Felt cherry is widespread in the Far East and Eastern Siberia. Gradually, this unpretentious and fruitful shrub is gaining popularity in the central regions of the country. The undoubted advantages of culture attract the attention of inquisitive gardeners of Russia. Especially since the main disease of an ordinary cherry is coccomycosis.
But sometimes you can see a sad picture of how a felt cherry dries in the garden after a lot of flowering. This culture suffers greatly from another fungal infection, moniliosis.
Signs of illness
During flowering felted cherry affects everyone who sees it for the first time. The bush turns into a snow-white ball, completely covered with delicate flowers for several days. Flowering cherries are the undoubted decoration of any garden.
However, after flowering, the gardener often catches disappointment when the cherry branches suddenly dry up. And the leaves, flowers and branches dry as fast as the plant burns. Why dries felted cherries? Due to a fungal infection. This disease was aptly named monilial burn.
Dried branches quickly lead to the death of the entire bush. It seems that the plant died from the spring frosts. However, the cause is an infectious fungus.
This disease affects not only felt cherries, but also cherries, plums, cherries, apricots and peaches.
Important! Almost all stone-seed garden crops are at risk of disease.
Why do bone fruits from moniliosis dry? Usually they lack proper care, prevention of fungal infection in the spring is not carried out.
The grower must take immediate action on the following conditions:
- flowers fade, acquiring a copper-brown color,
- after flowering the branch dries,
- withering young leaves and shoots
- the bark is covered with a small gray growth,
- a gray bloom appears on the fruit, after which they dry out and hang on the branches,
- begins for gum cracks on the bark.
If you do not immediately cut out the branches affected by the fungus and do not spray them with protective agents, then the fungus will settle in the growing berries. Over time, they mummify and become a hotbed of infection.
The spores of the fungus germinate in the flower, develop in it and grow, infecting neighboring tissues. Dries the felted cherries from this infection very quickly. During 1-2 seasons the bush dries completely.
There are several reasons for the spread of disease:
- buying and planting sick seedlings,
- heavy and prolonged rainfall during the season, with waterlogging, flowers and fruits are affected by moniliosis,
- the infection is transmitted from other stone fruits in the garden.
When a disease is detected on any bone-growing culture, it is necessary to treat all the trees and bushes of this group in the garden with special means.
At the sight of the affected cherry, gardeners immediately wonder what to do?
Treatment of a fungal infection of any nature, including moniliosis, takes place according to certain rules:
- removal of infected tissues,
- spraying plants with fungicides,
- disease prevention.
Each dried branch should be immediately cut and burned. Monilioz, due to which the cherry tree dies, is transmitted from infected branches to healthy parts of the plant. From the spores of the fungus berries dry up and hang on the branches for a long time, spreading the disease.
The first thing to do when a disease is detected, cut off the diseased branches immediately after flowering. The branches are cut 10 cm below the dried part. The tips of the cut branches must be covered with garden pitch or painted with red lead based on natural drying oil.
For the prevention of disease and treatment of already affected plants, in the spring before flowering, they are sprayed with 1% solution of copper sulphate or Bordeaux mixture.
On buds, before the cherry blossoms, the branches are treated with fungicides like Topaz, Fundazol, Topsin. Blooming flowers should signal the end of plant treatments with chemicals. Their use at this time will destroy pollinating bees.
Treat infected plants only with potent fungicides. No traditional means of processing plants in this case will not help.
In the rainy spring, a remedy against fungal infection should be used repeatedly, since high humidity and warm weather contribute to the rapid spread of infection. Usually, copper-containing preparations are used in early spring, and later spraying over cherry branches with fungicides.
In addition to spring processing, it will be necessary to sprinkle felt cherries after picking the berries. In the fall, the infection can be fought by spraying a 3% solution of copper sulphate or Bordeaux mixture.
What to do to a cherry tree less sick dangerous disease? It is important to observe several rules of its cultivation:
- plant felted cherries in a sunny and dry place
- regularly cut the berry, removing old branches,
- in March, before blooming buds, the shrub is twice treated with 1% solution of copper sulfate or 3% solution of Bordeaux liquids. Spraying is carried out with an interval of 5 days,
- sprinkle closed buds with a foundation or another fungicide twice before flowering,
- remove weeds and loosen the ground near the trunk,
- in the autumn, repeat the solution of vitriol or Bordeaux liquor,
- modern fungicides can be used to prevent the disease,
- in the fall, clean and burn all the fallen leaves, cut out old and extra branches.
