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Proper preparation of grapes for winter in the Moscow region

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Preparing grapes for winter This is a necessary set of activities that will protect the grapevine from the winter cold and overwinter in comfortable conditions.

  • And if you do not know how to grow grapes, then click on the link at the beginning of this offer to another page of my site and find out all the details about it.

In winter, when severe frosts crack, not only the grape bushes, but also its root system can be damaged. A one-year vine can well withstand a twenty-degree frost, a long-term one is no longer terribly terrible and thirty-degree.

But the roots of the vine will be able to overcome only 11 degrees below zero. If the air temperature in your area falls below a fifteen degree mark, be sure to cover the grapes for the winter. It is necessary to produce grape harboring in dry, cool weather.

Smart vineyard. How to prepare grapes for winter

The solution for whitewashing is prepared as follows: take 10 liters of water, lime is poured into it (two kilograms will suffice), and 300 grams of copper vitriol are mixed into all this.

After processing, the soil, which will powder plant, be sure to water. The fact is that dry soil will not be good at restraining the frosts. It is worth to make the powder twenty or thirty centimeters, and in the northern regions it is recommended to put the bushes 50-60 centimeters thick.

Preparing grapes for winter in other ways.

There are also multi-layered types of grape shelter. In this case, the layers of the earth alternate with layers of fallen leaves. Such a shelter is very effective, just need to put a wooden shield or plastic wrap on top. This is done in order to prevent the penetration of excess moisture to the roots of plants.

  • You can cover the vine and generally without the help of the earth, for this they use all the same wooden shields or slate.
  • To drafts do not fall inside the shelter, the gap will need to sprinkle with earth. You can also use ruberoid or reed mats for this purpose. Such mats are woven from reeds in those areas where it is actively growing. Do not forget the edges of the film or roofing felt sprinkle with earth.
  • If you are 100 percent willing to exclude grape injury during its shelter, then use a wrap.
  • If you live in an area where coniferous forests grow, then you may well be covering the grapes with needles. The edges of the paws, which you will use for cover, do not forget to treat the solution of copper sulfate.

Needles for this purpose should be collected in November, and it should be green. In this case, good air ventilation is provided, and there will be no icing.

Here is such a preparation of grapes for winter, including preparing young grapes for winter, must be done to reliably protect the vines from the winter cold.

Well, if you are only going to grow grapes, yjm do not know how to do it and where to start, then in the article on how to plant grapes, learn in detail about all the necessary actions with which you can not only plant, but also grow a vine, giving a high yield.

Pruning grapes of the first year for the winter

In the first year of life, the correct pruning of the grapes is very important, since it forms the future bush. In subsequent years, carry out corrective pruning.

The bezshtambovoe fan-shaped bush formation according to the Guyau method is considered the most suitable for grapes. In the first year for the subsequent observance of this method it is necessary to grow a strong escape. In mid-October, it is cut, while leaving two eyes from the level of the soil. All undigested part must be removed. A sign of aging wood is its brown color. Fruit shoots appear from the wintering eyes of a matured vine in spring.

How to cover for the winter grapes of the first year

The grapes, which will survive the first winter, must be covered. Shelter is carried out in late October - early November. During this period, the vine still retains its elasticity, and it can be easily laid.

First, dig a trench in which the grape shoots are laid. They are pinned to the ground and sprinkled with earth on top. In addition, additional shelter is constructed from any material (film, roofing felt, tarpaulin) or lapnik. When the snow falls, it becomes an additional cover for the shoots.

Having prepared the grapes well for winter in the first year, in the future you will get a healthy and strong plant.

Preparing grapes for winter This is a necessary set of activities that will protect the grapevine from the winter cold and overwinter in comfortable conditions.

  • And if you do not know how to grow grapes, then click on the link at the beginning of this offer to another page of my site and find out all the details about it.

In winter, when severe frosts crack, not only the grape bushes, but also its root system can be damaged. A one-year vine can well withstand a twenty-degree frost, a long-term one is no longer terribly terrible and thirty-degree.

But the roots of the vine will be able to overcome only 11 degrees below zero. If the air temperature in your area falls below a fifteen degree mark, be sure to cover the grapes for the winter. It is necessary to produce grape harboring in dry, cool weather.

Grape care in the fall. Winter preparation, trimming, video

Such a shelter is very effective, just need to put a wooden shield or plastic wrap on top. This is done in order to prevent the penetration of excess moisture to the roots of plants.

