which should be dry. It is desirable that it was not in the recess.
- Provided that the structure will be placed underground, the excavation should be dug not less than two meters. In addition, the walls and floor lay brick.
- Humidity is maintained by ventilation and drainage.
- The desired temperature is created using the insulation of the room.
- There are no windows in the winte because they are not needed by the bees.
Omshanik is built very easily, the main thing is to calculate the correct dimensions so that the bees are comfortable. If the room is too close, then the humidity will increase, which will negatively affect the health and condition of the bees.
Important! At fifteen hives, the premises are built in dimensions of three meters by three meters and in height not less than two meters. In addition, depending on the number of hives in the omshanik, make one or two entrances, from the south or east side. The floors in the room are insulated with insulation material of several centimeters. Entrance doors must be insulated with foam.
Omshanik bees wintering
Zimovniki come in three types: underground, aboveground and combined. It is best to build underground structures, as they hold the desired air temperature is easiest, no matter what the weather broke out on the street.
Important! The ceiling of the underground room should be flush with the soil surface.
If the groundwater level is very close to the surface, then in this case combined structures or semi-underground structures are erected. An important condition for the construction is the distance - it must be at least one meter between the floor and the groundwater. Otherwise, there will be a high percentage of moisture in the conservatory, which will affect the condition of insects.
In that case, if the construction of the underground structure fails, again due to groundwater, the ground omshanik is erected. Walls should be made of boards or boards. For insulation use sawdust, straw or other material of natural origin.
Zimnik for bees in Siberia
Before you make omshanik for wintering bees in Siberia, you need to follow the following tips:
- Bee omshanik built on the territory located near the apiary,
- It is advisable to place it on an elevation, while it must be protected from wind and drafts,
- First of all, it is necessary to check the level of groundwater, it is this factor that will determine what type of omshanik can be built.
It is possible to build a structure from any available material:
Omshanik from edged board
The construction consists of the following actions:
- Markup is made according to the calculation, depending on the number of hives,
- A ditch for water diversion and a pit for storage are dug out,
- The walls are leveled, and a descent is made, where a staircase will be installed,
- At the bottom, construct a formwork and pour the foundation,
- Then you need to build walls, the space between them and the wall of the pit is filled with soil,
- It is necessary to build a frame made of metal, which will serve as a support for the slab - the ceiling,
- The slab is laid on the fabricated frame,
- Fitted a ball of isolation
- Ventilation is equipped in a specially constructed vestibule.
- The ladder is made, and doors are hung.
After the Siberian winter camp is built, you need to properly place the hives.
Hive in omshanik
Do this as follows:
- Before installing the hives need to prepare the room, namely, whiten it, ventilate and dry,
- As soon as it gets colder outside, you need to bring the hives into the room,
- At the bottom of the set hives with strong families
- After complete settling of the insects, the openings can be opened,
- A filled winter-house is ventilated for a week, which prevents condensation from forming.
Note! In omshanik when visiting it is best to use red lighting, the movement should be quiet and neat. Thus, the bees will not be alarmed.
To determine the correct temperature of the air in omshanik, it is recommended to install several thermometers in different places at once.
Temperature in omshanik
If at the end of winter, the bees began to fly out of the hives and fall powerlessly, it means that there is a high temperature in the storehouse, because of which the insects are beginning to become active, but they have not yet gained strength. Thus, they can simply die. Therefore, it is important a few days before the end of the cold season not to enter the storage so as not to disturb the insects. In addition, rodents and domestic animals should not be allowed into the zimovnik.
Advantages and disadvantages of the wintering
Each of the three typesHandmade wintering house for bees has advantages and disadvantages:
- The advantage of ground construction lies in the simplicity of construction and arrangement of storage. At the same time, his disadvantage is that in such a room it is difficult to control the desired air temperature and humidity.
- The subterranean room perfectly maintains a stable temperature, but at the same time it quickly gains moisture.
- A basement omshanik for bees is the best option for wintering, but its main drawback remains the laborious construction process.
Health and successful wintering of bees depend on properly equipped storage. During construction, the main factor is the level of groundwater, and therefore the type of omshanik is determined.