Regular and repeated treatments of the diseased plant will help save it, prevent the spread of the disease to other fruit crops.
Moniloz felted cherries do not destroy the plants, if the control measures are properly selected and applied in time. Preventive and therapeutic measures begin in early spring and end in late autumn. The infection control page will be turned over if a felt cherry annually gives a generous harvest to a caring and attentive gardener.
Why cherries dry: prevention and treatment of moniliosis on cherries and cherries
The disease on cherries manifests itself in the form of a monilial burn, leading to the death of young fruit twigs and annual shoots, and on the plum in the form of gray rot of fruits (tab. 49).
Tab. 49. Diseases of cherries and plums: monilial burn, moniliosis
The first signs of the disease appear immediately after flowering. Some branches of the tree suddenly dry up, the affected flowers turn brown, dry out, but remain for a long time hanging on the tree without dropping the petals.
With strong development the disease affects all flower shoots. Such a tree has the appearance of burnt fire. Hence the name of this form of the disease - monilial burn.
In wet weather ash-gray pads containing spores of the fungus are formed on the affected inflorescences.
Tab. 49. Fruity bone fruit rot, or monilial burn:
1 - affected leaves and cherry shoot,
2 - affected flowers,
5 - fruit rot
First mass infection Disputes occurs during the flowering period. The spore falls on the stigma of the flower, germinates, develops in the mycelium, which spreads into the ovary and pedicel.
From the pedicle the mycelium penetrates the fruit sprig, into the bast tissues that turn brown and die. If it embraces the branches of the bast tissue in a ring (develops round), the branch dies off, the shoots developing on the branch also dry out.
Monilial burn especially dangerous for trees with inflorescences on thicker branches, as it causes the death of entire skeletal branches. In the summer, the disease continues to develop on the fruits in the form of gray rot.
Infection of fruits initially occurs by spores from inflorescences and branches affected by a monilial burn, or from hibernating rotten fruits.
The disease on the fruit begins from a small dark spot that grows quickly and soon covers the whole fruit. Infected fruits, the skin of which is damaged by insects, or fruits with mechanical wounds.
Infestation of rotten fruits can occur without disturbances in the skin of the fetus in case of close contact between a sick and healthy fetus. The color of the diseased fetus depends on the color of the skin of the fetus, but the flesh is brown in all cases.
With time the surface of diseased fruits is covered with small (0.5-1.5 mm in diameter) ash-gray pads of sporulation of the fungus located in disarray.
In some cases, rotten fruit acquire a dark bluish color and look lacquered (mummified). Most of the mummified fruits fall off, but some of them remain hanging on the tree until the spring of next year.
Winter mushroom in affected inflorescences, shoots, branches and dry fruits. The development of monilial burn and gray rot of fruits is promoted by cool, damp weather in spring, during flowering and in summer.
How to deal with the rot of cherry and plum
1) cutting and burning all damaged shoots, inflorescences, branches: collecting rotten mummified fruits in autumn and spring, cutting out inflorescences affected by a monilial burn occurs 15 to 20 days after flowering, when a clear line is formed between healthy and diseased tissue, in such cases the inflorescences are cut off, capturing healthy tissue at 10 - 20 cm,
2) systematic collection and removal of rotten carrion and rotten fruit from trees and during the summer,
3) Early spring (before bud break) and late autumn (after leaf fall) spraying of soil and trees with nitrafen (200 - 300 g per 10 l of water),
4) pest control (fruit moth, brant, cherry fly, etc.),
5) spraying Bordeaux mixture (100 g of copper sulphate with 100 g of lime per 10 l of water added) or copper chlorine (40 g per 10 l of water), polylime (40 g per 10 l of water) twice:
- first - in the spring just before the blooming of flowers to protect them from infection,
- the second - Immediately after summer pruning damaged inflorescences.
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Monilioz pome and means of dealing with it
Moniliosis is a disease of trees caused by a fungus. Apple, pear, quince and other sunflower seeds are affected. The most common form of moniliasis on pome fruit is fruit rot. It begins with a small brown spot, which quickly increases and covers the entire fruit, as a result of which its flesh becomes brown, softens and loses its taste.
