No matter how good organic fertilizers are, they have one drawback: a lot of nitrogen, but not enough phosphorus and calcium.
And we have to adhere to organic farming, reluctantly, to make mineral, in addition - not cheap, phosphorus and calcium-containing supplements. But it turns out there is a great alternative to “chemistry” - bone meal.
As a fertilizer, this substance has been used for a very long time, but gardeners have forgotten about it recently - whether the industry has ceased to produce, or more modern preparations have been supplanted.
And very vain. Bone meal for plants - a real fount of almost half of the elements of the periodic table, inexpensive and completely ecological. Therefore, we propose to talk about how to use bone meal as a fertilizer, when to do it, and in what, in fact, its benefits.
What is bone meal and how it is produced
Today, you can find a huge variety of fertilizer of chemical origin. Perhaps a wide range and advertising have affected the fact that the previously known and effective bone meal is forgotten. Recently, the situation has changed. Producers returned to the processing of available raw materials, from which quality organic fertilizer is obtained. The name speaks for itself, the powder is ground from the bones of farm animals and commercial fish. In fact, from waste meat and fish industry. Because of the availability of raw materials, the cost of production is inexpensive, which explains its affordable price and makes it popular among gardeners. On sale you can find suitable for the volume of packaging, for small areas and large-scale plantings.
Bonemeal is produced in many countries of the world, for example in Japan, top-dressing obtained from fish bones is perhaps the most common fertilizer.
Domestic enterprises produce several types of this tool:
- Conventional bone meal, obtained by mechanical grinding, contains 15% phosphorus,
- Steamed, subjected to heat treatment, includes - 25% phosphorus,
- Fat-free, has the highest concentration - 35%.
It is obvious that it is more profitable to purchase a variety of fertilizer, because it is consumed much less than steamed and conventional.
Bone meal, which is produced from fish raw materials, in addition to phosphorus, contains a large amount of calcium and iron, which is especially valuable for some garden crops, for example, for solanaceous crops - potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants. Fish fertilizer also contains 2.5 times more nitrogen than fertilizing, derived from the horns and hooves of cattle. In contrast to bone meal, fish fertilizer is used several times per season, for the growth of stems and leaves.
Bone meal - organic phosphate fertilizer
Produce bone meal from the bones of farm animals. We know that bones are a source of phosphorus and calcium. Depending on the production method, flour contains from 15 to 35% of calcium and phosphorus. Most phosphorus is found in fat-free bone meal.
Today, the flour from the bones is mined by the method of cooking, so that the concentration of nitrogen in it is not more than 3%.
In addition, bone meal contains iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, trace elements zinc, copper, manganese, cobalt, iodine, copper, and nitrogen-free extractives.
That is, bone meal for the garden and garden - first of all, phosphate fertilizer. In fact, it can be compared with superphosphate or phosphate rock, which is produced from natural minerals.
Chemical composition of fertilizer. The role of nutrients in plant development
Bone meal contains many useful substances, which, in turn, include most of the table of DI Mendeleev.
It is important to highlight among them:
The percentage of phosphorus in bone meal, the greatest, because the product is attributed to phosphate fertilizers (find out → types of phosphate fertilizers).Phosphorus is the main part of DNA, the genetic memory of plants.
The contribution of an element to plant life is invaluable, phosphorus is
- DNA base (Deoxyribonucleic acid), through which accumulation and transfer occurs in the nuclei of cells. That guarantees the saving of morphological and biological features from generation to generation.
- Only in his presence photosynthesis occurs - the formation of chlorophyll, a specific pigment of green color. Under the action of sunlight, complex organic compounds of ATP (adenosine triphosphoric acid) are formed. She, in turn, controls the respiratory and metabolic processes in plant tissues.
- It takes an important part in the growth of young roots and the strengthening of the adult root system in perennial crops.
- Regulates the process of laying flower buds.
- It affects the brightness of the color of decorative flowers.
- In his presence, glucose, sucrose, starch, that is, those substances that are responsible for the size and taste of the fruit, are formed.
- Part of phytin, the largest amount of which is contained in the seeds and affects their germination.
In other words, without phosphorus, most of the vital processes are impossible. That is why, the lack of an element negatively affects all, without exception, plant organs, both terrestrial and underground. The shortage is easily replenished with bone meal, which is rich not only in phosphorus, but also in other beneficial compounds.
Advantages and disadvantages
The greatest advantages of fertilizer are its organic origin and absolute ecological safety for plants, humans and the environment. Using a top dressing in the necessary dosage, it is possible not to be afraid that harmful substances will get to fruits and to cause damage to health.
