Ketosis in goats is associated with the characteristics of digestion in the rumen. With improper feeding in animals, the metabolism is disturbed, which leads to the accumulation of acetone bodies. Most often, milk goats of productive breeds are sick, especially during pregnancy, when the body load increases. When ketosis, a characteristic smell of acetone from the mouth is noted, ketone bodies are found in urine and milk. There is also a change in the work of many organ systems. Treatment and prevention are reduced to the normalization of feeding and the elimination of possible causes.
The content of the article
Etiology and pathogenesis
Ketosis is based on feeding errors with high rates of productivity. Disease is rarely seen among non-dairy animals, but possibly with an unbalanced diet. In the etiology revealed three most important points:
- lack of energy feed,
- excess protein in the diet,
- feeding foods with a high content of butyric acid.
It is believed that ketoses in goats are primary and secondary. Some are due to feeding disorders, leading to an excess of protein and fat, and a deficiency of light carbohydrates during the active formation of milk. Secondary ketosis is associated with the accumulation of ketone bodies with damage to internal organs - inflammation of the intestine, tympania, maternity paresis, metabolic disorders.
It is impossible to accurately judge the occurrence of acetonemia. Since it is observed in the case of energy deficiency, and with its excess (the predominance of concentrates in the diet). It is likely that a complex of digestive disorders works here. Thus, the predominance of concentrates and the lack of hay lead to the death of rumen microorganisms, which increases the lack of energy. Which, in turn, adversely affects the metabolic processes, which are enhanced during the period of active lactation of goats, per 1 liter of milk requires more than 40-50 grams of glucose.
The deficiency of microelements and vitamins has a great influence on the development of this pathology. The leading role here belongs to copper, zinc, manganese, iodine, cobalt, which are important for the growth and development of microorganisms in the digestive tract of a goat. The decrease in the activity of cicatricial microflora leads to a lack of enzymes.
Feeding should correspond to the physiological period. With the onset of lactation, the goat needs more energy and nutrients, so the quality of the diet should be improved, usually this is done by increasing the proportion of concentrates. But the increase in cereals must be strictly rationed, because of the high content of protein in them, there is a lack of energy.
Symptoms and diagnosis
Ketosis refers to sluggish pathologies. For a long time the disease will be asymptomatic due to the compensatory function of the body of the goat. At the same time, structural and functional changes in the cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, excretory and other systems will occur.
Laboratory analysis of blood, feces or urine can detect ketosis at an early stage of development, which will greatly facilitate treatment.
The degree of clinical manifestation and the presence of certain symptoms depends on the duration and intensity of exposure to pathogenic factors. Rarely, goats have an acute form with a nervous clinic: strong arousal, increased tactile sensitivity, aggressiveness. This clinic is gradually replaced by progressive depression:
- lethargy movements
- reluctant eating feed
- slow response to irritation.
In animals with this form, the scarring function is deteriorating (there are practically no cuts), constipation is possible. Heart rate and respiratory movements increased.
Typical is a chronic course. The clinical picture in this case is blurred, a lot of general changes worsen the diagnosis. A sick goat dull coat, hoofed horn. There is general lethargy, inactivity. Appetite deteriorates, although it may occasionally increase. Rumenation is weakened, intestinal motility is sluggish, gum is manifested irregularly. Reduced productivity: reduced milk yield, average daily weight gain. The liver is greatly enlarged - noticeably bulging right side. Dystrophic changes occur in the liver, which determines the severe course of the disease. Later, the kidney and heart are involved in the pathological process.
First of all, it is possible to detect an increase in ketone bodies in the blood - in the nome, the index does not exceed 8 mg. Somewhat later, compounds begin to register in milk, urine. They have a characteristic odor, which is also present in the exhaled air. Often, due to involvement in the pathological process of the liver, ketonemia may be absent. This is due to the oxidation process of butyric and other acids.
Methods of treatment and prevention
It is necessary to reconsider diets - consumption of protein and energy leads to a physiological norm. The basis of the diet should be high-quality hay and haylage. Concentrates and root crops should be used in moderation. Silage, bagasse, bards, substandard and spoiled food are not allowed..
What a disease
Ketosis is a group of serious diseases that affect animals (cattle, goats, pigs, sheep). The disease is a metabolic disorder: proteins, fats and carbohydrates. As a result, such a failure is accompanied by the accumulation in the blood plasma, urine, milk, and soft tissues of the body of a huge amount of ketone bodies - categories of metabolic products that are formed in the liver (acetone, acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate).
In this case, the alkaline reserve of blood (the amount of carbon dioxide) will be normal or reduced, depending on how quickly the disease progresses.