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The disease, affecting young and already ripe berries, causes great damage to the crop. The fungus develops in those years when during the ripening of the grapes it is wet ...Monilioz Cherry - on the photo
What is monilioz cherry?
One of the most common diseases of fruit trees, especially in large areas, is monilioz cherry. Every year, hundreds of plants throughout the European part of Russia suffer from moniliosis. This is due to the controversy of the fungus Monilia, their peculiarity is the extent of the destruction of trees - so if one tree is infected, then everything needs to be processed, the spores are spread with the help of wind, rain and insects. A wonderful habitat of the fungus is a temperate climate with a cool and wet spring, the fungus multiplies at a temperature of + 15 ْ С and a humidity of 95%.
There are several names for this disease - monilial burn and fruit rot. When burned, leaves, flowers and shoots become dark brown in color and dry. This phenomenon can be confused with exposure to frost or with pesticide burns. In the case of fruit rot, fruits are affected, which turn brown, as a result of which they frown, dry up and fall off.
The main stage of development of the fungus occurs in early spring - the period of flowering of the cherry. The spores pass through the pistils to the peduncle, and from there into the shoot tissue and into the wood. Penetration can also be carried out through the damaged bark of a tree. Remember that any rot can indicate a disease. After an incubation period (about 10 days), a month later, the infected parts of the plant dry out due to the cessation of the movement of the juices.
If you are not quite sure of the diagnosis, then look closely at the cut of the affected part of the tree, if there are dark rings, then this is moniliosis. If you know why cherries are drying, it is better to sort out the causes and correct the problem until the tree is lost.
Methods for treating cherry monoliosis
Before flowering, it is necessary to spray the cherry trees with 3% Bordeaux liquid or fungicides Horus, Skor, etc. Be sure to repeat the procedure after 14 days.
After the fruits are collected, the trees should be processed 2 more times, keeping a break of 14 days. Remember that treatment with moniliosis chemicals should be carried out in dry weather and in the absence of wind. Be sure to follow the instructions and use precautions. For a more complete penetration of the drug into the leaves, you can add soap to the solution in the proportion of 30 grams per 10 liters, while it is important to treat the underside and make sure that the solution does not flow.
It should be noted that the fight against moniliasis is carried out throughout the entire summer season. It is also recommended to alternate preparations between each other, because the fungus tends to adapt. It is possible to eat processed berries only after 25-30 days, since fruits absorb chemicals in themselves, but still it is better to carry out processing after harvest.
Biological agents are different from chemical safety. However, they should be used for a longer time - Fitosporin-M is such a drug, it is started to be used at the beginning of cherry flowering and during the formation of fruits.
Monilioz cherry - how to treat folk remedies
Unfortunately, there is not yet an effective and simple remedy for moniliosis, however, there are a number of measures that will help not so much to cure as to prevent the disease. If last year the cherry suffered from moniliosis, then before the buds bloomed in the spring, all diseased branches should be carefully cut out (at the same time cutting off the healthy part by 10 cm), and the cut point must be treated with garden pitch.
Calcareous materials (best of all on acidic soil) help in the fight against moniliasis, it may be lime-powder or dolomite flour. The proportions are those per 1 m2, you need about 400 grams of lime material.
A solution of iodine will help contain the spread of rot (10 drops of water will require 40 drops of iodine). However, it is necessary to spray only when the fruit reaches the size of a pea.
Resistant varieties of cherries to moniliasis
One of the methods to combat moniliosis is the acquisition and planting of varieties of cherries that are resistant to this disease. It is important to remember that there are no trees with immunity to the disease.
Chocolate girl - winter-hardy variety of cherries, the plant reaches 2 meters in height, after planting bears fruit after 3 years.
A toy - this variety is most resistant to fungi, an adult tree can reach 7 meters in height, begins to bear fruit for 3 years.
Turgenevka - one of the most popular varieties of cherries, fruits appear only at 5 year after planting.
Quickwink - this variety is notable for its small height (less than 2 meters) and good resistance to moniliosis.
Night - This variety is the result of crossing cherries and cherries, it is characterized by active growth.
Novella - the most unpretentious variety, the first fruits after planting appear for 4 year.
Minx - hybrid variety, different growth rate.
What is a monilial cherry burn?
Various subspecies of this parasite live on apples and pears, quince, peaches, apricots and plums. Stone fruit crops, to which cherry is also related, suffer the most. Monilioz cherry, in the photo, or gray fruit rot, today is widespread in many regions in temperate climates.