Other positive features:
- The powder is virtually odorless. If the aroma is still present, then the storage conditions are violated, most likely it is saturated with moisture.
- The substance is absolutely harmless, so while working with him no personal protective equipment is required.
- Top dressing is universal, it equally well is suitable for all types of plants - garden crops, a fruit garden, decorative trees and bushes
- Fertilizer improves seed germination, rooting cuttings, plant survival during planting
- In time made substance improves flowering and fruit quality.
- Bone meal does not require prior dissolution in water, it is applied in a dry form on the soil surface after watering and loosened to a shallow depth.
- The concentration of the active substance is such that the fertilizer is sufficient to make once a year, which will provide the plants with the necessary set of elements for the entire vegetative period.
The disadvantages include the excess consumption rate. An excess of nutrients is no less harmful to plants than their deficiency. That is why, it is important to follow the instructions attached to each type of bone meal.
Benefits of using bone meal:
– low cost compared to mineral supplements
– biologically safe and pure product
– decomposes in the soil gradually - for 5-8 months. Thus, a single application per season is sufficient to provide plants with phosphate and calcium feed.
- with this dressing practically impossible to overdo it - no burns of leaves or roots, and in the soil the flour still decomposes gradually
- bone meal for garden and garden - concentrated fertilizer: its do not need to plant, carry bucketslook for storage space
- quality product perfectly odorless (which cannot be said about litter, manure, grass fertilizer and other organic matter)
- can use during any growing seasonat any time of the year
- can bring before the harvest - the taste of the fruit will only benefit from this.
Features of application for different types of garden and decorative crops
The general recommendation is:
- Bone meal is best used on acidic soils. The chemical form of a phosphorus-containing compound can be dissolved only in an acidified medium. If the pH of the soil is 6.5 and above, that is, the reaction is neutral or alkaline, then the process will not take place, or it will be slow and inefficient. The positive side is that before applying fertilizer, it is not necessary to neutralize the soil, as when using other fertilizers.
Read more about bone meal for different plants.
What makes the introduction of bone meal as fertilizer?
– phosphorus is responsible for rootingtherefore, when planting seedlings in the wells, bone meal will have to be in place. Young plants are guaranteed to take better
– increase immunity, resistance to diseases and pests
– training perennial crops - flowers, fruit trees, berry bushes - for winteringlignification shoots
- phosphorus has a positive effect on flowering and crop quality - fruits become more elastic, sweet, ripen better.
Bone meal for plants: how to apply
This phosphorus organic fertilizer is suitable for all gardeners - everyone needs strong roots, abundant flowering, preparation for wintering and generous fruiting. But it is necessary to take into account the type of soil - for example, the phosphorus content on acidic soils decreases faster.
Bone meal as fertilizer or fertilizer can be made either under the autumn digging, and in the spring - or directly into the well before planting (about 10-15 grams per plant), or in bulk before digging at the rate of 100-200 grams per "square". Even if you don’t dig up the ground in the garden, the flour should still be embedded in the soil, and not left scattered over its surface: phosphorus is not very mobile, and the closer it will be to the roots of the plant, the better.
Basic properties and composition
The fertilizer contains organic and mineral substances. Depending on the production method, there are several types of flour:
- defatted (21% phosphoric acid, 4% nitrogen),
- debonded (30% phosphoric acid, about 1.5% nitrogen),
Glue and grease are organic substances contained in the product. In the overall composition: up to 30% of organics, minerals (potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen) up to 62%. The following elements are present in an insignificant amount: iron, sodium, chlorine, iodine, zinc, cobalt, copper, manganese.
Attention! In a quality product there should not be granules with a fraction of more than 1.2 cm.
Refers to delayed fertilizers, that is, nutrients are absorbed by plants over a long period of time (from 6 to 8 months). Efficiency is on a par with superphosphate, as it is a rich source of phosphorus.
Benefits of using fertilizer:
- Environmental friendliness and safety for plants.
- Affordable price.
- The possibility of making in any weather and season.
- The powder does not have an unpleasant smell, you can work with it without any special tools. protection. If we compare it with other organic matter, then the bone fertilizer is consumed much less than manure or compost.
The basis of fish meal composition is protein (65%), followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids, lysine and vitamins (D, A, B). It is used not only as a fertilizer, but also as a feed additive for animals and poultry.
Fruit trees and berry bushes
Powder is applied to each planting pit, having previously mixed it with the soil, which is sprinkled with the roots of seedlings. For each plant you need:
- For a tree - 200 g,
- For shrubs - 100 g
This refueling is enough for 2 - 3 years. Subsequent feeding is carried out taking into account the size and age of plants. For bushes, it is recommended - 80-100 g each, for an adult fruit-bearing tree - 150-200 g.