The manifestation of a disease such as ketosis in a goat causes indigestion, degenerative changes in the liver, impaired function of the adrenal system, hypoglycemia - a decrease in the concentration of glucose in the blood.
Causes of infection
As a rule, ketosis refers to non-lean, highly productive goats predominantly during lactation. There are four main factors that usually cause disease. The first cause of infection is an unbalanced diet: an excess of protein and fat, lack of carbohydrates. Thus, there comes a kind of carbohydrate starvation. Diseases tend to develop on the basis of the lack of trace elements and nutrients: calcium, iodine, magnesium, zinc, manganese, cobalt, potassium.
Doctors claim that the main cause of ketosis is poor-quality synthetic food or host omissions in the diet of a pet.
Too concentrated non-natural mixture, consumed by a goat, knocks down the biological synthesis of propionic acid, microbial protein, which is concentrated in the pre-stomachs, vitamin B. In turn, this leads to inhibition of the production of certain hormones, digestive enzymes, protein and nucleic acids.
Sometimes the owners of animals excessively fed goats with hay and silage. They contain a large amount of acid: oil and acetic acid. During digestion, many volatile fatty acids are formed. Excess protein leads to an imbalance of the thyroid gland, which further leads to metabolic disorders of the whole body of the goat.
In addition to unbalanced nutrition, the cause of ketosis in a pet can be severe obesity, which with age occurs in the animal's body at the genetic level. Here the human factor of feeding does not play a special role.
Signs of goat disease
The pathology is sluggish, so for a long time it will not be felt, but nevertheless the goat ketosis does not get sick in a latent form, so it can be noticed by carefully watching the animals. The disease is divided into two phases, but the first may not appear at all.
The second phase of ketosis, which will definitely be pronounced, is characterized by:
- dim wool and hoofed horn,
- reducing the amount of milk
- strong liver enlargement (visually the right side will be much larger than the left),
- slow / no reaction,
- poor appetite / refusal to eat,
- frequent breathing
- reduced productivity
- irregular manifestation of gum,
- strong tachycardia.
If the goat has the first symptoms of ketosis, then it should be shown as soon as possible to the veterinarian. Experts will conduct a survey and identify the clinical signs of the disease, depending on its stage:
- hypotonia of the foreskins,
- lowering body temperature
- enlarged liver,
- violation of reproductive function,
- dystrophic changes of the heart and kidneys,
- weak intestinal peristalsis,
- cardiovascular failure.
This manifestation is associated with oil oxidation.
In this case, it will take more time to examine the animal and diagnose it, since the disease will have similar symptoms with other infections of domestic goats, for example, with banal poisoning.
Ketosis is a serious disease, therefore, as soon as a diagnosis has been made, it is necessary to begin treatment. It is advisable to contact the experts, and not to do it yourself at home. Remember that self-medication can harm your animal.
To improve the condition of the goat, it is necessary to normalize the blood sugar level, the work of the endocrine system, to achieve alkaline-intestinal balance, to achieve the norm of all indicators, the failure of which was previously demonstrated by laboratory tests.
To this end, the animal is prescribed the necessary drugs:
- Glucose (40% solution) - 1 mg / 1 kg mass of the animal.
- Insulin - 0.5 units / 1 kg of animal weight.
- Hydrocortisone - 1 mg / 1 kg of animal weight.
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - 300 units.
- Liquid Sharabrin A / B.
- Sodium lactate.
- Vitamin A, E.
- Choline chloride.
- Sodium propionate.
To reduce the acidity of the stomach and the rumen, it is customary to add baking soda to the animal’s food at a rate of 15–20 g per day or substances of similar effect. This course is carried out for 2-3 weeks.
At the time of treatment they change the diet of the goat, they add carbohydrates that are easily digested: beets, carrots, as well as protein, vitamins of all groups and various other microelements.
Feeding must be balanced and nutritious so that the animal has enough energy and can fight ketosis. As a rule, examinations during treatment are carried out once every 5 days. Based on the changes in the physical condition of the domestic goat, new preparations are prescribed and recommendations are given that relate to the diet.
In case of timely reasonable treatment and compliance with the doctor’s instructions, the goat will achieve full recovery within 1-2 months, and in particularly severe forms of the disease this process can last up to 4 months. Deaths due to ketosis are very rare. After the animal suffers such a difficult disease, its body will be weakened and will require special attention in the care.
Disease prevention will help protect your domestic goats from ketosis. It includes such actions:
- Diet control for the presence in it of a harmonious combination of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, all groups of vitamins, microelements. Preference to natural grass / hay, refusal from chemical mixtures of factory origin.
- Periodic addition to the diet of glucose, mineral supplements.
- Particular attention is paid to protein, the presence of which should be in the amount of 100 g per 1 feed unit.