In Russia, gardens suffer from infection:
- in the center of the European part,
- in Siberia,
- in the northwest of the country,
- in the Far East,
- in the Caucasus,
- in the Urals.
Moniliasis infected cherry orchards in Ukraine and Belarus. The problem has become almost ubiquitous. The spread of the monilial burn of the cherry is promoted by cool weather and rain. At a humidity of 95–100%, the optimum temperature for the development of the parasite is 15–20 ° C.
Protracted, accompanied by precipitation spring provokes the emergence of the disease in those areas where earlier mass manifestations of gray rot were not observed.
How do plants become infected?
Conidia fungus during flowering through the pistil penetrate into the flower. Soon mycelium grows. Mycelium affects the pedicel and shoot wood. As a result, instead of the kind of pouring berries, the gardener observes the rapid drying of young branches.
The resulting ovaries, leaves, and shoots become brown or brick-brown in color. The berries are mummified and remain on the tree. If the affected parts of the plant are not removed in time, new fungal spores appear on them, and the infection repeats. Даже потепление и прекращение дождей не могут остановить процесс расселения паразита.Although the external signs of the disease in this case are smeared or poorly noticeable, but at the first opportunity, the causative agent of moniliosis of a cherry tree that has already fallen into the tissue, as in the photo, will manifest itself.
In favorable conditions, during the warm season, the parasitic fungus gives several generations and captures entire gardens. Winter disputes are waited on infected branches, dried foliage and unmarked berries not harvested from trees. Their presence can be revealed by grayish-brown spots on the bark, mummified fruits and leaves. With the arrival of spring, a new round of contamination occurs.
Monilial burn of a cherry is also dangerous because it is easily transferred to closely related crops, for example, cherries, plums, felt cherries, cherry plums, apricots and peaches.
The spread of infection contributes not only to wet weather, but also to insects that parasitize flowers and cherry ovaries. Not only do they violate the integrity of the tissues and weaken fruit trees, pests such as cherry weevil, aphids or seed moths, transfer the fungus from the already sick parts of the plant to healthy ones.
Along with coccomycosis, monilial burn on stone fruit is considered one of the most devastating diseases. Already in the first year after infection, the gardener loses the lion's share of the crop. It should be remembered that the treatment of moniliose cherry folk remedies is not carried out.
If urgent measures are not taken, the disease spreads lightning-fast across the crowns of closely growing trees and in a few years is capable of destroying vast, previously healthy and steadily fruiting plantations.
How to cope with the trouble, overtaking an increasing number of amateur and industrial farms? Are there cures for the disease and varieties of cherries resistant to moniliasis?
How to treat moniliosis cherries?
Since the disease behaves quite aggressively and in recent years has captured all new territories, measures to combat moniliose of the cherry must be complex, regular and decisive. They include:
- sanitary pruning of affected branches,
- cleaning from the trees of fallen leaves
- crown formation
- chemical treatment of plants.
Before treating monilioz cherries with copper-containing preparations or systemic fungicides, pruning of already dried shoots is mandatory. If weak, fungus, lichen or insect-affected branches were not removed in the fall, they are cut out in early spring before budding. Then the condition of the trees is checked after flowering. The first signs of a lesion are visible already 8–14 days after the flowers wither. To eliminate the spread of infection down the healthy wood, the cut is carried out by grabbing a pair of buds below the drying out areas.
Foliage, ovaries and small shoots that have fallen under a tree, carefully collected and destroyed. Soil of a pristvolny circle loosened.
A good preventive measure against the spread of the monilial burn of a cherry is the regular formation of fruit trees. Removing the branches, the growth of which leads to excessive density of the crown, cutting weak shoots reduce the risk of colonization of the crown by pests and fungi. Particularly in need of such pruning and rejuvenation are old, gradually weakening plantings.
All plant residues from diseased cherries, including branches, fruits mummified or rotted in summer, as well as foliage, must be burned.
If this is not done, the fungus will easily overwinter and with the wind, raindrops or with the help of insects will continue to spread and ruin the plantings.
Pruning and adherence to agricultural technology slows down the development of infection, but only with the help of such control measures monilioz cherry cannot be defeated. It is much more effective to combine them with the complex treatment of a garden with specialized antifungal preparations.