  • You can cover the vine and generally without the help of the earth, for this they use all the same wooden shields or slate.
  • To drafts do not fall inside the shelter, the gap will need to sprinkle with earth. You can also use ruberoid or reed mats for this purpose. Such mats are woven from reeds in those areas where it is actively growing. Do not forget the edges of the film or roofing felt sprinkle with earth.
  • If you are 100 percent willing to exclude grape injury during its shelter, then use a wrap.
  • If you live in an area where coniferous forests grow, then you may well be covering the grapes with needles. The edges of the paws, which you will use for cover, do not forget to treat the solution of copper sulfate.

Needles for this purpose should be collected in November, and it should be green. In this case, good air ventilation is provided, and there will be no icing.

Here is such a preparation of grapes for winter, including preparing young grapes for winter, must be done to reliably protect the vines from the winter cold.

Well, if you are only going to grow grapes, yjm do not know how to do it and where to start, then in the article on how to plant grapes, learn in detail about all the necessary actions with which you can not only plant, but also grow a vine, giving a high yield.

Wintering grapes

Regardless of whether the shelter is held or the vine remains on the surface, it is necessary to prepare the bushes for winter in advance and carefully, throughout the growing season. To this end, conduct the following activities:

• leave when trimming bushes a sufficient amount of perennial wood, which is a reserve of plastic substances that resist the cold, and also serves as a storage of nutrients,

• comply with all the conditions necessary for the timely and complete maturation of the vine,

• exclude nitrogen from summer fertilizing,

• stop watering with the beginning of ripening berries,

• organize a spacious trellis,

• normalized load yield

• carry out selective removal of bunches,

• undertake timely minting,

• stimulate winter hardiness, for which foliar fertilizing is carried out by ammonium molybdate (8–9 g per 10 l of water) at the beginning of berry growth,

• carry out the selection for the cultivation of the most winter-hardy grapes.

An important condition for a successful wintering is the pre-hardening of the shoots. It is established that the bushes pass through this stage with a decrease in temperature from +5 ... + 1 to -1 ... -4 ° C. Therefore, do not rush beyond measure with shelter and should not be afraid of such temporary cooling.

The risk of freezing of the vine in the winter time increases with the late harvest of the crop. Experience shows: late harvest is permissible only in hot years. If the summer was cool and rainy, ripe clusters are removed earlier.

It should also be remembered that there is a favorable effect on the overwintering of roots and vines, which is exerted by abundant autumn moisture recharge (dry soil cools more than wet soil).

Dates of shelter vines for each zone of their own. It is important to keep within the period from the beginning of leaf fall to the beginning of frost, but it does not fall under the frost of the order of -6 ... -10 ° C and more. At this point, you should complete all preparatory operations. These include: analyzing the development of bushes, clarifying their structure and pruning, dividing the sleeves into two-shouldered fascines, checking and repairing covering devices, preparing the laying track (ditches or beds), disinfecting the vine and loosened soil with nitrafen or iron sulphate.

If bushes are covered mainly with earth selected from between the rows (with the formation of trenches on both sides of the row), then the fascines can be placed in shallow longitudinal grooves.

6 steps to prepare the grapes for winter

Vine pinned staples or pressed down with stones, bricks. The threat of its flooding during wintering (and therefore, molding, rotting) is practically excluded here.

Another thing - when using wooden shields or slate gutters, as well as various warmed frames. In this case, the fascists are not buried, but on the contrary, they sprinkle a 20-centimeter layer of loose soil along the “road” to protect the vines from stagnant water.

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Autumn feeding grapes in the winter of the first year

In the second half of the summer it is necessary to stop feeding with nitrogen fertilizers. Nitrogen promotes plant growth, which prevents the maturation of its shoots.

In order to help the shoots to ripen, you need to make potash fertilizers (potassium magnesia, potassium sulfate, wood ash).

How to prepare grapes for winter

In addition, grapes will be well prepared for winter and phosphate fertilizers.

Proper preparation of grapes for winter in the middle lane

It has a bright straw color, without traces of damage by oidium and mildew. Here it is and leave it to fruition next year. Try to bend a little ripe lozenge and you will hear a characteristic crackling sound. It is she who informs you that she is ready for winter.
When to start pruning grapes in autumn? It starts about when the leaves of the trees turn yellow. But in the vineyard, they do not always have time to turn yellow before winter. Sometimes we really see beautiful redness and yellowing of grape foliage, but it does not depend from year to year. Most often, you have to pick the leaves of the vine without waiting for the natural foliage. In our zone, this is about the end of October.

When to start and what does winter training include?

How well the grapes will endure the winter cold will depend on how well they have been looked after during the growing season and whether they have been properly prepared and covered for the cold season.