- Only fresh food.
- Monitoring the activity and productivity of the animal.
- Sufficient time in fresh air and sunshine.
- Active exercise goats.
- Track changes in animal weight.
- Providing continuous access to water.
Ketosis is a dangerous disease, accompanied by a violation of metabolic processes. Failure in the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates leads to the accumulation of ketone bodies literally throughout the body. This toxic product of metabolism, being formed in the liver, spreads through tissues and systems in the body.
The content of carbon dioxide is determined by the rate of progression of the disease, so when analyzing the alkaline indicators can be both normal and reduced.
Ketones that accumulate in the milk of animals, in their blood and urine, worsen the general condition of the body and the functioning of the internal organs. In animals with ketosis, the liver, heart, kidneys, and other organs do not work well.
Ketosis tendency is observed in animals:
- lacking sunlight,
- pregnant and lactating,
- little moving.
Stages of ketosis
To differentiate the degree of ketosis, two stages of the disease are distinguished:
- Primary. This is a more common option. The condition is accompanied by a violation of metabolism and lack of light carbohydrates during lactation.
- Secondary. This stage is less common. It is associated with the appearance of ketone bodies due to serious damage to the internal organs - inflammation of the intestine, maternity paresis, tympania, and also due to feed intoxication.
The causes of the disease
The root cause of ketosis lies in the error of feeding the goat. The problem is rarely found in low-milk animals. There are three main causes of ketosis:
- feed with low energy content,
- large amounts of protein in the diet,
- feed containing butyric acid in large quantities - for example, improperly prepared silage.
It is impossible to clearly determine the cause of acetonemia, since it can appear with a lack of energy, and with its excess, caused by the prevalence in the diet of concentrated feed. The abundance of concentrates and the lack of hay cause the rupture of microflora of the rumen - this increases the lack of energy and disrupts metabolic processes. The situation is exacerbated at high yields, because to give 1 l of milk, the goat's body spends up to 50 g of glucose.
Additional factors for the development of ketosis:
- Lack of vitamins and trace elements. Copper, zinc, iodine, manganese, cobalt are especially important for lactating goats. These elements are responsible for the development of microflora in the digestive tract of the animal.
- The diet does not match the physiological state of the goat. During lactation, she needs much more energy. It is necessary to increase the proportion of concentrates. But here it is necessary to sustain the norm, since the increased protein content causes a lack of energy.
Primary signs and symptoms of ketosis in goats
Ketosis is a sluggish pathology. For a long time, the disease runs without symptoms, since the animal's organism first compensates for the problem. But imperceptibly, structural changes are taking place literally in all body systems.
Symptomatology of the disease depends on the duration of the disease and a complex of negative factors. The main symptoms of ketosis that occur in the first phase of the disease:
- loud bleating
- negative reaction to tactile contact,
Gradually, excitement gives way to increasing oppression.
In a chronic course, the clinical picture is blurred. A sick animal is observed:
- lethargy and drowsiness,
- unwillingness to move,
- lack of appetite,
- fading wool and hoofed horn,
- reduced yields,
- liver enlargement - the right side becomes even more than the left eye,
- alternating constipation and diarrhea,
- rapid breathing
- irregular gum,
To understand that the animal has developed ketosis, you can by the sharp smell of acetone - it smells of milk and other products of its vital activity - feces, urine.
Further information about other goat diseases can be found here.
The first thing to do with ketosis:
- bring blood sugar to normal values
- normalize the endocrine system,
- normalize acid-base balance
- to bring to the norm all the indicators, the failure of which occurred as a result of ketosis.
Treatment of the animal is carried out with the help of drugs:
- insulin (for 1 kg of weight - 0.5 units),
- glucose 40% solution (per 1 kg of weight 0.1 mg),
- hydrocortisone (per 1 kg of weight 0.1 mg),
- adrenocorticotropic hormone (300 units),
- Sharabrin A / B fluids,
- sodium lactate,
- vitamins A, E,
- complex vitamins and trace elements,
- choline chloride,
- sodium propionate.
With aggressive behavior, a sedative drug is prescribed to the animal. When joining heart failure - appropriate drugs to strengthen the work of the heart. Medicines are prescribed in accordance with the symptoms.
To reduce the acidity of the rumen and other parts of the stomach, the animal is watered with a solution of baking soda. But it can be given and dry - adding to the feed. Otpaivanie soda lasts 2-3 weeks. Per day give an animal 15-20 g of soda.
Adjustment of the diet
To cure ketosis, medications alone are not enough; it is necessary to correct the animal's diet. Priority measures:
- reduction of protein and energy intake to the norm corresponding to the current physiology,
- Hay and haylage should form the basis of nutrition,
- norms of concentrates and root crops are reduced - their consumption should be moderate,
- feeding silage, pulp, spoiled and low-quality feed is prohibited.