Against moniliosis, as well as against other fungal infections on plants, preparations containing copper compounds are traditionally used. They inhibit the activity of the parasite and return the plants health.
In addition, today modern systemic fungicides are widely used, which act against several microorganisms dangerous for fruit crops. Both preventive and therapeutic measures imply several treatments per season.
How to treat monilioz on cherries that were ill last season? To destroy the causative agent of moniliosis, spraying is carried out in the spring, before budding and in the autumn, after the completion of leaf fall, when all fallen leaves have been cut and destroyed.
With the preventive purpose spraying is carried out:
- on the green cone stage, that is, before opening the flower buds,
- after flowering, when ovaries are formed,
- one month after the last treatment, if the instruction of the selected drug allows.
At the disposal of gardeners today there are a lot of effective fungicides, but you need to remember that fungi are able to adapt to a particular composition. Therefore, it is better to change the drugs, and with them in the summer to use insecticides for insect pests that contribute to spreading the infection to neighboring trees and fruit bushes.
One of the effective measures to combat moniliosis of the cherry is a competent selection of varieties for planting.
First of all, you should choose plants that are well adapted to the climatic features of the region. And although the breeders did not succeed in cultivating the varieties and hybrids of cherries, which were completely unaffected by a dangerous disease, there are varieties that cope better with the scourge than others.
Among them are Anadol cherries and Tamaris, Belarusian variety Zhivitsa and Rossoshanskaya black, as well as unpretentious moniliasis-resistant cherries for Moscow region, for example, Turgenevka, Molodezhnaya, Radonezh, Shpanka Bryansk and Bystrynka.
With a competent approach to agricultural technology, preventive treatment and constant attention to the condition of planting, even in areas of mass infection with moniliosis, you can get consistently good yields and not worry about the health of your favorite culture.
Description and implications
Moniliasis is a fungal disease that is also called gray rot and develops under the influence of ascomycete fungus. Monilioz often affects pome and stone fruit plants. The main type of ascomycete, which was the cause of the stone fruit, is Monilia cinerea.
The consequences of developing moniliosis can lead to the death of the plant, if not in time to take measures to process the cherries. When a tree is affected by this disease, flowering and pollination can be delayed.
Recently, moniliosis has been actively developing, which is becoming harder to treat, if only individual parts of the plant could have died before, now the fungus can completely destroy the tree.
Signs of appearance
In order to overcome the disease, it is necessary to be able to distinguish the first symptoms of the disease.
Among them are the appearance:
- immature mummified fruits,
- half-dead foliage on the branches,
- shrunken and darkened branches
- soft areas on 3-year-old shoots where fungal spores have hibernated.
Large trees have a clear boundary where the healthy and diseased part of the plant is visible. Where the fungus settled down, drying occurs, blackening of parts of the plant.
Causes and pathogen
As mentioned above, the causative agent of the disease is a fungus, which often infects the plant through the pistil of a flower. Wintering fungus occurs on the affected parts of the plant, as well as on fallen fruits, which have become mummified.
When the plants begin to bloom abundantly, the mycelium begins to abundantly spawn and fall on the stalk and the ovary already formed. Infected plant can and through the kidneys.
The defeat of flowering plants occurs at a low temperature, approximately at -2 ° C, and the defeat of the ovary at -0.5 ° C. Also favorable conditions for the active reproduction of the fungus is considered high humidity, abundant fogs and regular dew plant cover during the flowering period. There is a risk of the disease after a mild and wet winter.
Moniliasis manifests itself in two forms: fruit rot and monilial burn. Fruit rot settles on infected berries, when they fall, they become the source of moniliosis development next year.
A moniliac burn appears on the plants as a result of the penetration of the fungus into the wounds of the tree, which can occur under the influence of insects.
Healing and fighting
Since often inexperienced gardeners do not take any measures to eliminate dried leaves and flowering, believing that this process has arisen due to weather conditions, they miss precious time, which often leads to the final death of cherries or sweet cherries.
The period when the flowers are almost completely fallen, only the formed first ovaries begin to fall, are considered to be lost time for processing, that is, if you start to care for the plant after waiting for such symptoms, the result may not be fixed and the plant will destroy the fungus that has reached the peak of parasitism.