The amount of powder also depends on the mechanical composition of the soil. On sandy soils and light loam fertilizers need less. When working on heavy clay soil, it is better to dissolve bone meal in hot water and insist 7 to 10 days, stirring daily. During this time, the fertilizer will not dissolve, the solid substance will sink to the bottom and should be stirred before use until a homogeneous mass. The suspension is poured on the previously watered soil and loosened to a depth of 5 - 10 cm.
For the preparation of liquid fertilizer will need 1 kg of powder and 10 liters of water.
The same application rate is suitable for ornamental woody plants. The recommended frequency of use is once every 2 - 3 years.
For potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant
It is better to use fish meal, its chemical composition is well suited for the nightshade, and for the formation of potato tubers, and ground fruits of tomatoes.
- Before planting potatoes for soil digging, fertilizer is applied at the rate of 100 g per square meter,
Tip # 1. Note!Bone meal can be used in spring and autumn. Phosphate salts and calcium compounds dissolve slowly, so the fertilizer applied before winter does not lose its qualities due to frost.
- For tomatoes and eggplants you will need 1 - 2 tablespoons of fertilizer per well when planting seedlings. Solanaceous crops fertilized with fish powder give a bountiful harvest. Fruits turn out large, with bright coloring and remarkable taste.
Where does it come from
To obtain natural organic fertilizers from bone meal, meat and bone raw materials of cattle, fish, poultry, and crustaceans are used.
Depending on the composition and method of processing, different types of flour are obtained, which can be used as feedings for specific purposes.
For example, the highest amount of phosphorus in bone powder is obtained by boiling followed by degreasing (up to 35%). If you want more nitrogen, use or add fish waste.
In this case, we are more interested in bone meal organic fertilizer.
In addition to the basic elements - calcium and phosphorus, which are part of the bones (officially called tricalcium phosphate), they contain magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, manganese, cobalt, zinc iodine, copper.
There are well digestible amino acids, which is useful for animals and humans.
For vegetable gardens, garden crops, and room crops, phosphoazotine of natural organic origin is primarily phosphate fertilizer. This element is chronically lacking in our soils and crops, so plants often do not fully ripen to fall, and the taste of fruits suffers.
The positive qualities of the bone product compared with other fertilizers
Bonemeal is an independent organic additive that does not require the addition of other fertilizer.
- The prolonged action is due to the low rate of decomposition and transition of elements into the soil solution. Thanks to this, an overdose of nutrients will never occur when applied, the plant and its fruits will never be poisoned by nitrates.
- You can not “bother” with other supplements, since it is enough to use phosphoazotine as a fertilizer once a year.
- It is impossible to block the intake of phosphorus from the soil, as often happens when using mineral compounds.
- Flour introduction can be made at any time of the growing season, and for indoor plants all year round.
- Additives bone meal for a couple of weeks before the harvest is not harmful to humans and animals, and only improve the taste of the fruit.
- It is very convenient to use phosphoazotine for the vegetable garden and the garden, because more often it is not necessary to dilute it with water and carry buckets around the area.
- Tri-calcium phosphate deoxidizes and improves soil structure.
- With respect to other organic and mineral fertilizers, bone meal is cheaper, although it is now sold less frequently and the price is increased (as for everything).
For rooting seedlings
A light peaty-sandy substrate (learn → how to use peat as top dressing + reviews). For seedlings it is important that the soil contains enough phosphorus. It is he who is responsible for the emergence and growth of young roots. When preparing the mixture, high-moor peat is used, its acid-base balance - pH - 3, that is, a strongly acidic reaction. In combination with bone meal, an effective result is achieved, provided that the dosage is 1: 100. In other words, 1 part flour is needed per 100 parts of substrate.
Ways to use bone meal
It is most effective to apply fertilizer for deep plowing in the fall. The closer the powder is to the roots, the better. Too often, this is not required; 1 time in 2–3 years is enough. Consumption rate per 1 square. m no more than 3 glasses of bone meal.
Add spring to the wells. Norm 1 tbsp. l on one plant. For large garden trees and shrubs 2-3 tbsp. l when landing. Fertilizer stimulates rooting and the subsequent development of the underground part.
To use fertilizer in liquid form, prepare a solution:
- 1 kg of powder brew 20 liters of boiling water.
- Insist 7-10 days.
- The solution is filtered, diluted with water 1:10 before watering.
- Spill with the solution can be shortly before harvesting. It will positively affect the taste of tomatoes, peppers, berry and fruit crops.