Easily digestible carbohydrates are introduced into the diet of goats, giving root vegetables. Feeding sick animals should be balanced so that they receive enough energy to combat ketosis.
During treatment, animals are examined every five days. On the basis of the obtained analyzes, the medical treatment and diet are adjusted.
Forecasts and terms of treatment
Properly approaching the treatment, and following all the instructions of the veterinarian, you can cure the animal in 1-2 months. In severe forms of ketosis, treatment is delayed up to 4 months.
Ketosis is usually cured. If you do not ignore the disease, it rarely ends with the death of the animal. After the illness, the goats are weakened, they need increased care.
Complications and danger of illness
Due to the long asymptomatic course and the chronic form of the disease, many goat owners miss the moment when the animal can be helped by avoiding serious health complications. The danger of ketosis is irreversible damage to the internal organs - if the heart, liver, kidneys are affected, it will be impossible to return the animal to the system. Such a goat will never return its former milk production.
Prevention measures aimed at preventing ketosis in goats:
- The diet is controlled - it must meet the physiological norms of the content of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
- More hay and grass. Animals do not give chemical factory mix.
- Glucose and mineral supplements are periodically introduced into the diet.
- Give protein 100 g per 1 feed unit.
- Issuing only fresh feed.
- Unlimited access to fresh water.
It is also important to monitor the behavior of goats, to monitor their milk production. Animals must move actively and spend a lot of time in the air.
Ketosis is a treatable disease that becomes dangerous only if left untreated. In order not to lose the highly productive goats, their owner should be extremely attentive and patient - the treatment takes time.
What are goat diseases
Note that it is most likely to divide the diseases of goats into two groups: infectious and non-infectious. In the first case, the animal, being in close contact with the horned companions, can transmit its disease, in the second - it is sick alone. One should not think that non-communicable diseases occur with less serious consequences than those that can spread. Many of them arise because of the wrong conditions of detention created for the wards by farmers, so a large number of goats can hurt them at the same time. So, we proceed to a detailed review of the diseases included in each of the groups that we have identified in this part.
Non-contagious goat diseases
As mentioned above, the cause of non-communicable diseases in goats is mainly the wrong keeping of animals. So, these diseases can develop due to the following factors:
- improper feeding,
- lack of hygiene content,
- injuries of various kinds, etc.
Next, list the main non-communicable diseases that goats have.
Some diseases are non-communicable, so it’s not scary if you have no place to move a large animal away from the herd.
Tympania sharp character
Acute timpani usually occurs only during the summer grazing period, as it is directly related to the improper feeding of animals with green fodder. The disease has such a characteristic as “acute”, for a reason. There are no other conditions for this disease, as it is necessary to take measures when it occurs immediately.
What does a goat’s keen timpania look like?
Tympania is the formation in the rumen of a goat of a large accumulation of gases formed as a result of the fermentation of plant foods. Causes of food fermentation may be as follows.
- If the goat ate juicy, easy-growing green food on an empty stomach.
- The goat was intensively watered before it was eaten or given green fodder.
- The goat is set aside in the pasture in the morning, when dew has not yet descended from the grass, and ate a moist, juicy feed,
- Grazing was carried out in a short period of time after the rain and wet greens were also eaten.
- The arid pasture was abruptly replaced by a pasture with lush meadow grass.
There are herbs that are most likely to cause tympany in the implementation of one of the above conditions. As a rule, it is legumes. Inside this group are the following plants:
Legumes can cause a goat’s tympania.
The following plant elements are also dangerous:
- young spring greens,
- shoots of winter crops
- tops of carrots and beets,
- cabbage leaves,
- potato stalks and leaves,
- the fallen fruits of the apple tree
- corn cobs,
- moldy corn.
The fact that gases are formed in the rumen of a goat is considered absolutely normal. Some of them are then absorbed into the digestive system, the other is removed with belching. However, in the event of the occurrence of various pathologies, for example, atony of the scar (complete cessation of its motor function), the gases cease to be removed and the disease begins.
Goat digestive system
Symptoms of acute tympania
The presence of the disease can be determined by a number of symptoms, mainly related to the restless behavior of the goat.
- The animal stops eating, attempts to feed cause serious protest.
- Frequent fanning of the hull tail.
- The animal constantly looks at the stomach and publishes a mournful bleating.
- The multiplicity of goat defecation increases. The animal often sits down to excrete urine or feces, but only small drops follow.
- The goat periodically freezes without moving, in order not to provoke new painful attacks to and fro.