Therefore, the fight against moniliosis of cherries and cherries should begin precisely during the peak of flowering of the tree, when the disease is just beginning to develop. When you notice the first dried leaves and buds - it's time to act. It is likely that we will have to lose part of the harvest, but the rest of it will be preserved. Efficiency of processing depends on weather conditions.
It must be borne in mind that if the plant has infected this fungus, then the berries after ripening should be immediately used, since they will already be infected and will not be stored fresh. It would be better to use them for making compotes or jams.
Chemical treatment of monilial burns of cherries for their treatment should be carried out before the buds of the tree begin to swell and in the period when they enter the phase of blooming.
At this time, it is recommended to treat the crown of the wood Bordeaux liquid, 3% solution. It is also necessary to whiten with lime mortar trunks of trees, in which add a little copper sulfate and antifungal agent. Before the cherry blossoms it is necessary to process the tree crowns with a 0.4% solution of “Cineba”.
If you have not processed the cherry before flowering, you should do this during the blooming of the buds, “Topsin-M” - 1% solution. This drug does not damage the stigma and pistils of buds, which is the main factor for the formation of ovaries.
Also, the use of the drug is possible for subsequent treatments. The recommended spraying interval is 2 weeks, you can do 2 more treatments.
The treatment with such preparations should be continued: “Zineb”, “Kuprozan”, iron sulphate.
When the buds begin to turn pink and immediately after the tree has faded, it is recommended to spray the plants at an interval of 2 weeks. To do this, you can use the "Cupid" and "Horus". Treatments must be carried out according to the instructions on the packaging. If you cultivate varieties that are considered to be resistant to moniliosis, when plants start to bloom more, it is not recommended to use chemical processing this season.
Biological preparations are a good alternative for treating affected plants during the formation and ripening of fruits, when chemical treatment is not recommended.
Preference is given to:
- "Fitosporin-M". It is necessary to use this tool at the time when the tree has faded, as well as during the active formation of the ovary. For this recommended dosage in the amount of 40 ml per 20 liters of water.
- "Fitolavinu". Processing carried out in phases: flowering, when the tree fades, the formation of the ovary. As a preventive measure, it can be used for processing when the berries begin to ripen. Dosage: 40 ml of the drug per 20 liters of water.
In order for trees not to fall ill with monilioz, it is recommended to buy resistant varieties. It is also important to consider the following points in the care of the plant, which will be the prevention of the occurrence of fungal disease in the stone trees:
- Planted plants should be at a sufficient distance from each other, so that the air does not stagnate and the trees are not in contact with each other.
- Plots for cultivation is better to choose on an elevation, so that the level of groundwater was no higher than 1.5 m from the upper part of the soil.
- The area should be well lit so that excess moisture evaporates faster.
- It should be timely pruning and thinning of the crown and rejuvenate old plants.
- Try to avoid mechanical damage on the trees.
- Timely remove weeds and shoots from the territory where the plant grows.
- In order for the plant to have a strong immunity and to fight well against the fungus, it is necessary to regularly fertilize and water the soil.
- In the spring, it is imperative to prune dried and affected parts of trees. Also pay attention to dead areas of bark and clean them in a timely manner to prevent the settlement and the growth of fungus.
- If you have identified shoots affected by moniliosis, you should immediately cut and burn them. It is necessary to cut off with the capture of a healthy part of the plant by 15 cm.
Moniliosis of cherries and cherries is quite a serious fungal disease that can completely leave you without a crop, and in some cases even deprive the tree itself.
In order for monilioz not to touch your crop, you must follow preventive measures. And in the fight against the disease it is important to carry out timely treatment with chemical and biological agents.
Why cherry does not bear fruit, possible diseases and methods of treatment
Cherry is one of the most disease-resistant crops among fruit trees. These figures have declined significantly, and the main reasons for this are the emergence of new types of fungal diseases and natural disasters.
The reason for the spread of the disease may be non-compliance with the prevention and rules of farming. Rotting plant debris, improper crop alternation, mass distribution of pests, lack of fungicide treatment, contributing to the epidemic of the entire site.
Cherry most often affects diseases:
- Perforated spotting
- Root cancer
Frequent causes of the lack of fruiting, even with abundant cherry blossoms, are dangerous diseases: coccomicosis and moniliasis. These diseases can cause other fruit trees in your garden: cherry, apricot, plum and others.
Holey spot (klyasterosporioz)
This is a fungal disease that affects all tree structures.