Preparatory activities for the winter can be divided into two stages:

Preparation begins in the autumn when the fruiting stage comes to an end. It is important to know that the vine successfully suffers the winter, which is covered with sufficient wood, that is, it is matured. Therefore, in early autumn, the efforts of the grower should be focused mainly on ensuring that as many vines as possible are woody. Lignified shoots are brown in color, they are warm even under the action of frost, bend well and do not break.

If during the autumn pruning activities undisturbed green vines are revealed, they will have to be removed. After all, not only can they not successfully spend the winter, they can also become a source of infection of healthy lice with fungal diseases.

How to prepare a plant for shelter

In order for the vine to mature before frost, it is necessary to adhere to some rules:

  1. Correctly select varieties that are suitable for planting in your area. In the Moscow region, Lora, Shun, Nadezhda Aksayskaya, Victoria, Nakhodka Azos, Viktor, Super Extra, Phenomenon, Pervozvany, Muscat Summer, Gala ”,“ Cherry ”,“ Cardinal Lux ”.
  2. Throughout the season, it is necessary to closely monitor the condition of the vine, to respond in time to problems that arise, to cure diseases, to carry out preventive treatments with fungicides, to remove damaged shoots.
  3. In time to harvest and not allow a strong load on the vine. The more clusters on it will be, the later it becomes woody.
  4. Stop watering with the onset of autumn. Drought imitation will cause the grape root system to accumulate phytohormone - an inhibitor. It is he who will delay the growth of culture and provoke the onset of the resting stage. He will be involved in the process of aging vines.
  5. To produce water recharge watering plants in the late fall.
  6. Conduct timely fertilization.
  7. Perform autumn pruning.

Abundant watering

During the period when low positive temperatures have been established and after autumn pruning, it is necessary to produce a moisture-filled watering of the grapes. It is made because well-saturated wet soil near the roots freezes through less. This procedure begins with the fact that shallow pits are dug around the bush of the bush and gradually fill them with water. On one bush should go from 1 to 3 buckets of water.

After all the water has been consumed, the grapes bushes earth with earth and produce their shelter. If October turned out to be very rainy, then moisture-charging watering is not performed.

It is very important to fertilize the plant well before wintering, and also to make preventive spraying against diseases.

For feeding at this time, superphosphate (25 g / 10 l of water) and potash salt (25 g / 10 l of water) will be needed. Root top dressings are made in October, making holes 20 cm deep near the bush.

Spraying is done after the entire crop has been removed.

VIDEO: HOW TO CORRECT AND FERTY GRAPES

One of the most crucial stages of preparing grapes for winter is pruning. Experienced owners of vineyards are advised to produce it when the first frosts come, but not below -3 degrees. The fact is that after harvesting the plant still needs to be given some time to accumulate nutrients. And early pruning will significantly reduce the frost resistance of the plant.

When pruning, you should perform two tasks - remove young, unripe whips and cut the vines that have already been removed. On each sleeve it is worth leaving a knot of substitution and a fruit arrow. The knot of substitution must be formed from the lower shoot that grew from the outer part of the sleeve. Trimming it carried out in such a way that there are 3-4 eyes.

The fruit arrow is formed from a branch located slightly higher on the opposite side of the replacement knot. It should be placed 5-12 eyes. Thus, after pruning, the strongest trunks remain, growing perpendicular to the ground, and the sleeves with buds, which next year will give young branches and hands with fruits.

Almost immediately after pruning, they perform katarovka - pruning of dew roots, those that are close to the surface of the earth. They definitely will not survive the harsh winter, but can provoke disease in deeper roots.

How to cover the grapes for the winter in the Moscow region

It is worth starting the shelter of grapes after all the above described activities have been completed and the first frosts have arrived. It is desirable that there was a stable subzero temperature up to -2 degrees. This situation is usually observed at the end of October - in the first decade of November.

There are two ways to shelter grapes:

  1. Natural methods.
  2. Cover materials.

Grapevine can prikopat earth. This is the simplest, but not the most effective way. In the case of ingestion of shelter precipitation and a strong freezing of the earth, the plant may die. This type of shelter is suitable for old, already well-hardened plants. And for the young it is better to choose other ways.

Vines should be removed from supports, tied and pinned to the ground, treated with iron sulphate (400 g per 10 l of water), and then sprinkled with a 15-centimeter layer of slightly moist soil. Neither dry nor too wet soil for these purposes will not work. Land for sprinkling should be taken from the rows. For singly growing bushes - at a distance of 1 m from the trunk.

For the Moscow region it is also desirable, in addition to garden soil (a layer of 5-15 cm), to use for shelter, for example, fallen leaves, straw (a layer of 5-15 cm), and then another layer of loose soil (25 cm high). Or lay the sheets of slate over the ground, cover with foil, etc. Это необходимо для того, чтобы в укрытие не проникала влага, которая может приводить к загниванию глазков.