The next group of symptoms is already physiological, not arbitrary. The points described below should cause the farmer to be seriously concerned.
In case of taking emergency measures in case of acute tympania, pierce the hungry hole of a goat with a special surgical instrument and release gases
- Rapid breathing of the animal, but shallow, as if the goat is on its last legs.
- Swollen belly. Not to notice an increase in the size of the abdomen in goats is practically unrealistic, since these animals do not have abundant wool.
- The mouth of the animal is wide open, the tongue is hung to the side.
- There is a periodic cough.
- Gait animal unsteady.
- Goat mucosa becomes bluish,
- The extremities of the horned become colder.
If you can, spend the animal palpation of the scar. In the presence of tympania, the intense walls of the hungry fossa on the left side will be clearly felt, and the scar will not contract.
Treatment of timpani
We repeat once again, the best help of the farmer to your animal will be timely call a veterinarian, however, if this is not possible, follow our instructions.
Regulate the power of their charges and the emergence of timpani be avoided
- Raise the animal by the legs in a vertical standing position, so that it rests only on the hind feet.
- Pull the goat tongue and put in her mouth cavity of the straw.
- Massage your horny belly, constantly drenching it with cold water. Simultaneously feed it with a solution of half a liter of water and a teaspoon of one of the following liquids:
If the tympania is running and the goat’s life goes on for a minute, use an emergency measure: sharply pierce the scar with the animal using a trocar surgical instrument. Puncture should be done in the area of the hungry fossa of the animal.
The best treatment - prevention
Instead of treating the animal for acute timpanii, take care to simply prevent it from occurring. Follow the few recommendations below.
- Before breeding the herd on green meadows, especially after stabling, keep them fed with dry hay.
- Avoid grazing in the morning when the grass is still covered with dew or frost.
- Do not water the animals before taking them to pasture or giving juicy green food.
Gastroenteritis in goats
Under the gastroenteritis in goats imply the occurrence of problems with several elements of the digestive system of goats, namely with:
Poor water quality is one of the main causes of goat gastroenteritis
As a rule, gastroenteritis is represented by severe inflammatory processes affecting not only the mucous membranes, but also the muscles and the serous layer.
It should be said that this disease is one of the most common in goats, and it also appears seasonally. For example, in adults, it often occurs in the autumn, in young goats - in the summer. The disease is accompanied by a sharp decrease in livestock.
The reasons for the emergence of gastroenteritis in adults may be the following circumstances.
- Feeding spoiled food. For example, moldy, poor-quality grain, for the storage of which the farmer did not keep track of, or which was bought cheaply.
- Watering goats with water with unsuitable composition:
- Grazing goats on pasture with young grass during unstable spring temperatures. The fact is that the chemical composition of young grass, which then freezes, then thaws, becomes unacceptable for human consumption, and if grazing continues to pasture, many individuals soon develop gastroenteritis.
- Use of goats in the food of herbs or water containing boron in excess. Usually, the taste of these plants is unpleasant for animals, however, if the selection is small and the farmer selects a scanty, dry pasture, they will eat what they have to.
Grazing goats in an unstable springtime pasture can lead to gastroenteritis due to the chemical composition of the grass changing under the influence of temperature.
For young animals, the conditions for the occurrence of the disease will be as follows.
- The sharp weaning of young goats from milk and the transfer to solid food without additional feed with a white drink.
- Being in drinking bowls too cold water.
- Watering by river, oozy water.
- Watering with salt water.
- Raising a goat by a mother who later develops mastitis.
- Dehydration of the body of the baby or exceeding the level of permissible temperature content also leads to the occurrence of this disease.
With gastroenteritis, goats experience severe malaise and weakness.
The average course of the disease is from 3 to 5 days. Due to the fact that the kids have poorly developed immunity, they develop gastroenteritis instantly, and it takes a long time and is difficult to heal.
In those individuals that have had gastroenteritis, the metabolism is disturbed and weight loss is lost, as well as abundant hair loss.
Symptoms of gastroenteritis
So, it is possible to determine the development of gastroenteritis in the digestive system of the goat by the following series of symptoms.
- In sick goats, there is lethargy, a total unwillingness to move, constant attempts to go to bed.
- There is no response to stimuli, such as noise, contact of the host or signals from herd comrades.
- Eating becomes rare and gradually fades away completely.
- Chewing gum is slow or completely absent.
- There is hyperemia and dryness of the oral cavity.
- Attempts to defecate are not crowned with success, face constipation, which then, however, are replaced by copious diarrhea.
- When examining feces, you can see copious mucus or bloody blotches.
Perform palpation, if you have sufficient skills. You will feel seriously tense abdominal walls, a goat will let you know that touches are painful with protesting bleating.