- Signs of Calesterosis. Education on the leaves of light brown spots with red-brown border. Affected tissue dies and falls. Torn holes are formed on the sheet. Shoots are covered with cracking spots, from which gum flows. The kidneys become black and shiny.
- Treatment. Pruning and burning of all affected areas of the tree. Sprinkle cherries and near-stem circle with 3% Bordeaux liquid. Digging and complete destruction of plant residues in the near-stem circle. With a strong lesion, the procedure is repeated after a week. Treatment of gum wounds.
- Effects. Premature fall of leaves, shoots and branches. Drying fruits, loss of commercial quality.
Coccomycosis: ways to combat the fungus
This fungal disease, mainly formed on the leaves, less often affects the berries. This disease is inherent in trees growing in the Moscow region and in other regions of Russia.
- Signs of. At the beginning of the disease, small red dots appear on the sheet, as the disease progresses, they become larger and gradually merge with each other. With high humidity on the lower side of the sheet a pink bloom forms. Lack of treatment leads to browning and necrosis, dead tissue falls, and lacerated wounds are formed on the leaves.
- What to do. In the fall (after leaf fall) and spring (before bud break), treat with 4% Bordeaux liquid. Trimming and destruction of the affected areas.
- Effects. Premature leaf fall, exhaustion and death of the tree, yield loss.
Monilioz or gray rot
This is a fungal disease that is otherwise called a monilial burn. Cherry becomes infected with moniliosis when the tree begins to blossom, through damage to the bark.
- Signs of. During the wet and warm season, small pustules of white color are formed on the petioles and the lower surface of the leaves, which in appearance resemble branched chains. The spores of the fungus are carried by the wind and insects on the surface of the fruit, forming brown spots on them, which gradually spread over the entire surface. After another 10 days, yellowish pillows (sporodokhii) are formed on the surface of the fetus. The affected fruits fall off or remain on the branches of the cherry tree where the spores of the fungus overwinter and when the air temperature is above + 15 ° they begin to develop.
- Treatment. All plant waste in the vicinity of the tree is collected and burned. The branches of the cherry are cut below the lesion level by 10 cm, the bark is cleaned to healthy tissue. Cherry is treated with fungicides, the main drugs: Azocene, Topsin, Horus (15 g / 10 l).
- Effects. Lack of fruiting, gradual death of the tree, an epidemic on the site.
Anthracnose - disease of berries, how to treat
Это грибковое заболевание чаще всего поражает плоды вишни и остается незамеченным долгое время.
- Признаки. В начале поражения на плодах появляются тусклые точки, постепенно разрастающиеся в выпуклости бледно-розового цвета. При низкой влажности плоды вишни мумифицируются, чернеют и опадают.
- Лечение. Spraying cherries with a contact fungicide Poliram. Processing carried out before and after flowering, and the third in 15 days.
- Effects. Drying of shoots, yield loss up to 80%.
Appears after mechanical damage to the bark, frostbite, sunburn or fungal diseases.
- Signs of. Isolation of a thick, colorless or brown resin from gum damage.
- Treatment. Disinfection of wounds with 1% copper sulfate solution, treatment with garden pitch. Affected branches are cut and burned. Lime whitewash spring and autumn.
- Effects. The weakening of the tree, reduced productivity, the death of the branches.
Rust - leaf disease
Fungal disease affecting the leaves of the cherry. The causative agent of the fungus is Gymnosporangium sabinae, the host of which is juniper, and the intermediate is pear.
- Signs of. At the onset of the disease, small greenish-yellow spots are formed on the leaves, which gradually increase and the affected tissues swell. A few days after the first signs appear, a powdery coating forms on the surface of the sheet, which gradually darkens.
- Treatment. Spraying cherries before blooming buds 5% Bordeaux liquid, re-spraying 1% drug before flowering. Destruction of plant residues and affected leaves.
- Effects. Decrease in fruiting and winter hardiness, leaf fall.
Scab, what measures to take?
Fungal disease that damages the leaves and fruits of the cherry.
- Signs of. After the defeat of the cherry spores of the pathogen, brown-olive spots with a velvety surface appear on the leaves. Yellow circles spread around the spot. Gradually, the spores of the fungus are transferred to the fruit, they form cracks. Unripe green fruits cease to develop.
