Grapes ceased to be a purely southern culture. Varieties that grow well and bear fruit in central Russia with a temperate climate have been bred. As with any other cultivated plant, grapes require good care. First of all, it is necessary to correctly control pests of grapes, which can be divided into two main types: fungal diseases and insects.
Fungal diseases - a threat to grapes
Fungal diseases that pose a threat to grapes, a lot. The main ones are mildew, powdery mildew (oidium), gray and white rot, anthracnose, chlorosis and some others.
Any disease is easier to prevent than to cure. In order to prevent diseases of the grapes, prevention is necessary, for example, carrying out agrotechnical procedures. Shrubs and bunches of grapes should be well ventilated, that is, between them should freely "walk" the air. In this case, pruning and fragments of branches, pasynkovanie, at the time of ripening berries - removal of leaves from clusters. These procedures allow air to penetrate into the bush, quickly dry the grapes. Pests, or rather spores of fungal diseases, cannot germinate and die.
The chemical treatment of the vineyard with sulfur preparations, topsin and fudozol also belongs to preventive measures. Ripe berries well sprayed with a pink solution of potassium permanganate.
A good effect is achieved with constant dusting of the soil with wood ash. The potassium contained in it affects the resistance of plants to diseases, and the development of fungi inhibits the alkaline reaction.
Grapes: pests - insects
The main pests of grapes are phylloxera, crunches, spider mites, a bear, a bunch of leafworms, wireworms, wasps.
Phylloxera (practically invisible aphid) is a dangerous pest that is impossible to fight. It damages the roots and leaves of the vine. Light yellow (then dark brown) swellings are formed on the affected areas, the growth force of the plant weakens, and it dies.
In Europe, phylloxera arrived from North America and immediately caused irreparable damage to viticulture. In the XIX century, the French government created a bonus fund in the amount of 300 thousand francs for the means to destroy phylloxera. But so far it has not been found.
Phylloxera is most often tolerated with planting material. In order to prevent it, it is necessary to decontaminate for two minutes in a solution prepared from 200 g of clay and 100 g of 12% dust hexachlorane per 5 liters of water. Insecticides will also be suitable: DI-68, Rogor, danadim, phosphamide, Aktelik and others.
The remedy is parsley. Plant it in the vineyard need as much as possible!
On sandy soils, phylloxera does not develop, and on oozy and clayey - very weakly.
Pest-Khrushchi amaze grapes. Their larvae settle in the soil and gnaw the roots and cuttings of grapes. During the digging of the soil in the autumn you need to collect and destroy the larvae of Khrushchev. Destroy them also when viewed from young plants in spring and summer.
Grape leaves infected with a spider mite, which likes to settle on their underside, become brown in color. Tick prefers grape varieties with wide foliage. He is not afraid of winter and settled in the vineyard again in the spring. After the buds of the grapes are dissolved, it must be sprayed with 0.20% Celtan emulsion. Then sprinkle repeat.
Wasps also damage grapes. Pests are afraid of chlorophos, which they are sprayed.
Leaf caterpillars of a small motley butterfly cause great damage to buds, flowers and grapes. As a result, the berries dry up when the weather is dry, and when they are wet they rot. It is possible to get rid of the pest by spraying with a 0.2-0.3% solution of chlorophos, as well as biological insecticides, for example, with the preparation “Bacilus Turinjensis”. As a preventive measure, it is necessary to remove bark from the pillars and stakes that are nearby.
Protecting grapes from pests is not easy and troublesome. But if you want the grapes to please you every year with tasty berries, then it should be carried out systematically and purposefully.
Grape fleaGrape flea — a tiny insect eating grape leaves, as well as many other plants. In appearance, this bug looks like a reduced to a size of 0.5 cm jumping cockroach.With the onset of spring, he eats up young shoots and vine leaves, causing a serious blow to the plant, and then lays on the back of healthy leaves from one to three dozen eggs. The hatched larvae immediately begin to eat the greens of the grapes, causing the plant even more damage.