After some time, the disease is determined by the symptoms of intoxication.
- There is a marked increase in the body temperature of the animal.
- Breathing in a sick goat is rapid, the pulse quickens, however, it is felt with difficulty.
- The trembling begins, sometimes reaching the onset of full seizures.
- Urination rare and not abundant.
- The whites of the goat’s eyes are filled with blood and become yellow.
Treatment of gastroenteritis in adults
Curing gastroenteritis in an adult goat is no easy task. Trust her to the vet. If this is not possible, follow this instruction.
Once again we recall that each case of the disease is individual. Medicines that will bring recovery to one goat can harm the other and only increase the duration of the disease.
Step 1. To clear a goat's stomach and help it to defecate, give it a drink of castor oil.
Step 2. For 5 or seven days, give the animal antibiotics. The following drugs are widely used:
The dose of the drug is calculated as follows: for every kilogram of the animal’s weight, 0.2 grams is necessary.
One of the most effective drugs against gastroenteritis
Step 3. Simultaneously with antibiotics, animals are given disinfectants for the intestines. Among them, farmers advise using:
Step 4. To stop the abundant diarrhea apply the following natural remedies in a complex way:
- decoction of oak bark
- infused in hot water, seeds of flax or oats.
These decoctions have an enveloping and astringent effect and greatly facilitate the acute state of the intestine.
Step 5. To prevent dehydration, saline is administered intravenously or subcutaneously to goats. If you have heart problems, intravenous glucose prick.
For the treatment of gastroenteritis that occurs seasonally, for example, in the autumn, use a proven farm recipe and make a special tincture with your own hands.
- Take 200 grams of garlic, wash off the dirt and without taking off the skin, pour with a liter of ethyl alcohol.
- Two weeks insist the resulting liquid in a dark place. If gastroenteritis occurs, take 5 or 10 milliliters and dilute with three proportionate parts of water.
- Feed the animal 3 times a day until the disease is gone.
Alcoholic garlic tincture is one of the best remedies for gastroenteritis in goats.
Feeding during and after illness
It is best to separate sick animals from healthy ones into the quarantine zone and feed them according to the dietary menu.
If a disease occurs a couple of days keep the goat hungry. When the symptoms become more favorable, start feeding with hay of grass, cleaned of dirt and rotting elements, and also give oat, which is shattered into small pieces. Be sure to keep the drinkers filled with clean water.
Treatment of gastroenteritis in kids
Sick kids are isolated from the main herd in a quarantine stall along with their nursing mothers. Instead of a separate quarantine zone, you can equip a temporary place of detention - something like a tent on a wooden frame, which will be warm enough if the period of the disease falls on an autumn or spring unstable period.
Feeding animals with gastroenteritis carry concentrated feed.
Nutritious fodder and mineral supplements are given to mothers of sick babies:
- mineral and salt stones,
- a piece of chalk.
Kids day keep on a starvation diet, but they are drunk with clean water. If it is necessary to feed the goat because of its very young age, you can give yoghurt mixed with warm boiled water instead of milk. Such feeding is organized 4 times a day.
On the second day, those kids who have a mild course of the disease are sent to their pasture with their mothers. Those who are seriously ill continue to be kept in the stall and given food. Their menu might be:
- high-quality grain,
- good feed
- fish oil with vitamins
- green hay, not more than 0.5 kg per day,
- meat and bone meal,
- additives with the content of copper salts.
Treatment in young animals is not implied, however, if the diet does not help, call a veterinarian who will advise you and select the right medicine for your case.
Usually recommend the use of the following medicines:
- vypaivanie warm solution of sodium chloride,
- give antibiotics (usually phthalazole or sulgin).
Pneumonia in goats
What is pneumonia is known to all people, even those not related to medicine. This disease is nothing but pneumonia in an animal. A feature of pneumonia is that it often does not occur on its own, but accompanies diseases that have already occurred in the body of an animal. That is why, if recently your animal has suffered a serious illness, do not rush to rejoice that you have managed to avoid the consequences. Insidious pneumonia can begin at any time.
Goat grazing in windy conditions can lead to pneumonia.
The reasons for the independent occurrence of pneumonia in cattle may be as follows.
- Prolonged stressful situations that have undermined the health of the animal.
- Hypothermia resulting from:
- grazing in windy weather,
- drafts walking along the stall,
- moisture litter inside the stall.
- Overheating in the sun, contrary to popular belief, also leads to the emergence and development of this most dangerous disease.
- Toxic air pollution and an unbalanced menu are another common cause.
Symptoms of pneumonia in goats
Сопровождается течение болезни некоторыми характерными симптомами, со списком которых мы предлагаем вам ознакомиться ниже.