- Treatment. Spraying cherries and near-stem circle with Nitrafen before blooming buds. After that, you need to do three treatments with 1% Bordeaux liquid: during bud break, after flowering, after harvest. If necessary, repeat the procedure.
- Effects. Yield loss.
Root cancer, what to do?
This is a bacterial root disease that appears through contaminated soil.
- Signs of. Appearance on the root neck, main and lateral roots of tumor growths - galls. At the beginning of the disease the growths are small, soft and with a smooth surface. As the disease progresses, they increase in size, acquire a hard and uneven surface. In the autumn growths are destroyed.
- Treatment. Two treatments of cherries with a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate: before and after the growing season.
- Effects. Lack of plant nutrition, violation of sap flow, reduced productivity and resistance to disease.
If the cherries are damaged by protective covers, and this happens when branches break, leaves break, freezers, bark cuts, the risk of damage increases. Rodent damage to rodents contributes to the development of root cancer, which can get into the structure of the tree through vectors or from the affected soil.Mechanical damage to the bark of the cherry
- timely pruning and removal of old, rotten and overgrown branches,
- gardening wounds,
- protection of cherries in the winter from rodents,
- whitewash with lime from frostblade.
Deficiency of trace elements and moisture
Climate change contributes to mass spread of fungal and bacterial infections. Constant temperature drops between cold and heat create a favorable environment for the development of microorganisms.. In a weak and unprepared tree, the chances of resisting the pressure of fungi and bacteria are very low.
Therefore, autumn dressings are mandatory. How much fertilizer to apply? Based on 1 m 2 in the near-stem circle contribute:
- manure (5 kg) or an aqueous solution of potassium chloride (150 g / 10 l),
- water solution of superphosphate (300 g / 10 l).
Preventive treatment with fungicides should be carried out three times a year.. In the spring before bud break to suppress spores and bacteria that overwinter in tree structures. During flowering to secure the result. In the autumn to minimize the activity of microorganisms during temperature changes.Spring processing of trees with fungicides
For this cherry is sprayed:
- in the spring a solution of copper sulphate, soap and water (300g / 50g / 10l),
- summer an aqueous solution of ferrous sulfate (30 g / 10 l),
- after harvest 1% Bordeaux liquid.
To minimize the risk of developing diseases, each year you must adhere to the rules, these are:
- full removal of plant residues from the plot
- barrel cleaning trees from loose bark, layers of moss and lichen,
- digging plot weed removal
- thinning thickened crown
- right neighborhood and distance between plants.
The lack of prevention at least in one area of gardening, contributes to the spread of pests that are carriers of bacteria. In addition, the massive defeat of cherries by insects greatly depletes the plant. This can be prevented only with full control over the number of pests.
Fall leaves in July or August, causes of tree disease
Often gardeners ask the question: “Why did the cherry drop leaves in July or in August?” And the reason for this is a fungal disease.
After a wet spring, which is replaced by rainy summer, a completely atypical picture can be observed in the orchard: the leaves have fallen, and on the bare branches ripening fruits of cherry. This occurs in the second decade of July. The leaves turn yellow and fall off, and the fruits on such trees become shallow and mummified, which leads to complete or partial loss of harvest.
The culprit of the pathological phenomenon - coccomycosis, which tree was struck in the previous season.. Further, the development of spores of the fungus was promoted by the absence of severe frosts, therefore the infection survived well and after warming to + 15 ° it began to actively propagate spores.Cherry leaves fall in July
With the defeat of coccomycosis cherries do not die, but it is greatly weakened before winter. Each phase of the tree's life cycle has its own meaning.. At the beginning of the growing season, the roots of the tree provide food for the fruit ovary and leaf growth. And after fruiting and leaves, the leaves provide the roots and structures of the tree with nutrients for the winter season.
Therefore, when the leaves from the tree are shed in July, the cherry cannot properly prepare for the rest period. Having survived several such winters, the tree gradually dies.
Therapeutic measures should be started immediately after the discovery of a lesion. It may be necessary to remove most of the skeletal branches, carry out several treatments according to the recommended scheme, but it is impossible to get rid of coccomycosis without these measures.
The fight against cherry diseases will be successful if you are well aware of all the weaknesses of infections.. These are dryness, sunlight, cleanliness and fungicide treatment. Maintaining such conditions is not difficult and does not take much time. And you can lay a healthy foundation when planting cherries, avoiding low-lying areas with stagnant moisture and fog.