Effective means of struggle with grape flea is "karbofos" or other chemical drugs of similar action, with which spraying of buds of grapes is sprinkled. The procedure should be repeated as new holes appear on the leaves, indicating the activity of the pest.
Grape Mining MothThis pest is a small bright red butterfly barely visible to the naked eye, which begins the season of hunting for young vine leaves in late spring and, like a grape flea, lays eggs on the back of a leaf of a plant.
The tiny caterpillars that emerge later (they can be seen by looking through the leaf in the sun) “mine” the leaves with specific oval passages filled with waste of their vital activity, as a result of which the leaf loses its color, fades and disappears.
Mining mole causes great damage to the plant, the crop is reduced, and the berries lose their quality. The unpleasant property of the insect is the fact that during the season it gives not one, but two generations of offspring.
Wrestling with the mining moth during the cold period of time, when it has not yet begun to eat the plant, it can be limited to digging the summer cottage and destroying the remnants of vegetation in which the insect can sleep.However, if the first narrow light strips ("mines") were found on the leaves in spring, more radical methods of struggle will be needed. Like a grape flea, a mining moth will help get rid of insecticides for grapes.
Against this insect, preparations containing pyrethrum vegetal poison act well, but they must be treated very carefully, because, firstly, the substance is very harmful not only to moth, but also to humans, and secondly, the miner mole quickly acquires immunity to like poisons.
If the infection is not very serious, you can try to do without special chemicals for grapes. So, insect eggs are destroyed with the help of products containing paraffin.
In addition, before splashing the grapes with poison, you can try to apply mechanical means: carefully examine the plant and remove infected leaves, using various adhesive films and the like against adult insects.
Grape pad — sedentary insect from which it is very difficult to get rid of. In many ways, it is the merit of its specific white down, with which the pest envelops itself, protecting it from the effects of poisons and the attack of natural enemies.Once attached to a leaf or a young grape branch, the pillowfish will continuously suck the juice out of it throughout its life with the help of a special pointed proboscis. As a result, the plant weakens and loses resistance to diseases, the yield drops.
From the eggs laid by insects (there may be more than two thousand of them per year) the young are hatching, which in the first days of life is not resistant to chemical effects, therefore, the effectiveness of insect control directly depends on the care of the gardener.
Destroy the pillow can be mechanically removed by removing the testicles and adults with a coarse brush. In more complex cases, use "Nitrafen" or "Dimethoat" (the first is used in early spring, the second - after the appearance of the leaves).
Smoky Kidney MothThe small moth, which got its name from the method of moving the caterpillars: the insect in this stage of development has no legs on its abdomen, so they move, bending in an arc and straightening again, as if measuring the distance with spans.The span is an outdated concept, corresponding to the length from the thumb to the index finger of a person placed on a horizontal surface in the form of a gate.
Caterpillars of an insect are devoid of hair and have a color that is invisible against the background of foliage and plant stems, especially when they are still “standing” on a branch, lifting the body.
The moths spend the winter hiding in the bark. After warming, the butterfly begins to actively eat the kidneys, damaging them and bringing serious harm to the plant, hence the second word in the pest name.
Concerning insect control should be carried out exactly at the moment when the buds are blooming. Preparations for the protection of grapes from the bud moth are the same insecticides as in the case of other pests of this plant.
Borer odorousIt is a very large gray butterfly, distinguished by the motley colors of the front wings. This butterfly hides its eggs in the cracks found by insects in the bark of plants. During the season, one individual lays up to eight hundred eggs, from which reddish caterpillars with an unpleasant smell hatch (hence the name of an insect). Together, they bite into the bark of a grape or other crop, arrange moves there and stay for the winter. After warming, each individual begins to sharpen its own passages up to half a meter in the shoots. Collectively, these holes are able to destroy the plant.
Caterpillar activity can be found on the dying parts of the bark, from which stands out a mixture of rotting plant pulp and insect excrement. Seeing such a sign, the vine must be cut below the dead area and remove or burn.
As pest control another method is also used: the stroke is expanded artificially, for example, using a long piece of wire, then an insecticide solution is introduced into the hole through a syringe, after which the entrance is sealed with clay.