Organic additive reduces the acidity of the soil. Therefore, be careful with potatoes, spicy greens, roses, peonies, and hydrangea.
Fish meal contains more nitrogen than that obtained from animal bones. The subsequent introduction of nitrogenous additives after its use is not required.
Attention! Закладывание свежих остатков рыбы при посадке овощных культур – привлечет вредителей и инфекционные заболевания.
Для усиления действия удобрения используют жидкие ускорители разложения (ЭМ–препараты).
Костная мука для томатов и других овощных растений
When planting seedlings of tomatoes in the hole should be made 1-3 tbsp. l flour and lightly mix it with the ground. This phosphate fertilizer for tomatoes is enough for the whole season.
Also, bone meal as a fertilizer for a tomato can be applied from autumn at the rate of 100-200 grams per “square” of a bed.
But remember that at first the tomato will need fairly high doses of nitrogen, so feeding only flour is not enough. The same applies to other vegetable plants, including root vegetables.
What phosphorus is responsible for
- Energy source (affects germination, accelerates initial development)
- Normal further growth and nutrition
- The development of a well-branched root system
- It brings fruiting and ripening, increases the winter resistance of perennials
- The lack of phosphorus at the initial stage of growth can no longer be compensated further, since its presence is necessary for the absorption of other nutrients.
- Significant improvement in taste, yield
For indoor plants
The soil for most home colors is a versatile peat-based blend. It is similar to the vegetable mixture for seedlings. Therefore, the rate of bone meal is the same. For every liter of nutrient soil, you will need 1 tablespoon (without a slide) fertilizer.
Important!Bonemeal can not be used for planting azaleas and caring for them. Top dressing neutralizes soil reaction, and representatives of the Heather family grow in an acidic environment. For the same reason, this fertilizer is not used for growing such garden bushes:
Serious gardeners mistakes when using bone meal
- Apply fertilizer without prior soil analysis.
Often gardeners complain that dressing does not benefit. This happens if the powder is used on alkaline or neutral soils. Calcium, which is contained in flour, changes the pH level upwards. In such an environment, beneficial substances do not actually dissolve. For effective action you need a pH Indoor azaleas and garden bushes from the Heather family grow on acidic soil. The introduction of bone meal leads to the neutralization of the soil, harmful to these plants.
Question: I use bone meal several times over the summer, but the crop does not improve. Why?
Bone meal dissolves slowly, so it provides additional feeding for a long time. For trees and shrubs, nutrition is sufficient for at least two years. The soil in the garden is fed no more than once a year, either in spring or in autumn after harvesting.
Exceeding the rate of application or frequent feeding will harm the plants and adversely affect the fruit.
Valentina Nikolaevna (Leningrad Region)
I am a gardener with twenty years of experience. I remember well the times when bone meal was the most common fertilizer. Since then, it helps trouble-free, and on garden beds and flower beds. A fruit garden is also not without it. On our acidic peaty soils it is an indispensable top dressing.
Do not keep stored in the sun or at high temperatures. The room with high humidity will not approach. It is important to ensure that no water gets into the open bag. If the container is unpacked, the fertilizer should be used within six months. Shelf life of sealed packaging - 12 months.
Shevelev Viktor Vladimirovich
Leading Agronomist of the Landscape-Gardening CompanyGreensad».
What do they do
Bone meal is a crumbly, light powder with high moisture content due to animal fat. The substance is derived from the processing of bones. The main suppliers of raw materials for the manufacture of bone meal are meat processing plants. Also for processing go veterinary confiscated and carrion. All material must be fresh and not infected.
Another technology is the initial steaming of raw materials. This allows you to slightly increase the amount of micronutrient. But the highest rates can be achieved with the initial degreasing of bones. The latest product version is considered the highest quality.
At home, you can also make a similar fertilizer, especially if there are horns, bones, hooves of domestic animals, fish and poultry. To do this, you will need to rinse the raw material and chop it into small pieces.
In agriculture, this organic powder is quite versatile. It is widely used as a feed additive in animal husbandry and as a fertilizer in crop production.
The substance is quite suitable for feeding garden, decorative, garden, flower, greenhouse and pot plants.
In addition, it does not oxidize, even when using mulch suitable for this process. Substrate use is appropriate in the period of spring or autumn soil preparation for planting crops. In the berries and the garden, experts advise to first disperse the fertilizer and only then carry out a deep digging.
In the garden per square meter will need to make within 200 g of powder, the dosage can be adjusted depending on the physico-chemical characteristics of the soil.