Earthen shelter in snowy winters is good to cover with snow - it will also allow the vines to stay warm. To save time and effort on the shelter, use the method of planting grapes in excavated trenches or boxes with a depth of 20-30 cm and a width of 30-50 cm. Trenches are reinforced with bricks, slate or boards. For winter, the vines are laid in these trenches and covered with roofing sheets, roofing felt, film, and boards.

Improvised and purchased materials

With this method, the shelter is divided into the external, which is produced just by covering materials and improvised means, and internal - weatherization of the vine inside the shelter.

Inside under the vine and put on it a spice tree, straw, sawdust.

From above use various materials which are near at hand or which can be got in hardware store.

Wooden shields, wooden boxes. The vine is placed on stands, and wooden shields are placed on both sides of the bushes in the form of a tent. Additionally, boards from the inside are upholstered with ruberoid.

Slate. Use only in combination with an earth mound. It is placed on top of a layer of soil. For the same purposes they use burlap, boards, and other building materials. Agrofibre, film. The shoots are covered with spruce branches, straw and other organic matter, and the agrofibre, film or lutrasil are stretched on top in 2-3 layers. The edges of the materials are sprinkled with earth or pressed against heavy objects. Ruberoid Metal arcs should be installed above the bushes and the roofing material should be pulled on them. In the same way, you can cover with polyethylene. Styrofoam. The scourge is warmed with pine needles, then covered with foam and covered with foil.

When to hide after winter

In Moscow, the grapes begin to open in the last decade of April. If it is still expected to freeze, then you can open it only in the daytime for airing and exposure to sunlight, but you should not return the vines to supports. Keep warm shoots under cover is not necessary, it is fraught with negative consequences for them.

If the frosts came unexpectedly, then at night the already opened vines can be covered with agrotex, spunbond. When covering with a film, you will need to take it off in the daytime. Sleeping buds can withstand temperatures up to minus 3–4 degrees, which have entered a growth phase to minus 1 degrees.

Full disclosure of grapes produced in the period when there are no morning frosts, positive temperatures have established and the earth has dried. Shelter is removed, and shoots cling to the supports.

Immediately after disclosure, prophylactic spraying of grapes from diseases and harmful insects with fungicides and insecticides is carried out: “Nitrofen”, “Karbofos”, “Oxyhom”, solution of copper and iron vitriol.

How to prepare grapes for winter and increase its winter hardiness?

The ability of grapes to tolerate the cold season well depends on how carefully they were cared for throughout the season. Damaged, weakened grapes with untreated wood are unlikely to survive the cold, so from spring you need to think about how to save the grapes for the winter.

Throughout the season, regularly inspect the vineyards and in a timely manner fight fungal diseases, treating the vineyard with fungicides and cutting out damaged branches. After collecting the berries, you can use a half or even a double dose of a chemical agent so that the plants concentrate their strength on aging and go healthy in the winter.

Feeding grapes

The grapes of different varieties react positively to fertilizing fertilizers, especially on phosphate and potash fertilizers. At the same time, if the grapes grow on humus-rich chernozems, the grapes practically do not require additional nutrition in the form of nitrogen fertilizers, there is a sufficient amount of them in the soil itself.

For all types of soil, manure is considered a particularly valuable fertilizer for grapes, which provides the grape bush not only with phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen, but also adds many trace elements. Manure is applied in autumn, once every 3 years. On one square meter of soil 7-8 kg.

Trimming and shaping

Experienced winegrowers use a variety of methods for pruning and shaping a grape bush. First you need to master the simplest methods of grape pruning, which include bezshtambovaya and one-sided formation in the form of a cordon. Later, try more complex versions of the fan shaping of the grape bush.

Ways grape shelter for the winter

The older the plant, the greater its ability to withstand severe frosts without special shelter. In the climatic conditions of the Moscow region, to cover grapes for the winter period is a prerequisite. Before you make a shelter for the winter, after the leaves fall off, the grapes themselves are cut.

Experienced gardeners have a widespread method of sheltering for the winter: dry leaves are harvested during the leaves, then the grapes are covered with them, and then covered with polyethylene. After the autumn pruning has occurred, the vine must be pinned to the ground with wire hooks before a cold snap occurs.

After that, it is necessary to completely cover the bush with collected leaves, up to 30 cm tall, then the leaves are covered with a film on top, and cut raspberry stalks can be folded on top of it, this will help improve snow accumulation. With the arrival of spring, the leaves are removed and later they are used to make compost.

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