Zlatka grapeGrape Zlatkoycalled a medium sized green bug with an elongated body. Damage to grapes to the same extent causes both an adult insect and its larvae, which gnaw through the holes in the shoots, remaining there until spring.
This pest prefers weaker plants to healthy plants, and as a result of its impact, the leaves of the grapes wither, the stems wither, and the yield is significantly reduced.
Wrestling with zlatkoy grape is carried out in the same way as with other pests: the affected shoots should be cut to a living tissue and destroyed, after which the plant is treated with insecticides.
Pliers – these are small spider-like pests presented in a variety of forms. On the grapes parasitic spider and felt grapes mites, as well as red European mites parasitize.
The vital activity of arachnoid grape mite (itch) is already apparent in early spring, when young leaves form bright spots on the outside, which subsequently dry out, and on the inside, the leaf is covered with a specific substance resembling felt. This is the tick's abode. As the insect grows, the felt becomes darker, eventually the stain covers the entire sheet, after which it curls and fades. During the season, a tick can produce up to a dozen new followers, and each new insect, piercing a leaf, sucks the juice out of it and devours the cloth.
If an itch appears on grapes, you should resort to such agrotechnical measures. struggle, like cutting off damaged vine or spraying grapes with colloidal sulfur, "Fitoverm" or other drugs of similar action.
The fight against ticks on grapes is ineffective, because it is very difficult to pull an insect out of protective felt. Spraying is recommended to be carried out in hot weather, then the fumes of the poison "punch" the web and destroy the insect.
Leaflet – an insect that can kill a huge number of crops. Among the main enemies of grapes, the most dangerous ones are growing (it eats buds and flowers, as well as berries: they dry up or, on the contrary, rot), biennial and, in fact, grape moths.All such pests overwinter in the bark, therefore the main method of struggle with them is the removal and burning of the old skin of trees in early spring. After this, spraying is carried out with preparations common to all grape pests.
Treatment scheme grapes depends on the type of pests. So, two year old moth destroyed by spraying three times (two weeks after each of two generations of the summer of butterflies and the third time - two weeks after the second treatment).
Thunderbolt it is also destroyed by spraying three times: two weeks after the first summer of butterflies, just before flowering, and two weeks after the summer of the second generation.
To combat grape leafworm two sprays are enough: before and after the buds swell. In winter, to destroy the insect, it is possible to treat the bushes, where the pest was previously seen, with a powerful stream of Nitrofen.
At the same time, the support for grapes is sprayed; pests can also be hibernated in it. Caterpillars moth can be destroyed and biological poisons.
Scaly worms are small pests sucking sap from plants.
Dangerous for grapes mealy grape worm, more precisely, its female is a pink or yellow insect, covered with white bloom, similar to flour. The larvae of this pest are able to form whole colonies, settling on the branches and leaves, sucking the juice out of them. As a result, the grapes turn yellow and dry.A sign of a lesion is a well-marked white bloom and sticky discharges, subsequently affected by soot fungus.
Cherry on grapes is less dangerous in the early stages of a lesion, since fight him can be mechanically removed insects and powdery excretions with a cloth moistened with soapy water.
After that, it is enough to process the grapes with calendula spirit tincture three times with a weekly interval, sprinkle with garlic or tobacco extract, decoction of cyclamen, or soapy water.
If the infection is serious, it is necessary to use fitoferm, biotlin, mospilan or other drugs of the same group, if necessary, alternating them with each other.
Preventive actions can help prevent infection. Therefore, the vineyard should be kept clean, dried shoots and leaves should be destroyed. In addition, pest damage can also be saved from pest damage.
Dangerous quarantine pest of grapes. Damages only grapes. There are two forms of phylloxera - leaf and root. Externally, the leaf phylloxera has a short proboscis. The adult female is a pear-shaped, greenish-brown, up to 1.2 mm long. Root phylloxera has a longer proboscis, oval-shaped, yellow-brown, up to 1 mm long.