Types and composition
Scientifically, bone meal is called "tricalcium phosphate," which is due to the main components of the powder. It contains large amounts of calcium and phosphorus. Fat, glue, phosphoric acid, nitrogen, sodium, chlorine, sulfur act as additional components, the percentage ratio of which varies between 1.5–10%.
- Regular - is the cheapest, because it is very easy to manufacture, does not require additional processing of raw materials before grinding and contains only 15% of phosphorus.
- Steamed - as a result of the preliminary heat treatment of the material, manufacturers manage to obtain 25% of phosphorus from it.
- Fat-free is the most expensive and valuable type of all existing, since the amount of phosphorus in it is 35%.
How to apply fertilizer
For fertilizer vegetation, you can use the root and foliar method. In most cases, the powder is simply embedded in the ground during its preparation for planting. Experts also advise them to fertilize garden, garden and pot crops in the period of vegetative development.
- On the lawns scatter dry powder at the rate of 200 g per 1 sq. Km. m area (in acidic areas, the amount of fertilizer is desirable to double).
- For indoor and garden garden plants, it is recommended to add dry matter in the ratio of 1: 100, and the liquid solution is prepared from 1 kg of flour and 2 buckets of hot water. In the latter case, the suspension is left to infuse for a week, stirring daily. Then it is passed through a filter and topped up with water in order to make a total of 380 l of liquid.
- For seedlings of vegetable crops, it is practiced to add 1–2 tablespoons of powder directly to the wells.
- When planting berry specimens in each pit you need to make up to 70 g of the substance in the spring and up to 120 g in the fall.
- Under bulbous flower cultures (tulips, gladioli, daffodils, lilies) it is recommended to add 30 g of substance to each well.
Manufacturers advise you to store bone meal in rooms protected from damp, heat and direct sunlight. Purchased packaging is desirable to lay in a well-ventilated shed, where there are no rodents or any other pests. To do this, you need to find a shelf inaccessible for children and animals.
This is due to internal chemical reactions in phosphozotine, which provokes a high temperature. When decomposed, the fat becomes poisonous. It is advisable to periodically check the condition of the flour, mix and dry it. Knowing what and how bonemeal is made, you can be confident in its biological and chemical safety for its vegetation. Feel free to feed the flowers, vegetables, berries, fruits with this powder, and they will thank you for quality fruits and decorations. We hope our recommendations will help you with this.
How to apply as fertilizer, methods of application
Usually this is the introduction during planting, zaryhlenie in the ground, spreading on the lawn. Used as an additive in the manufacture of compost.
- When planting vegetable seedlings, flour powder is put into the wells, 1-2 tablespoons each. The same - for the berries (strawberry and small-fruited). Burn root can not be afraid.
- For fertilizer lawn on it scatter the powder at the rate of 200 g per square meter. meter.
- Berry and ornamental shrubs, roses require 70-100 g per pit when planting in spring or autumn. If for top dressing, then zaryhlit and mulch. Frequency once every 2-3 years.
- Onions, garlic, potatoes into the soil when digging, 200 g per square.
- Before sowing seeds, the flour can be embedded in the ground, it is possible in the fall.
- Mature trees will require 200-300 grams of bone flour, but this will last for three years.
- Potted flowers for the use of natural fertilizer will also be grateful. In a kilogram of soil during planting or transshipment put half a teaspoon of flour. Or zaryhlyut this amount at the time of care.
For more tasty fruits, vegetables, fruit trees and shrubs prepare a liquid phosphoric dessert. They are watered two weeks before harvest. Here is the prescription:
Of course, the application rate depends on the method of processing. For example, in phosphozotin produced by degreasing, there is little nitrogen and a lot of phosphorus. Then some crops (tomatoes, cucumbers) need to add nitrogen when planting seedlings, that is, put compost into the hole.
Bone meal for roses
For a good survival rate of roses when planting in each well should be made from 50 to 150 grams of flour. Once every three years, you can feed adult bushes: put 50-100 grams of fertilizer in the root zone and mulch. This will help build a strong root system and abundant flowering.
Note that bone meal is also useful for other colors. It is best to use it for the first spring feeding.
Bone meal for strawberries
In preparing the new beds for strawberry bone meal as fertilizer can be made either by digging the bed at the rate of 300 grams per "square", or into each well at the rate of 20-30 grams per plant. For adult plants, this fertilizer is the best fit as a top dressing after fruiting or during the flowering period (10-20 grams).
Bone meal for berry bushes and fruit trees
When transplanting or planting berry bushes in the hole, 50-150 grams of flour should be added, and adult plants can be fed with the same amount of fertilizer once every three years. Phosphate fertilizers are very effective after fruit bearing of berry bushes when they need to recuperate, plant buds for the next year and prepare for winter.