- Общая вялость в поведении коз. The condition of animals is depressed, so do not expect special activity from them. They will try to fall as much as possible or simply lie down.
- Gum almost does not chew, interest in food does not disappear completely, but significantly reduced.
- There are mucous discharge from the nose, at the beginning it is just snot, then they acquire the character of purulent discharge.
- Body temperature increases markedly.
- Breathing becomes frequent and intermittent.
- The animal constantly coughs, when listening to the lungs, wheezing is clearly audible.
- Pulse rhythm increases.
Treatment of adults and juveniles is carried out according to the same scheme, effective in all cases.
Measurement of goat body temperature is performed rectally, using an electronic thermometer.
Step 1. Sick animals are transferred to warm and dry rooms. If you do not have a separate room for livestock, you can bring the animal to a heated veranda at home. It is necessary to do this, otherwise constant drafts or the slightest humidity will aggravate the course of the disease and negate the efforts of the owner and the effects of drugs. Unfortunately, more often than not, whatever you have equipped and warm stall, being there for the recovery of animals is not enough.
Step 2. For sick animals make up a special menu. It includes elements with the highest energy value. Thus, an exemplary menu of a goat carrying pneumonia consists of:
- moderate amount of pure hay
- leguminous crops,
- compound feed.
It is very important throughout the whole illness to constantly include mineral supplements and vitamins in the diet. Perfect fit:
- salt licks,
- mineral stones with vitamins
- a piece of chalk.
Give the kids fish oil to minimize the effects of the disease on the body
Young kids are also recommended to give fish oil to reduce the effects of the disease. Watering sick animals can be done with warm water to prevent hypothermia, however, if it is not possible to warm it up, try to give at least room temperature. In no case do not reduce the abundance of watering, on the contrary, water should always be available. Drinking plenty of fluids is the easiest and surest way to reduce the increased intoxication of the body, which occurs as a characteristic symptom of pneumonia in goats.
Mandatory treatment with antimicrobials, as without them, to achieve complete recovery is almost impossible. Among the described means are recommended for use:
The duration of the disease in each animal may be different, however, by responding to its occurrence in a timely manner, you will reduce the time required for recovery.
How not to feed the goats
Beriberi in goats
Vitamin deficiency is a deficiency of vitamins of groups A, B, C, D, E in the diet of goats. The disease seems insignificant, however, has serious implications for the development of various systems of vital activity in the horned organism. So, if an animal does not get the vitamins of the above groups with food, this is what can happen.
- Lack of vitamins in the diet of kids leads to a serious delay in the growth and development of the nervous system. As a result, this will result in constant cramps, an uncertain walk, unexpected falls as a result of paralysis of the limbs.
- Adult goats, whose body is already properly developed, will also feel a lack. Feel it and you, because your cattle business will no longer be profitable and come to naught, because animals will lose the ability to produce offspring.
- In the absence of vital vitamins, animal diseases will become more frequent. Colds, intestinal disorders and other diseases will follow the flock at every step and all the money will go for treatment.
Avitaminosis in goats manifests itself most often in the form of weakness and low productivity.
As you can see, in time to fill the need for vitamins for goats in your interest.
So, consider the symptoms of beriberi.
Vitamin A deficiency can manifest itself as follows.
- The frequent occurrence of skin diseases, as the protective function of the skin becomes reduced.
- Reduced appetite, as a result, serious thinness.
- Loss of visual acuity, in the evenings, the animal may not see a pillar, stone or any other obstacle.
Avitaminosis is especially dangerous for kids
With a lack of vitamin D, the following symptoms occur.
- There is rickets in kids, as there is a softening of the bone tissue and curvature of the limbs.
- Wool knocks to shreds and loses gloss.
- The general weakness of the individual develops.
To the lack of these two vitamins, goats are the most sensitive, but one should not miss the absence in the diet and others.
Treatment of beriberi
Avitaminosis is cured by introducing vitamin-containing feeds and additional supplements into the menu. Well helps increase in the diet share:
The following supplements help to combat vitamin deficiencies:
Goat Mineral Supplements
This disease is associated with metabolic disorders in the body of goats. As a result of the development of ketosis, the concentration of ketone bodies in the blood increases, which negatively affects the functioning of the liver, kidneys, heart and other organs.
The causes of this disease include the following:
- insufficient energy content in feed,
- excess protein
- eating foods high in butyric acid (for example, improperly prepared silage).
Ketosis occurs due to an inappropriate goat diet.
Goats are most susceptible to this disease with the following features:
- full animals,
- animals lacking sunlight,
- pregnant or lactating uterus.
- animals with a low degree of activity.
To lower the level of acidity in the silo, you need to podvyalivat plants before cooking.