Leaf form causes galls on the leaves. Hibernates in the egg stage on a trunk or perennial sleeves. In the spring, during the blooming of the kidneys, the larvae leave the eggs. They crawl onto the upper side of young leaves, pierce the leaf tissue with a proboscis and suck the juice. Under the action of saliva phylloxera leaf tissue grows, bulges down in the form of a pocket. On the upper side, the gall opens with a gap surrounded by hairs. In the galle the larva lives and eats. Having reached the maximum age, the larva turns into a female. There, in the gall, the female lays up to 500 eggs and dies. The larvae of the new generation crawl out of the gall, populating the other young leaves and each forming its own gall. Over the summer, several generations of aphids develop.
Among the larvae of leaf-shaped phylloxera of each generation, individuals with an elongated proboscis appear. These larvae go to the soil and settle on the roots of grapes.
The root form of phylloxera develops respectively on the roots. In the place of feeding of the larvae, galls are formed - small on young roots, large - on large roots. The gall gradually decays, a part of the root system dies, the vine weakens and eventually dies. Young larvae overwinter mainly, rarely the root phylloxera eggs on the roots of grapes. In spring, when the soil warms up to + 13 ° C, the larvae resume feeding, grow, turn into adult females, and the latter also lay eggs and do not fertilize. On the roots of phylloxera develops in 4-5 generations.
In the second half of summer, larvae with wing buds appear among the individuals of the root form. They develop in winged individuals. Such aphids come to the surface, lay 1-3 eggs and die. Out of these eggs, females and males will eventually develop. After mating with males, females will lay on the bark each one egg. These eggs remain to hibernate.
Расселяется филлоксера с посадочным материалом. Larvae (vagrants) settle in the vineyard, which come out of the soil throughout the summer, crawl away and penetrate to the roots of neighboring bushes through cracks in the soil. Winged forms and larvae can be settled with the help of wind and water, with soil-cultivating tools, on people's shoes.
Control measures. Laying a vineyard with unaffected planting material is the main event. It was the garden amateur breeders, violating the ban on the import of planting material from areas infected with phylloxera, brought it in his time in the Rostov region.
Disinfection of unfamiliar planting material should be carried out by immersion of the cubs in hot water: first for 5 minutes at a temperature of + 40 ° C, then for 7 minutes at a temperature of + 52 ° C.
Conduct a systematic examination of the bushes for phylloxera infection, immediately destroy the plantings infected with phylloxera, with the grapes returning to this place no earlier than 7 years later. Phylloxera detection and measures taken should be reported to the plant quarantine inspection.
The brilliant, sticky and rigid body of an adult insect really resembles a shield that protects it from any danger. In winter, shchitovki live under the exfoliated crust of boles. Starting from early spring, these pests weaken the grape bush, feeding on the juice of the woken shoots.
At the first detection of flaps, it is possible to treat the shrub with an aqueous solution of diesel fuel (1:20) with the addition of 100 g of soap. At the same time, a soft brush removes insects.
Scarab females are distinguished by their fecundity. From one laying of eggs, which usually appears at the end of May, up to 150 larvae can appear. It is important to notice them in time, until they have formed a shell-shield, and to treat the bushes with insecticides of contact or systemic action, when the larvae are more vulnerable. If this is not done, small, light yellow pests spread all over the plant, sticking to the underside of the leaves. For treatments using chemicals Fufanon, Konfidor, Fastak.
Up to 150 new pests can appear from a single scythe egg laying
- winegrowers recommend paying more attention to pruning the vine, often thinning plantings, cutting off dry branches. If moss or lichen appears on the stems, they should be immediately destroyed, since these plants serve as shelters for shields,
- seedlings and cuttings of grapes before planting or grafting carefully inspect for the presence of shields, so as not to introduce pests into the vineyard,
- for prophylactic purposes, other folk remedies are used against flakes: extracts of fern, lemon peel, bitter pepper, celandine.
Measures for the prevention of disease and pest damage
Growing grapes requires care in the care of the plant, as well as the implementation of mandatory agrotechnical techniques to protect the bushes from diseases and pests, including a number of treatments with chemicals.