According to the method of occurrence, ketosis is divided into two groups:
Consider the factors influencing the appearance of each of the varieties in the comparative table.
Overdoing with butyric acid can be the result of feeding silage or haylage, which are not cooked properly. So, if the grass is not dried up before laying, its content will be extremely high.
The main symptoms of the disease include the following animal conditions.
- Sleepy state, constant desire to lie down and sleep.
- Sluggish movement in a pasture or stall,
- Refusal to eat or poor appetite.
- Rapid breathing.
- Dull wool.
- Slow weight gain and low average daily milk yield from dairy goats.
The main treatment is the change in the composition of the diet of the goat. Hay from high-quality meadow grasses, fresh greens becomes its basis, and concentrated feed is added:
You can also add high-quality haylage.
Exclude from the menu horned need the following products:
- silo (for the first time, even low acid),
- spoiled, stale feed.
When ketosis, silage is excluded from the diet of goats
The correct solution would be to give the animals vitamin complexes, for example:
Vitamin complex "Gamavit" is administered to animals as an injection
It is also necessary to inject intravenously glucose solution of 5%, a volume of 10 milliliters, and also add propylene glycol, sodium propionate, and cholinol to food.
Reducing the acidity of the rumen is made using baking soda, 20 grams per individual for two weeks.
Poisoning occurs when goats eat fodder that has previously been treated with pesticides, poisonous plants, or items that are not intended to be eaten.
Goat poisoning can occur in a pasture or in a stall. Carefully study the range of herbs and buy only high-quality food.
Depending on which poison was eaten, goats may experience the following symptoms:
- irritation of the digestive system with diarrhea, vomiting,
- reaction of the nervous system in the form of tremors, convulsions, blindness,
- rapid pulse and breathing.
Treatment of poisoning
To cure poisoning, you need to remove the toxin and reduce the negative reactions of the body. To do this, produce the following procedures:
- gastric lavage,
- laxatives are fed,
- give activated carbon.
Against some poisons these actions do not help, then the appropriate antidote is administered to the goats.
Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands in the goat's udder. Can develop for many reasons.
- Biological causes - As a result of the ingestion of pathogenic organisms into the blood of the goat, which settle in the mammary glands, reproduction begins in the udder of the painful microflora. In the event that the animal's immunity is low, the disease is likely to develop quickly and is difficult.
- Mechanical damage - The most common cause of mastitis. It is very easy to damage the delicate skin of the udder, for example, during milking. An inaccurate goat, a branch from a bush, a protruding nail, etc. can also damage it.
- Thermal factors - for example, hypothermia due to the content in the old, unheated pen, where drafts and raw bedding walk.
Peculiarities of keeping goats at home
Now turn to the symptoms of the disease.
Symptoms of mastitis is determined on the basis of four possible types of its manifestation.
- Serous mastitis - the milk of a goat sick of this species has a liquid consistency, the milk yield is small. The general condition is sluggish, there is no appetite, the temperature is high. External manifestations are also present, part of the udder increases in size, becomes red and hot, with an enlarged supramenia lymph node.
- Catarrhal - low milk yield, flocculent clots appear in milk. Body temperature rises slightly, appetite reduced. The nipples have a seal, one part of the udder is completely swollen, it is hot and painfully palpable.
The affected part of the udder hardens and swells
Goat mastitis is characterized by redness of the skin.
Video - Causes and treatment of mastitis in goats
Killing of lice is carried out with insecticides, such as to destroy not only the adult individuals, but also the larvae that they have laid. Spraying is done with solutions:
- arrodex, etc.
Secondary treatment of animals is obligatory carried out two weeks after the first, in order to prevent the larvae from hatching in any case.
Remember, you should not engage in self-treatment of animals, entrust this work to the veterinarian in order to prevent the spread of the disease throughout the herd
Let's sum up
All of the above diseases in the article can seriously harm the farmer’s pastoral business, no matter if they are infectious or parasitic, infectious or not. Among other things, a person himself may become infected from a sick animal, for whom a substantial part of the disease is also dangerous. It is best not to give disease and chance, observing the following preventive conditions.
- Graze animals in prosperous cemeteries.
- Use clear, running water for watering.
- Take medical measures for the prevention of disease, for example, to vaccinate.
- Follow the hygiene rules of goats and care for them.
- Buy and give high quality pet food.
- Do not allow goats to graze together with infected individuals.
- Closely monitor changes in the status of goats.
- Rebuild animals big, clean, warm pen, without drafts and as much as possible isolate it from moisture.
- Constantly clean up the pen.
If you follow the simplest rules of prevention listed above, you can achieve a significant reduction in the incidence of various diseases of the herd, and therefore minimize your farm losses.