- The first preventive step in the fight against diseases and pests is the acquisition of healthy planting material.
- Equally important is the choice of site for planting the vine. It must be bright and ventilated so that good air exchange prevents the development of many diseases and the appearance of pests.
- Mandatory compliance with the rules of care for the grape bush at the same time will serve as preventive measures. This includes plant protection from returning spring frosts (building temporary shelters), installing trellis and timely garter them shoots, correct trimming of the bush, removing weeds, loosening the soil around the trunk, mulching the soil, shallow digging for the winter between the rows, destruction of heavily infected diseases and pests of plant parts.
For preventive purposes, grape bushes are treated with Topaz, Teovit Jet, Strobe and at least 4 times:
- on young shoots after the formation of the fifth sheet,
- during budding,
- after flowering,
- during the formation of grapes.
It is forbidden to process the grapes during flowering: delicate flowers from the action of drugs can crumble! Insects that pollinate them will also suffer, and the future berries will accumulate poison.
After the dry garter of a rod is made, it is recommended to process the soil with a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate or Nitrafen. You can alternate them in a year. In order to avoid spores of fungi on young shoots, the soil is immediately mulched.
Nitrafen is also suitable for autumn tillage, because its odor frightens off mice.
Vine treatments from anthracnose, mildew, oidium and other fungal diseases are tried to be carried out comprehensively with the first foliar dressing. Drugs are added to the total solution along with fertilizers.
The disease is bacterial, peculiar mainly old vineyards. The disease affects grapes, many fruit, berry and vegetable crops. The disease manifests itself in the formation of growths on the sleeves, root neck and roots. In diseased bushes, the power of growth decreases, they weaken. Bacteria enter the plant from the soil through wounds, stimulate the division of plant cells, which form the tumor.
Control measures. Bookmark vineyards cuttings from healthy bushes. Should protect the bushes from injury when laying for the winter and the rise of the vine in the spring. Mandatory cutting and burning parts of the bush with growths. The cut-off areas are washed with 3% copper sulfate and covered with garden pitch.
Grape thripsGrape thrips – This is an insect that sucks the liquid from the leaves of some grape varieties, leaving visible black spots on them in the spring. Trips do not belong to common pests and their appearance on grapes is a rarity due to a combination of insect-friendly factors.
In the hot season, it is rather difficult to notice traces of vital activity of thrips. Leaves look healthy, external signs of damage are absent. Only on the inside of the leaf plate are visible small single or clustered bubbles of a pale color.
If you cut the sheet in the place of such a bulge, it seems that the plate has simply grown in width. In fact, this is the result of leaf damage with thrips, which pierce the plate and drink juice from it, thereby infecting it with various infections that they carry.Infection of grapes with thrips is sometimes confused with the activity of leaf ticks. The characteristic difference is the presence of characteristic dark traces of blockage of blood vessels in the form of a grid. At first, they can only be seen on the leaves, but as the disease progresses, the ovaries and clusters of grapes are also affected.
Damaged by thrips plants develop poorly and deform, therefore get rid of the pest necessary by general treatment with insecticides mixed with fungicides. Spraying is carried out in the spring, as soon as the grapes give the first young shoots, and re-treatment is usually no longer required.
Pest Prevention and Protection
Grapes have a huge number of pests, in addition to those described above. The fight against them can be quite effective, but it is much more correct and productive to prevent contamination with the help of preventive treatment of the plant and observance of all conditions of its cultivation.
Many farmers believe that the pledge of a healthy vineyard is preventive chemical processing of the vine, even those of its varieties that are considered resistant to pests. However, regardless of whether to agree to such treatment or not, before the plant is sick, it is necessary to keep the vineyard clean, carefully and regularly inspect the leaves to identify the first traces of the lesion.
Sick shoots and dried roots must be immediately destroyed, at the same time removing and fallen leaves. Such simple measures will allow to avoid unnecessary material expenses and efforts, as well as provide a rich harvest of grapes without processing chemicals unsafe for humans.